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A Greek and Roman Treasury - Metropolitan Museum

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A Greek and BY DIETRICH Roman Treoasuy VON BOTHMER and of Chairman, Department Greek RomanArt THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www.jstor.org

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin Volume XLII, Number 1 (ISSN 0026-1521) Publishedquarterly? 1984 byThe MetropolitanMuseumof Art, Fifth Avenueand 82nd Street, New York,N.Y. 10028. Second-classpostage paid at New York,N.Y. and Additional Mailing Offices. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin is provided as a benefit to Museum members and availableby subscription. Subscriptions $18.00 a year. Single copies $4.75. Fourweeks'notice requiredfor changeof address. Send addresschangesto MembershipDepartment,The POSTMASTER: MetropolitanMuseumof Art, Fifth Avenueat 82nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10028. Backissuesavailable microfilm,from UniversityMicroon films, 313 N. First Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Volumes I-XXVIII as (1905-1942) available a clothbound reprintset or as individualyearly Summer 1984 volumes from The Ayer Company,Publishers,Inc., 99 Main Street, Salem, N.H. 03079, or from the Museum, Box 700, Middle Village, N.Y. 11379. GeneralManagerof Publications:John P. O'Neill. Editor in Chief of the Bulletin:Joan Holt. Associate Editor: JoannaEkman. Photography of the Treasuryobjects by WalterJ. F. Yee, Chief Photographer, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph Studio. Design: Bruce Campbell. On thecover: Scyllahurlinga rock, a parcel-giltemblema(no. 95). Inside cover: Detail of a swordsheath(no. 91). Insideback cover: Detail of a front silverhandle (no. 130). Backcover: Parcel-giltpyxis (no. 101). 2 The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www.jstor.org

Director's Note One of the privilegesof the directorof the Metropolitan Museumis to enjoy,with a certaindegreeof impartiality, the whole of this institution'smagnificent collections.I regard them as makingup one immensetreasury. There aretimes, whenit is impossibleto hold suchanunbiased view however, of the collections.The new installation GreekandRoman of in causes to me gold andsilverobjectscelebrated thisBulletin considerthe numberof enclaves within this "immense treathatthemselves luxurious made sury" objects bringtogether of the most preciousmaterialsand executedwith consummate craftsmanship. splendidchurchtreasuries the The in of the Departmentof MedievalArt and at The galleries Cloisters,with their refulgentenamelsand finelywrought come to mind immediately. are chalices, Equally resplendent the gold andsilverobjectsof Pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americasexhibitedin the MichaelC. Rockefeller Wing and the eighteenth-century silverobjects from Franceand in the galleriesof the Departmentof England displayed EuropeanSculptureand DecorativeArts. In other collections in the Museum,importantconcentrations precious of materials havebeen integratedinto their culturalcontexts; these include the gold jewelry and paraphernalia the of and their queens, particularly those of Egyptianpharaohs Dynasty 18, exhibited in the Egyptian Galleriesand the Achaemenidand Sasaniansilver vessels on displayin the of recentlycompletedinstallation ancientNearEasternart. For many visitors the Greek and Roman Treasury will providea firstcontactwith the wealthof the ancientclassical world. It will proveto be a uniqueanddazzlingexperience: on displayhere arenot only magnificent ceremonial objects for offerings to the gods but also splendidutilitarian ones for the more mundane rituals of the banquet, the symposium,andthe toilette. The foundationof our Greekand RomanTreasury the is metalwork di acquired throughLuigiPalma Cesnolaasearly as 1874. Since then this collectionhas grown throughgifts by private individuals, including Walter C. Baker, and throughpurchases, mainlythoseof the department's present Dietrichvon Bothmer.An eloquenttestimonyto chairman, Dr. von Bothmer'sacumenmaybe found in the qualityand range of his acquisitionsand in the exceedinglygenerous supporthe has elicitedfrom collectorsandother friendsof the Departmentof Greekand RomanArt. The Greekand RomanTreasury, the representing glorious culminationof of gifts and purchases,is extraordinary both in the years and in its individualpieces, as CharlesFroom's aggregate installationsuccessfully revealsand as the illustrations and textsin this publicationamplydemonstrate. The realization of the Museum's most recent and ambitioustreasuryinstallationwas madepossible through the generosityof Gayfrydand SaulSteinbergand Reliance GroupHoldings, Inc. Mr. Steinberg's specialand continuing interest in the Museum's permanent collections is deeplyappreciated. PHILIPPE DE MONTEBELLO Director 3 The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www.jstor.org

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A Greek andRoman Treasury Of the five metals deemed precious today-gold, silver, irridium,andplatinum-only the firsttwo, gold palladium, and silver,have been esteemedsince remote antiquityand We in enteredmost languages a varietyof expressions. speak the Saints(Legenof the GoldenAge, the GoldenLegendof daAurea),the golden mean, and the golden rule;there are golden hours, golden weddings, and, of course, the gold standard. Silver,less rarethangold, is consideredsecondto to it: the SilverAge, according Hesiod, wasthe second,less of the world. Silverin Latindenotesthe second perfectage and stands floweringof Latinliterature, a silveranniversary for twenty-five years, as opposed to fifty for a gold. Together,gold and silversymbolizewealth,as in the motto of the stateof Montana:Oroyplata. Both metalsareverymalleable takeon a high polish. and in Their ductilitywas not known or appreciated antiquity, but in moderntimes this qualityhasmadethem industrially valuable.Gold is found eitherin a purestateor in a natural alloy,especiallywith silver(electrum);silveroccursmostly in lead ore (galena)and has to be separated from the lead Another differencelies in their apsulphideby smelting. pearance.Gold, even when hardenedby the admixtureof other metals, does not tarnish,while silver in time turns blackandis subjectto corrosion. In antiquitygold was firstfound and used in Africaand Arabia,laterin the land of the Scythians,and especiallyin Asia Minor.In Greekmythologyreportsof regionsrichin gold wereechoedin the storiesof Midas's goldentouchand the golden fleece as well as in tales of the griffins and Arimasps.Though Greece herselfwas not so fortunateas her richerneighbors,gold must havefound its way to the country very early,as is proved by the many findsof gold objectsin Mycenaeand elsewhere.In Etruriagold did not become widespread until the seventhcenturyB.C.and was minedin northernItaly,whilethe wealthof Rome probably in gold derivedincreasingly frommilitaryconquests. Gold and silver represented wealth throughouthistoric times.Coinageoriginated AsiaMinorin the middleof the in seventh century B.C., when the ancientcities on the west coastofAnatoliainventeda systembasedon the distribution of smalllumps of electrum,all of the same (or nearlythe with an identifysame)weight.Theselumpswerefurnished markand used as a mediumof exchange,taking ing punch the placeof the earlier tradeby barter. The primitivepunch marksweregradually replacedby distinctivesymbolsof the cities that issued these electrum"coins." Laterstill, in the of King Croesusof Lydia(560-546 B.C.),Sardis,his reign capitalcity,issuedcoins in gold and in silverratherthan in electrum, with the ratio between the two metals set at 1:13.5. This innovation introduced bimetalism,which in Trefoiloinochoe (no. 35) Oppositepage: varyingforms continued for centuriesuntil a little over a hundredyearsago. While the monetaryvalue of gold and silver and their parityhas changedfrequently, their prices theirsometimeswildfluctuations) stilldetermining are (and economicfactors. In thisBulletin overa hundred vasesandutensils-mostly madeof silver-are illustrated described. and Theyspantwo anda halfmillenniaandrepresent holdingsof the Greek the andRomanDepartment, now exhibitedfor the firsttime in a galleryadjacent the GreatHall. In termsof collecting, to the choice of objects published here also illustratesthe growth of the Department,in little more than a hundred years,from the acquisitionby subscriptionof the Cesnola collection of Cypriot antiquitiesin 1874 to the last purchasesof two yearsago. Geographically new exhibition the coversmost of the areas periodsin the careof the Greek and and RomanDepartment,from Cyprusin the southeastern Mediterranean the Cycladesand other Greekislands,to to Ionia and beyondthe Greekmainland,and, in the West,to Someof the objectshaverecorded ItalyandMagnaGraecia. find spots, but manymore can only be ascribedto an area and dated to a stylisticperiod. Not all periods are equally well represented the Museum,andthereis relatively in little No modernmuseumcan pretendto give a fair cross gold. section of whatwas once visiblein the greatGreeksanctuariesof DelphiandOlympiaor evenin the templetreasuries of the Acropolis at Athens. The very value of the metal broughtwith it the seeds of its own destruction,or better put, its conversion.In times of need gold andsilverobjects weremelteddown to payfor the necessitiesof life or armaments, and a lost warinevitablyled to plunder-either the legitimatebooty of the victor,who in Romantimes proudly it paraded in a triumphal processionbeforeturningit over to the state, or the privateloot of soldierson a rampage. Looting could at times be avoided by burying treasures beforean invasion,but the rightfulownercouldnot always be sure of his own survival and thus of recovering his propertyonce hostilities had ceased. Indirectly,however, buriedobjectsstood a betterchanceof preservation, if for discovered chancetwo thousandyearslaterthey were (at by least in most cases) not melted down but entered public collections.Many of the hoardsof Romansilverfound in and within the last Britain,France,Germany, Switzerland two centuries werethusspared fateof the treasure the found at Trierin 1628, which was promptlymelted down, or the Wettingenfindof 1633, whichwas parceledout amongthe Swisscantonsandhasdisappeared. Most of our ancientplate is tableware-cups, pitchers, much bowls, ladles,and the like-and thereforeresembles andsilver. Also includedin ourcollection post-classical gold 5

the island of Euboea, found with a gold cup and a silver phialethat areboth now in the BenakiMuseumin Athens. The decorationon the two silverbowls and the gold cup is purely linear-vertical lines, chevrons, and hatched triof the angles-and resembles ornamentation contemporary pottery.A similar, though somewhatsmallersilverdish was found in a tomb on Amorgos, and it is thought that these metalbowls areCycladic shouldbe datedbetween3000 and and2300 B.C.Two gold cups (nos. 3, 4)-a kantharos a and of about 1500 B.C. Considerably goblet-are Mycenaean later,of the eighth to the sixth centuryB.C., are the three bowlsfromCyprus(nos. 9-11): one, in gold, betrays strong influence;one in silver,with a centraltondo of a Egyptian winged divinity slaying a lion and two narrativezones, a of represents curious amalgam Egyptianand Phoenician motifs. Bucchero(blackclay) bowl with headsin relief.Etruscan,sixth century B.C. Rome, Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia aremirrors,cosmeticboxes,anda comb,aswellasanincense burnerthat need not havebeen a cult vessel,but was probto ablyused athome. Silverandgold dedicated the gods did from the differ appreciably form and workmanship in not table silveronly the richcould affordto haveat their sumptuous banquets. Earliest among the silver vases from Greece in the Museumaretwo shallowbowls (nos. 1, 2), reportedlyfrom The earliestsilverphialemesomphalos(no. 12) is purely Greek, of the sixth century B.C., though the shape and in schemeof decorationhadlong been traditional the Near silvervessel, a situla (no. 15), East. Another sixth-century as wasmeantto be carried the swinginghandle,perhaps a by cult object;it is saidto come fromthe Troad. East Greeksilveris introOn pages 24 to 45 our archaic of duced, an assembly over fiftyvasesandutensilsthathave been acquired patientlyover the courseof fifteenyears.The madeby Ioniancraftsdifferentobjectswereevidently many men for rich clients on the eastern peripheryof Greece at a time (beforethe Persian conquestof AsiaMinor) when Greekcultureflourishedon both sides of the Aegean Sea, as was andwhen Greekworkmanship appreciated fareastas Some of the objectsshow Eastern,even Persian, Persepolis. Phialewith heads (no. 16) 6 Detail of silver-giltbowl (no. 10) Oppositepage:

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tasteandPersian motifswerefreelyborrowed.Others,howthe large silver oinochoai with sculptural ever, notably adjuncts(nos. 35-38), are purelyGreekin both shapeand headsworkedseparately style. The two phialaiwith Persian andattachedto the walls (nos. 16, 17) shouldbe singledout for specialcomment,for they correspond a type ofphiale to until now known only from a temple inventoryon Delos. Eachof the hollow headscontainsa quantityof tiny bronze pellets that produce a rattling sound when the object is moved. Persianconnectionsarealso evidenton a silver-gilt to phiale (no. 18) that portraysthe greatking marching the left between each lobe and on another(no. 19), somewhat smaller,that shows the Persianking killing a lion. Other but phialaiare ornamentedmore sparingly, while we have some pairsthatwereobviouslymeantassuch,thereis much varietyin both shapeanddecoration. The silveroinochoe (no. 35) with the handlein the shape of a naked youth bending backward, long hair falling his over the rim of the vase, follows a type known in bronze from Cyprusin the East to Spain in the West.The youth Silverbowl (no. 19) holds the tails of two recumbent lions on the rim, while his feet rest on a palmette flanked by two rams. A second schemeknownalso oinochoe (no. 36) employsa decorative The frombronzehydriai. upperendof the handleterminates in a lion's head, its mouth opened as if to permanently replenishthe liquidinsidethe vase, on the analogyof water spouts in fountainhousesor along the roofs of Greektemples.The finialatthe lowerend of the handletakesthe shape of the head and forelegsof a panther. Two other wine jugs bodies. The handlesterminate 37, 38) havecarinated (nos. above in animalheads that seem to bite into the lip of the vase. One of the two carinated hasa frontalheadof Bes jugs as its lowerfinial. variedarefour silveralabastra (nos. 45-48). In Similarly each the body is divided into severalzones, which on the 8 Goddess with scepterand phiale. Red-figuredlekythos (oil container). Attic, c. 470 B.C.FletcherFund, 1928 (28.57.11)

F pp This representation a drinkingpartyincludesmanyof the objects in the Treasury. of Drawingby LindsleyE Hall of red-figured kylix (drinkingcup). Attic, c. 490-480 B.C.Rogers Fund, 1920 (20.246) and with animals a battle finestof them (no. 45) areengraved scenethatrecalls styleof Clazomenian the paintedterracotta decoration also occurs on a sarcophagi.Engravedfigural silverskyphosof typicallyLydianshape (no. 49) and on a smallsilverbowl fromCyprus(no. 13). Among the eight EastGreeksilverladlesin the collection (see nos. 59-64), againno two arealike.One of them (no. the 59) is particularly sumptuous: loop on top is formedby below and two eagle-griffins, the facetedhandleterminates in a winged lion thatseemsto dive into the bowl while two fullyin the round,watch. sphinxes,sculptured Most of the EastGreeksilverobjectswereintendedto be used for banquets,of which we havemanyrepresentations on vases and reliefs.There are two strainers(nos. 66, 67) throughwhichwinewaspouredinto drinking cups;they are in silverandtheirhandles,like those on some of the ladles, aredecoratedwith animalheads,here a duckand a calf.Of the other utensils used on such occasions, two incense burnersshould be noted. One (no. 69, of bronze)is in the to conical shapeof a cup attached a long rod, its perforated coverhingedto the rod bymeansof a leapinganimal with its head turned back.This incense burnerfollows an ancient Egyptiantradition:it washeld in a horizontalposition by a servantor attendantwho would walk through the rooms with it. The other incenseburner(no. 68), madeof silver, wasno doubtset on a table.Its lid, likethe one in bronze,is tiered and perforated,but insteadof being hinged it was securedto the stand by a small chain. The cover is sur9

Detailof goldphiale(no. 86) mounted by an exquisite statuette of a cock, the style of which resembles that of the cocks engraved on the shoulder of one of the silver alabastra (no. 45). Such a small incense burner occurs, not by coincidence, on the fragment of a black-figured hydria in Athens that was found at Clazomenae on the west coast of Asia Minor. Libation scene. Red-figured stamnos (wine jar). Attic, c. 480 FletcherFund, 1956 (56.171.50) 10 B.C. To the realm of cosmetics belongs a rectangular compartmented makeup box of silver (no. 70). One of the dividing walls is notched to hold a special cosmetic spoon, and the box's cover does not open on a hinge but swivels horizontally and is held locked by a movable stud. The heads of the swivel and the locking stud are gilt, as are five additional ornamental studs in the center and on the four corners. When the box is closed properly, anyone unfamiliarwith the locking mechanism would have a difficult time opening it. Also from Eastern Greece, but almost two centuries later, is a group of five vessels from Prusias, in Bithynia (nos. 72-76). The situla, or wine bucket, is of bronze, as befits a vase that is carried back and forth from the kitchen or pantry to the dining room. The other objects-a strainer, a ladle, a kylix, and a phiale-are of silver. Prusias on Hypios, formerly called Kieros, was a Greek settlement in a notoriously hostile country, and the Prusias find is indeed of Greek workmanship, closely related to that on the many metal vases found more recently in Northern Greece and Macedonia. Slightly later and of unknown provenance is a group of five silver objects (nos. 81-85)-a cup (kylix), a bottle, a pyxis, a scraper (strigil), and a jar (that once had a handle and served as a pitcher). The bottle, the pitcher, and the pyxis have ornamental bands enhanced by gilding. A gold libation bowl (no. 86), or phiale, is not only one of the rarest but also one of the most beautiful objects in the exhibition. The chief decoration is three circles of acorns and a fourth of beechnuts, each containing thirty-three elements. In addition, thirty-three bees are depicted in the interstices of the row of acorns nearest the edge of the bowl, and the collar around the omphalos is decorated with fifteen

circumscribed palmettes.Acorns as decorationon phialai were traditional,as we learnnot only from inventoriesof but temple treasures, also from a fragmentary gold phiale now in Warsaw that was found on Cyprusin a late sixthof centurytomb andfromRomancopiesof the caryatids the on Erechtheum the Acropolisin Athens.There fifth-century is nothing in the decoration on the gold phiale in the Museumthat allowsus to date it precisely, the Carthabut on the bottom is engraved with characters ginianinscription to the third centuryB.C. Since this that epigraphers assign inscriptionmay havebeen addedlater,it only furnishesus with a terminus postquem non. Two other richlydecoratedphialai(nos. 89, 90), said to have been found together,were hammeredover the same die. On each of them the broaderouter band shows the apotheosisof Heraklesin a cortege of four chariots,while the narrowinnerzone aroundthe omphalosshowsthe gods feastingon Olympus.It had long been held that these two or existin phialai,of whichfragmentary replicas adaptations the BritishMuseum,weremadeof silver, not long ago an but examinationpromptedby our Italiancolleaguesrevealed themto be madeof silveredtin. The spiritedhorsesdrawing the chariotspoint to a datein the latefifth centuryB.C. that seemsto be supportedby the allegationthatthe two phialai were found togetherwith an Attic red-figured calyxkrater, now at Oxford,by the Dinos Painter. Somewhatlater than the silvered-tinphialaiis a bronze mirror(no. 88) attachedto a wooden backandframedby a cast silver-giltcircularband decoratedin openwork with birds and floral rinceaux.The mirroris said to have been found in Olbia,in South Russia,as is a silver-giltbowl (no. 87) that, like the mirror,is from the collection of Joseph Chmielowski. This bowl, considerably laterthanthe mirror, illustrates how the classicalGreekmotifs-here Erotesflying against a backgroundof acanthusleaves, scrolls, and debasedat the fan-shaped palmettes-become increasingly of periphery the Hellenisticworld. South Russian, too, is the decorated gold plate of a Scythiansword sheath (no. 91), the companion piece to which was found in Chertomlykbetween 1859 and 1863; the two differ only in the treatmentof the animalsin the triangular section. It haslong beenheldthatmuchof the top withconical cover(no. 108) Pyxis "Scythian" gold and silverwas workedby Greekcraftsmen, andthis assumptionhasnow been confirmed the discovby ery of a gold quiverof "Scythian" shapein the famoustomb at Verginain Macedonia. From the far Northeast we now turn to the West, to A in MagnaGraecia. tombdiscovered 1895 atMontefortino (see nos. 110-114),nearAnconain centralItaly,includedin addition to iron spits and sword blades, bronze and ceramic vessels-five silvervases:a two-handled deep bowl, a ladle,a pitcher,andtwo stemlesscups.The silvervasesare of and Tarentine, clearly WestGreek,perhaps workmanship must havebeen looted somewhereelse in southernItalyby Detail of sword sheath (no. 91) 11

I• V M g-~~ =2 __ Ijl t!? -a X .1 1from ~------- i -c , ]- 8 - f l wyears with a twelvekylix;one ladle;one shallowphialedecorated pointed gilt star aroundthe omphalos;one small pitcher with a theatrical mask,not unlikethose on the buckets,in reliefbelow the handle;one tripod pyxiswith a decohigh ratedlid; one smallportablealtarwith differentreceptacles for various offerings; two horns, perhapsfrom a helmet madeof bronzeandnow destroyed;and,lastly, emblema the of a cup or pyxis lid decoratedin high reliefwith a frontal with Scylla.Severalfeaturesconnect this group stylistically famous Tarentine treasure, once the property of I,the tX iEdmondde Rothschildbut not seen since WorldWarII, l which,in turn,sharessome of the stylisticconventionswith a findmostlyofterracottavasesfromAlbania, of which one closely resemblesthe two silverbuckets(nos. 105, 106) in the Museum. Parallels the polygonal markingson the for silverbowl (no. 97) canbe foundon clayvases 1hemispherical X and Corinth Pergamon. The sackingof Syracuse 211 B.c. and of Tarantotwo in laterled to large-scale looting of the two most importantGreekcitiesin MagnaGraecia, the booty carried but off to Rome atthe sametime openedthe eyesof the Romansto a pelike(storage Red-figured ApolloandArtemis performing libation. Fund,1906(06.1021.191) Attic,mid-fifth vessel). century Rogers B.c. the Gallicsoldierin whose tomb they were found. Another group of earlyHellenisticsilverobjects (see nos. 107-109) tomb at Bolsena,in Italy;it also cameto light in anEtruscan containeda finebronzemirrorandfivebronzevessels,three fire iron candelabra, rakesand tongs, andirons,six undecorated vases made of local clay,two Etruscanblack-glazed vases,twelve smallterracottaballs (a set for a game), and a gold ring. The bronzes, iron utensils, and terracottavases are clearlyEtruscan,but the three silverobjects, a pyxis, a and perfumeamphoriskos, a strigil,musthavebeen imports (probably from Apulia), to which the Etruscan inscription Skyphos(no. 116) "suthina"("for the tomb") was added before they were buried. The floralornamentson the insides of the two stemless cupsfromMontefortino (nos. 112,113)arenot too farfrom and the floraldetailson the amphoriskos pyxisfromBolsena which supports an attribution of both (nos. 107, 108), groups to a workshop,or a workshoptradition,of Magna Graecia.The same attribution,possibly more narrowlyto can Taranto, be madefor fifteensilverobjectsof greatsplendor acquired by the Museum in 1981 and 1982 (nos. 92-106): two silverbuckets,eachwith threesupportsin the masks;three deep bowls with separately shapeof theatrical insidein the center;one hemispherical workedleaf-rosettes bowl with two engravedgilt wreathson the outside and polygonal grooves on the body; one deep-bowled, stemless 12 (no. pitcher 118) Spouted

the beautyof Greekart. Fromthen on greatwealthpoured into Rome, not only from MagnaGraeciabut also, in the secondcentury,fromAsiaMinor and Greeceand, afterthe battleof Actium, from Egypt. The best descriptionof the almostunbelievable displayof wealthat a Hellenisticcourt in the third centuryB.C. is the accountby the writerKallixeinosof the greatprocessionorganizedby KingPtolemyII in in Philadelphus Alexandria 271/270 B.c.: the weight of the gold cups alone is given as three hundredtons. One cannot help but wonder what happenedto all those treasures.Muchof the gold andsilvermusthavefoundits wayto Rome. The Museumowns partsof two late RomanRepublican hoards.The more complete, of thirty pieces-a veritable ministerium,as the Romans called a silver table service-is divided between the Field Museumof NaturalHistory in Chicago and the Metropolitan (see nos. 115-124). The hoard,said to havebeen found nearTivoli, was bought by EdouardWarneck the late nineteenthcentury.After the in of Warneck's death widow the silverwas offered at auction in Paris 1905, in one lot; it wasboughtby a dealerwho the in nextyearsold partof it (a mug, a platter,six dishes,a shell, andelevenspoons) to a Chicagocollector.Manyyearslater the remainder (two cups, a spoutedpitcher,a ladle, and six went to New York. The majorpiecesof this set, the spoons) with cups, the mug, the ladle, and the dishes,are engraved the nameof the owner,a certainSattia,daughter wife) of (or Lucius;the platterbearsthe nameof Roscia.The dish in the shapeof a halfshellis also inscribed,but the namesareonly vasesarealso marked with partially legible.These inscribed the weights,a practice uncommonin antiquity. two not The cups (nos. 116, 117) invite comparisonwith the similar, though plainer,cup (no. 98) from the earlythird-century hoard, and the ladle is still in the traditionof the fourthcenturyladle from Prusias(no. 72). The spouted pitcher (no. 118), however,is a new shape and relativelyrare.Its troughlike spout corresponds somewhat to the Roman M. Varro's of encyclopedist Terentius description a trulla(or truella),a diminutiveoftrua, the Latinword for gutter,and this shapehasthereforeat times been calleda trulla. The second Romanhoard,considerably smallerthan the Tivolione, is saidto havebeenfoundnearLakeTrasimene in central it too hasbeendispersed,the Museum Italy.Though is fortunate haveacquired pieces:a pairofstrigilson a to two ring (no. 125) and a combinationcomb and pin (no. 126) with engraved decorationdepictinga lion hunt. Roman silver of the Imperialperiod is less well representedin the Museum,for thereis nothingin New York that can be compared the HildesheimTreasure Berlin,the to in Boscoreale Silverin the Louvre,the Berthouville in Treasure 13

the Cabinetdes Medailles,or the silverfrom the House of Menander in Pompeii. The cast handles (nos. 130, 131) of two very large dishes, however,of the second andthird centuriesA.D., are eloquent illustrationsof excellentlater of Romansilverwork.The earlier the two handlesshows, in The second a lion hunt in a mountainouslandscape. relief, and the techniqueis differentin handle is somewhatlater and that the higher parts of the reliefwere cast separately insertedor splicedinto cut-out depressions.Here the subject is the Indiantriumphof Bacchusin a chariotdrawnby two lionesses. The storyof GreekandRomansilverdoes not, of course, end with the last pieces in this Bulletinor with the exhibition. Visitorsto the newlyopened gallerymaywell wish to gallery explorethe lateantiquegold andsilverin the parallel that south of the greatstaircase is devotedto earlyChristian art andcontainsthe fabulousCyprusplate,or the Egyptian galleriesto the north thatexhibitmuchgold andsilverfrom PtolemaicEgypt. On the second floor toward the south, gold and silverplatefrom the ancientNear Eastwill round out the splendidstory of ancienttoreutic art, of which the is GreekandRomanTreasury one of the finestchapters. DIETRICH VON BOTHMER Chairman of Department and Greek RomanArt 14

A Greek and Roman Treasury The installationof the GreekandRomanTreasury is madepossiblethroughthe generosityof Gayfryd and SaulSteinbergandRelianceGroupHoldings,Inc.

p v. 1,2. Pairof silverbowls. Saidto havebeenfoundtogetheron ca. Left:height4.8 cm;diamEuboea.Cycladic, 3000-2300 B.C. eterca. 19.6cm;weight439.2 grams.Bequest Walter Baker, of C. 1971(1972.118.152). ca. Right:height5.8 cm;diameter 24.6 cm; weight709.5 grams.Purchase, JosephPulitzerBequest,1946 (46.11.1) Thesetwo shallowsilverbowlsmaybe termedforerunners the of libationbowlscalledphialaiin Greek.Metalvasesof the Cycladic that periodareveryrare,andit is not surprising gold andsilver, whicharesuchmalleable metals,predominate. on of The decoration the shoulder the somewhat smaller dish one differsfromthaton the larger by havingthreefieldsof vertical betweenthreewider lines(eleven,nine,andelevenrespectively) fieldsof chevrons. The rimof the larger bowl flares andthe neckis vertical. out The is Fouroblong fieldsof vertical decoration limitedto the shoulder. strokes(nineteenin eachfield,exceptfor one thathasonly eighwith fourothers,somewhat wider,thatarecomteen) alternate each.The triangles hatched. are posedof fivetriangles GreekArt oftheAegeanIslands,1979, pp. 63-64 (with previous Bibliography: references). - *- -N-' -1 w I t ,

3. Gold kantharos (drinking cup).Saidto be fromThebes.Greek,ca. 1500-1375 B.C. Height to top of handles8.6 cm; heightto rim7.2 cm; width 17.07cm;weight 71 grams.RogersFund, 1907 (07.286.126) The body of the cupwasraisedfroma disk of sheetgold; the two handles with rolled and edgeswereworkedseparately attached with gold rivets.The handlesaredecorated with leafpatterns. Therearethreeconcen- triccirclesin slightreliefon the bottom.In resembles found in one shapethiskantharos ShaftGrave of Mycenae, so-called the IV The Minyankantharos. shapeoccursas earlyas the MiddleHelladicperiodandre- In .lllrait1 L j uVuUlda Ul fLth LLI rlir n 1U . ,nerl n nai ilr xillllll LI in xidy mrn1e!l frar lllLdl1 lUL over a thousand years. E. CupsandAegean Bibliography: Davis,The Vapheio Goldand SilverWare,1977, pp. 324-25, no. 147, figs. 263-264. 4. Goldcup. Saidto havebeenfound at Greek,ca. 1500 B.C. Mycenae. Height 5.5 ca. cm;diameter 7.95 cm;weight27 grams. 1961(61.71).Ex Gift of Walter Baker, C. coll. AlfredAndre No exactparallel knownfor this gold cup, is whichmusthavehada loop handlesimilar to thoseon the morecommondrinking cupsof gold andsilverfoundin the shaft of graves Mycenae. E. CupsandAegean Bibliography: Davis, The Vapheio Goldand SilverWare,1977, pp. 326-27, no. 149, fig. 266. 17

5-8. Four silver vases from Cyprus. Purchasedby subscription, 1874-1876. Ex coil. L. P.di Cesnola 5. Oinochoe(winejug).Cypriot,seventhcenturyB.C. Height 15.9 9.6 cm;diameter cm;weight271 grams.(74.51.4592) The lip is trefoil,andthe handleis formedby two reeds.The neckis welt. set off fromthe body by a pronounced The 4,2 Expedition, (1948), p. 160, fig. 33, no. 14; Cyprus Bibliography: Swedish B. Shefton, Die "rhodischen"Bronzekannen, p. 58, note 120 (with previous 1979, references). of 6. Goblet.Cypriot,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 8.1 cm;diameter mouth 10.4 cm; weight 123 grams. (74.51.4566) The wine cuphasa roundedbottomanda flaringrimandresembles NearEastern goblets. J. Colection,1914, p. 466, f Bibliography: L. Myres,Handbook theCesnola no. 4566.

,r 'e 7. Oinochoe. Cypriot, seventh century B.C.Height 17.8 cm; diameter 12.63 cm; weight 347 grams. (74.51.4586) The form of Cypriot silver jugs, with a globular body, a flaring mouth, and a drip ring on the neck, closely resembles that of the pottery vases of Cypriot make. The edges of the cast handle are decorated with a herringbone pattern. 9-11. Three bowls from Cyprus. Purchasedby subscription, 1874-1876. Ex coll. L. P. di Cesnola 8. Skyphos (wine cup). Cypriot, sixth to fifth century B.C. Height 8.2 cm; diameter 13.26 cm; width 13.37 cm; weight 681 grams. (74.51.4581) The skyphos has an offset lip and was probably cast ratherthan raised. 9. Gold bowl, decorated in repousse. Cypriot, eighth century B.C. Height 4.9 cm; diameter of rim 14.2 cm; weight 122.27 grams. (74.51.4551) The decoration is organized in concentric bands: around a small central boss, thirty-six tongues; halfway up the bowl, a papyrus thicket with seven swimming ducks; below the rim, another papyrus thicket with bulls pursuing fallow deer across the marshes; all have their legs in the water. The 4,2 Cyprus Expedition, (1948), p. 160, fig. 33, no. 12. Bibliography: Swedish E. 4 (1946), pp. 3,13 f., pl. 12. Bibliography: Gjerstad,in OpusculaArchaeologica, The Cyprus 4,2 Expedition, (1948), p. 160, fig. 33, no. 13. Bibliography: Swedish 19

10. Silver-gilt bowl. Cypriot,seventhcenB.C. 16.9 cm; tury Height 3.3 cm;diameter weight 155 grams.(74.51.4554) The bowl belongsto a classcalledCyproPhoenician withinit to the second and phase.In a medallionin the centera fourwingeddeityin Assyrian garbkillsa rampantlion with his sword.Behindhim hover two Egyptianfalcons.The tondo is surroundedby a narrative zone in EgyptianizA ing style bordered cablepatterns. by aimsat a lion thathasfelled kneelingarcher a hunterandis attacked anotherhunter by poisinga spear.Next comesa grazinghorse separated a treefromanotherlion that by hasthrownan Egyptianto the ground. Afteranothertreecomesa seatedsphinx and, againframedby trees,two confronted bulls;two bullswalkingto the rightanda cow andcalfconcludethe scene.This narrow zone formsthe predella, it were,of as the chiefzone, whichis largerin scale.This outerzone is dividedrather by irregularly flanked conventionalized "sacred trees," once by an Egyptiangoddess,then by two sphinxes,two goats,two griffins,andwith the groupof an Egyptian interspersed killslayinga lion in a forest-an Assyrian clubbingthreecaping a griffin,a pharaoh of tives in the presence a falcon-headed god, anda young Egyptianspearinga winged monster. The outerborderis formedby The Egyptianhierouprightpalmettes. glyphson the panelsdo not makesense. This curiousmixtureof Egyptianand of motifs is not atypical Mesopotamian period,andwe Cypriotartof the archaic mayneverbe ableto put in focus the artistic of for responsible this amalgam personality formsandmotifs. Whatis veryclear,howofT. ever,thanksto the perspicacity B. Mitford, is the identityof the firstownerof the bowl:Akestor, kingof Paphos,had below the rimin the his nameinscribed At Cypriotsyllabary. a latertime the bowl after498 B.C. changedhands,probably when Paphoswasplundered the Persians by andtheirCypriotallies,andthe new owner added,againnearthe rim,but fartherto the left: "I belongto Timukretes." T. Bibliography: B. Mitford, in Universityof London, Institute of ClassicalStudies,Bulletin10 (1963), pp. 27-30, pls. 4-7 (with previous bibliography). 11. Silverbowl. Foundon Cyprus (Kourion).Cypriot,earlysixthcenturyB.C. Height 4.6 cm; diameter15.5 cm; weight 82 grams.(74.51.4552) Unlikethe two previousCypriotbowls, this one is not in repousseor in relief,but merelyincised.An inscriptionin West identifies syllabary Cypriot(or Paphian) both the owner (Epiorwos)andthe name of the shape(phiale).The decorationconrosettefolsistsof a central sixteen-petalled lowed by two bandsof whichthe lower thicketandthe upper a represents papyrus 20

, ,%A. 0.1. rLr I a curiousgroupingof pairedheraldic wingedcobras,falconsphinxes, griffins, headeddivinities,andfalcons.In addition thereareisolatedbirdsanda divinitywith fourwings.The letteringis partof the in designandappears an areadeliberately nextto a big left emptyfor the inscription waterbird.The groupsareseparated palby mettes,lotuses,a palmtree,andtwo deciduous treesaswell as by a highlystylized "sacred tree." is The styleof the engraving whathas but beentermedCypro-Egyptian, the coexdetailsmakesit istenceof the manydifferent was clearthatthe engraver not an Egyptian but a localartist. O. Bibliography: Masson, in BulletindeCorrespondance Hellnique, 104 (1950), pp. 225-31 (with previous bibliographyon the inscription);E. Gjerstad, 4 (1946), pp. 3,13 ff, pl. in OpusculaArchaeologica, 14 (on the style). 12. Silver phiale mesomphalos. Greek (perhaps Rhodian), late seventh or early sixth century B.C.Height 4.5 cm; diameter 22.07 cm; weight 422 grams. Classical Purchase Fund, 1981 (1981.11.13) This is the earliest of the Museum's traditional phialai with the pronounced omphalos (navel) or central boss, the hollow underside of which furnished a secure grip for two fingers while the phiale was tilted to pour a libation. The wall of the phiale is decorated by twelve radiallyarrangedstylized lotus blossoms. The omphalos was covered by another layer that was equipped with a brim or collar and was worked separately; this added member was gilt. The boss has in its center a small raised disk from which sixteen tongues or flutes descend radiallyover the side. The brim or collar is embossed with animals or monsters: two sphinxes couchants are followed (clockwise) by a bull facing a lion, a boar facing right, a bird on a flower, and a panther facing left. Between the animals, tendrils spring from the ground line or are suspended from the circular top border. Not many Greek silver phialai mesomphaloi are known from this time-one in Berlin, said to be from Asia Minor, and two from Kameiros on Rhodes-but this is the only early one that has animals in addition to the floral ornaments, which help in the dating of the object. The Museum ofArt Bibliography: Metropolitan Annual Report 1980-1981,p. 37; idem,Notable 1980-1981, p. 11 (ill.). Acquisitions 21

13. Silverbowl. FromCyprus.Cypriot, ? sixth century B.C.Height 5.5 cm; diameter ' 10.3 cm; weight 82 grams. Purchased by subscription, 1874-1876 (74.51.4562) Ex coil. L. P. di Cesnola On the offset lip thirteen birds are engraved marching to the right. The body is decorated with forty-four tongues or ribs radiating from the depression on the bottom that^ forms the omphalos. Engraved decoration occurs in the archaicperiod not only in Persian metalwork but also on East Greek silver vases (compare nos. 45 and 49). '.. the Toledo, Bibliography:A. Oliver,Jr.Silverfor Gods, l .. " .. " . " - ' - [ ' s " f 1977,p. 24, no. 1 (withprevious references). 14. Silver bowl. Found in Sardis. Greek, sixth century B.C.Height 5.6 cm; diameter of mouth 11.44 cm; weight 147.3 grams. Gift of The American Society for the Exploration of Sardis, 1926 (26.164.13) The lip is sharply set off from the body of the bowl, which is decorated on the shoulder by two grooves. 15. Silversitula(pail)with swinginghandle. Saidto be fromthe Troad. Greek,sixthcenB.C.Height, with bailupright,19.5 tury 14.3 cm;heightto rim 13.3 cm;diameter C. cm;weight630 grams.Bequestof Walter 1971(1972.118.153) Baker, The body of the situlais ribbed,andthe shoulderis decorated with a bandof fortyeight smallrosettes.The swinginghandle terminates smallanimal in heads(perhaps The snakes). vesselis equippedwith a small are ring base.No exactparallels known,but the shapeanddecoration betraya strong Achaemenian influence. AncientArtfrom NewYork Private ColBibliography: lections, 1961, p. 12, no. 56, pl. 100. 22

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16,17. Pairof silverphialai. Greek,sixthcenturyB.C.Left:height6.3 cm;diameter 12.46 cm;weight232 grams.Purchase, Mrs.Charles PaysonGift, 1966 S. (66.11.21).Right:height6.3 cm; diameter 12.57 cm;weight243 grams.RogersFund, 1966 (66.11.22) Eachhasa shallowomphalos,an offset lip, andengraved tongueson the lowerpartof the bowl (bordered aboveon no. 16 [left] by a circleof puncheddots). Betweenthe lip andthe tongues,encircling bowl, are the attached headsthatare eighteenbearded hollow andsolderedonto the wallof the bowl. Whensomeof the headsbecame that detached,it wasdiscovered insidewere tiny bronzepelletsthatproducea rattling soundwhenthe cup is liftedandmoved. On the bowl of no. 16 an engraved bandof rosettesoccursabovethe headsat the junction of lip andshoulder, stylized and of rosettesareengraved the interstices at the heads. The headshavea pronounced Oriental of castandconformto our association Persianfeatures. othersuchphialaiare No knowntoday,but a "silver phialewith Persianheads" mentionedin one of the is Deliantempleinventories. M. Bibliography: Vickers,inJHS 90 (1970), p. 201; D. von Bothmer,"LesTresorsde l'orfevreriede la orientaleau MetropolitanMuseumde New Gr&ce in York," Academiedes Inscriptionset Belles-LetRendus,1981, pp. 195, 196, fig. 1. tres, Comptes 24

18. Silver-gilt phiale.Greek,sixthcentury 15.23 cm; B.C. Height 3.7 cm; diameter 245.4 grams.Purchase, Rogers weight Gift, andHalinaand Fund,Anonymous JohnKlejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.14) The shapeof the phialeis of the so-called Achaemenian type-offset flaringlip, hollow omphalos-but the decorationis most lobesor bosses The ten projecting unusual. arenot workedin repousse(as,for example, hamon nos. 28 and29) but areseparately to meredandattached the wallof the bowl in specially grooves.The plain prepared in lobes resemble contourandvolumethe Persian headson nos. 16 attached similarly and17.The intervalsbetweenthe lobesare with gilt a jourreliefsof the Perdecorated siankingwalkingto the left in fullregalia. His feet areset on two eagleheadsplaced a back heraldically to backthatsurmount with an ivy leaf ring drop-shaped decorated below. Bibliography:D. von Bothmer,"LesTresorsde de l'orfevrerie la Grce orientaleau Metropolitan in Museumde New York," Academiedes Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Rendus,1981, pp. Comptes 195-96, fig. 2. 19. Silverbowl, with omphalos.Greek, sixthcenturyB.C. Height 4.5 cm;diameter 10.56 cm; weight89 grams.RogersFund, 1975 (1975.11.4) This smalldrinkingbowl is technically related the silver-gilt to phiale(no. 18) but somewhat cruderandlesswellpreserved. with Sixhollow andshallowlobes alternate six plaques the Persian of kingkillinga lion. aboveby a narThe reliefzone is bordered and row bandof engraved hatchedtriangles below by a similarbandof doublehatched Halfwaybetweenthe lowerband triangles. of andthe depression the omphalosis a circularrow of punchedcirclesandon the edge of the hollowof the omphalosa band of incisedherringbones. reliefs(nos. The two bowlswith applique to 18 and 19) maybe compared a phialein the BritishMuseum(WAD135571)that Besof haseight smallplaques a rampant headedwingedlion betweeneight lobes. are The latter,however, not addedbut in repousse. 25

20-24. Five silver bowls. 20. Silverphiale.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 4.8 cm; diameter17.0 cm; weight 271 grams.FletcherFund, 1968 (68.11.64) 21. Silverphiale.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 4.7 cm; diameter17.4-17.65 cm; weight 302.3 grams.Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1970 (1970.11.16) Whilenot an exactpair,thesetwo libation bowls areobviouslycontemporary the and workof the samesilversmith. Both, moremonoover,sharea similarlightlyengraved gramin the hollow of the omphalos.In termsof styletheyaresimilarto the phialai of the so-calledAchaemenian (nos. 28 type on and29) illustrated the oppositepage. All fourhavenine lobes alternating with nine stylizedlotuses. 22. Silverphiale.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 4.5 cm; diameter14.6 cm; weight 265 grams.Purchase, RogersFund,Anonymous Gift, andHalinaandJohnKlejman Gift, 1969 (69.11.10) The seventy-six tongueson the outsideof the lowerpartof the bowl arechased,as are the threecarinations the shoulder. on 23. Silverwine cup.Greek,sixthcentury B.C. Height 4.9 cm; diameter10.85 cm; Anonymous weight 161grams.Purchase, Gift, 1967 (67.11.17) The decoration,limitedto the outside,is rochased.It consistsof a sixteen-petalled sette surrounded a circleof beadingon by the bottom andeighty-twotongueson the convexpartof the bowl; abovethe flutes, justbelow the offset lip, is a circleof and kymatia eggs. The rosetteis a forerunnerof the similar ones on the bottomsof nos. 75, 78, and 79. 24. Silverphiale.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 4.1 cm; diameter14.9-15.1 cm; Rogers weight206.9 grams.Purchase, Fund,AnonymousGift, andHalinaand JohnKlejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.9) As on no. 22 the eighty-seven tongueson the outsidearechased,andthereis an of circlearoundthe depression the engraved this In addition,however, phiale omphalos. hasthirty-eight tongueschasedon the the inside,surrounding omphalos,the underside whichhasincisedletters(Alik) of thatmaybe the beginningof a Greekname, anda complexmonogram. 26

25-29. Five silver phialai. Greek, sixth century B.C. 25. Offset lip, shallow omphalos, carination on shoulder, ninety-five lightly chased tongues on the outside. Height 3.25 cm; diameter 17.0 cm; weight 210 grams. Classical Purchase Fund, 1980 (1980.11.13) 26. Offset lip, small omphalos, small tongue pattern on shoulder, thirty-two tongues on body. Height 4.25 cm; diameter 15.67 cm; weight 205 grams. Purchase, Rogers Fund, Anonymous Gift, and Halina and John Klejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.8) 27. Continuous convex contour, deep omphalos with collar consisting of sixty-one chased tongues. The outside is plain. Height 3.8 cm; diameter 18.0 cm; weight 409 grams. Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1970 (1970.11.15) 29. Same type, but smaller.Height 3.2 cm; diameter 13.92 cm; weight 154 grams. Rogers Fund, 1966 (66.11.20) Phialai with flaring rims or offset lips (nos. 25, 26, 28, 29) are commonly called the Achaemenian type, though it is by no means certain that all were made by Persians.The pure Greek shape is represented by no. 27, and in Attic potteryoccurs as early as the sixth century B.C.A somewhat flatter and much lighter silver phiale in the Indiana University Art Museum (ace. no. 69.102.2; A. Oliver, Jr.,Silverforthe Gods,1977, p. 25, no. 2) shares its system of decoration with no. 27. The combination of carination on the shoulder and tongues below (no. 25) continues well into the fourth century and occurs on drinking cups (see no. 77). 28. Flaring rim, small omphalos, nine lobes separatedby nine lotuses. Height 4.2 cm; diameter 17.7 cm; weight 210.5 grams. Rogers Fund, 1966 (66.11.19) 27

30. Silverphiale.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. G. Bastis,Mrs.ThomasS. Brush,Winslow J. Carlton,andMrs.James RorimerGifts, 1969 (69.11.11) The phialehas an offset lip andan ornamental bandof somewhatirregular tongues below the junctionof lip andbody.An owner'smonogram(shownhere)is on engraved one sideof the lip; on the oppositeside thereis anothergraffito. t '=: 31,32. Two deepsilverphialai.Greek,sixth centuryB.C.Left: height6.5 cm; diameter 15.84 cm; weight254.2 grams.Right: 14.06 cm;weight height 5.8 cm; diameter 231.4 grams.Purchase, AnonymousGift, 1970 (1970.11.19,18) Thesetwo libationbowls introducefurther variations. one on the righthasninetyThe eight shorttongueschasedon its shoulder andninety-twolong, narrowleavesthat the bandaround radiate froma reserved hollow of the omphalos,whichis inscribed with a lambda. largerof the two bowls, The short on the left, hasonly eighty-nine tonguesbelow the junctionof lip andshoultwo Greekletterschiandiota. 33. Deep silverbowl. Greek,sixthcentury 12.24 cm; B.C. Height 5.65 cm; diameter 253 grams.Purchase, Anonymous weight Gift, 1973 (1973.11.8) 34. Shallowsilverbowl. Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 3.7 cm;diameter16.36 cm; weight 237 grams.Purchase, AnonymousGift, 1973 (1973.11.9) Thesetwo handsome,though totally bowlswereacquired undecorated, together with a plainsilversitula(no. 53), a plainsilof verladle(no. 64), andthe smaller our the two silverstrainers 67); presumably (no. fiveobjectswerefound together. 28 _l -i___ l

35. Silvertrefoiloinochoe.Greek,sixth centuryB.C.Height to top of handle18 cm; to top of rim17.3cm;diameter 9.55 cm; weight623 grams.RogersFund,1966 (66.11.23) The body of the jug is raised,whilethe foot andhandlearecastseparately joinedto and the vasewith solder.The shoulder the and foot aredecorated with tongues,andthere is a circleof beadingat the junctionof the foot andthe body;a kymation chasedon is the edge of the mouth.The handleis in the shapeof a nakedyouth bendingbackward, his long hairfallinginto the mouthof the vase.His feet reston a separately lower cast attachment terminates that belowin a hangare the ing palmette; lateral projections two recumbent ramsin high relief,theirheads turnedtowardthe viewer. Thesetwo rams to lionsplaced correspond two couchant backto backon the rimon eithersideof the headof the youth,who graspstheirtails. The schemeof the handlewith a youth,two lions above,andtwo ramsbelowis known fromGreekbronzehydriai oinochoai, and but to datethis is the only example silver. in T. Bibliography: P. F Hoving, TheChase,theCapture, 1975, p. 119, fig. 19. 29

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36. Silver trefoil oinochoe. Greek, sixth century B.C.Height to top of handle 20.6 cm; to top of rim, 18.1 cm; diameter 11.86 cm; weight 825 grams. Purchase, Rogers Fund, Anonymous Gift, and Halina and John Klejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.11) The body of the jug and the foot are raised separatelyand joined with solder. The handle is cast and attached to the rim and to the shoulder of the jug with solder. Arching high above the mouth, the handle terminates above in the head of a lion, its mouth wide open. The mane is not rendered in relief but by incision. The lateralprojections on top are in the shape of spools and are decorated at the ends with rosettes, likewise incised. The lower finial of the handle, in low relief, shows the frontal head of a panther flanked by its forelegs. The beading along the ridge of the handle and its edges is also applied to the edges of the spools above, the fillet between the body of the vase and the foot, the edge of the foot, and the junction of panther head and handle. The conceit of a handle with feline finials is also observed on bronze hydriai and oinochoai, but this jug gives us the first, and to date only, example in silver. Bibliography:D. von Bothmer,"LesTresorsde l'orfevreriede la Grce orientaleau Metropolitan Museumde New York," Academiedes Inscripin tions et Belles-Lettres, Rendus,1981, p. 201, Comptes fig. 6. , .N,r~r.N . 31

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37. Silveroinochoe.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height to top of han11.77cm;weight439 dle 13.8 cm;to top of rim12.5 cm;diameter Gift, andHalinaand RogersFund,Anonymous grams.Purchase, JohnKlejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.16) the The body,asusual,is raised; handle,however, not solidsilver is but hollow,composedof two halvesandfilledwith lead. Whilethe shapeof thisjug is moreEastern thanGreek,the sculpturaladjuncts the handle-a lion'sheadaboveanda headof the of Greek. The mouthis not divinityBesbelow-are typically Egyptian circular hasa slightspout,the edgesof whichare but completely incisedon the insideof the lip. 38. Silveroinochoe.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Heightto top of handle19.6 cm;to top of rim18.8 cm;diameter 13.93 cm;weight 850.5 grams.Purchase, Gift,Arthur RogersFund,Anonymous and G. DarbyNock Fund,in memoryof GiselaRichter, Christos Bastis,DavidL. KleinJr.Memorial Foundation, Inc., Helen H. A. RuthElizabeth Mertens,Richard VanAvery, White,andMrs. James Rorimer, J. Gifts, 1976 (1976.11.1) The body is carinated, is thatof no. 37, but the proportionsare as different the neckis set off moresharply and fromthe shoulder. The The spout is quitepronounced. casthandleis flutedandterminates abovein a stylizedeagle's headthatappears biteinto the lip. Simto ilarstylizedanimal headsappear Lydian on bronzes. 33

39-43. Five silver pitchers. Greek, sixth century B.C. 39. Height, with handle, 11.6 cm; weight 92 grams. Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1967 (67.11.16) 40. Height, with handle, 11.3 cm; weight 72 grams. Classical Purchase Fund, 1980 (1980.11.16) 41. Height, with handle, 11.6 cm; weight 107 grams. Fletcher Fund, 1968 (68.11.59) 42. Height, with handle, 9.7 cm; weight 86.5 grams. Purchase, The Abraham Foundation, Inc., Gift, 1975 (1975.11.5) 43. Height, with handle, 11 cm; weight 104.5 grams. Purchase, Mrs. Vincent Astor Gift, 1966 (66.11.24) The five silver pitchers are too small to have served as wine jugs, and it is more likely that they contained an aromatic liquid that was added to the wine. All five have the underside of the foot decorated in repousse with a rosette; the handles are riveted to the body, which, including the foot, is invariably raised. The lower finial of the handle is always a palmette, but the decorations of the body differ. No. 42, the most elaborate, has tongues on the shoulder and tongues 34 below; nos. 39 and 43 have tongues only on the shoulder; nos. 40 and 41 have plain bodies. A further difference is that nos. 39, 42, and 43 have palmettes on the upper attachment of the handle as well. Other small silver pitchers of this type are in Berlin (1974.2 and 3) and Oxford. 44. Bronze jug with slip-on lid. Greek or Lydian, sixth century B.C.Height to top of lid 22.5 cm; diameter 16.5 cm. Purchase, Rogers Fund, Anonymous Gift, and Halina and John Klejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.18) The bronze jug is exhibited in the Greek and Roman Treasurybecause it was acquired with a group of fourteen silver vases that may all have been found together. Of simple, rather squat form, the jug is remarkable owing to its lid, which was slotted along its lower edge and slipped over the flat handle before the latter was riveted to the mouth and body of the jug. The same technique is known from Lydian pottery (e.g., 14.30.22; MMA Bulletin n.s. 26 [1967-68], p. 199, upper right). The tiering of the lid may be compared with the similar convention on the lid of the incense burner (no. 68). Bibliography:C. H. Greenewalt,Jr.,Ritual Dinners in EarlyHistoric Sardis,1978, p. 12. n. 3. (

45. Silveralabastron. Greek,sixthcentury 3.6 B.C. Height 10.3 cm;diameter cm; weight 115grams.RogersFund,1966 (66.11.27) Of allthe silveralabastra knownthisis the most elaborate. body is dividedinto The fourpictorialzonesseparated ornamenby tal bandsof different In patterns. the top a divisioninto anobverse register natural andreverse furnished the two lugs in is by the shapeof ducks'heads;eachpicturein this zone is of two cocksconfrontingeach other.The secondregister continuesthe distinctionbetweenbackandfrontby havingon the obversea lionessanda lion a attacking bullfacingleft, whileon the reverse bullbeing attacked the the by lionessandthe lion facesright.In the third zone a battleof warriors rages:two phalanxesattack eachother,fivewarriors the on left againstsixon the right,and,to avoid too obviousa suture,the battlesceneon the othersidedepictsa duel betweentwo showson the hoplites.The lowestregister obversea trio of fallowdeer,followedby a fourthon the rightthattakesup mostof the spaceon the back.The roundedbottomof the alabastron decorated is fourcirflorally: cumscribed are palmettes arranged symwith eight additional, somewhat metrically smaller in palmettes the spandrels. All are Bibliography: our silveralabastra discussedin Brussels,1983, pp. 15-23, figs. ArtibusAegypti, 5-12. 35

46. Silveralabastron. Greek,sixthcentury B.C. 4.77 cm; Height 12.6 cm; diameter weight 76 grams.FletcherFund, 1968 (68.11.61) The systemof dividingthe body into four zones by ornamental bandsis the sameas on the alabastron with figures(no. 45), but herethe zones areleft empty.On the bottom, insteadof the palmetteconfiguration, is a rosettecomposedof eight lozenges. The ornaments the bandsaretongues in a (on top), saltiresquares, cablepattern, andsaltiresquares. lugs, The lozenges, againin the shapeof ducks'heads,arenot workedseparately as is usualin this but, raisedfromthe groupof silveralabastra, insideof the vase. 48. Silveralabastron. Greek,sixthcentury B.C. 4.36 cm; Height 14.04 cm; diameter Christos G. weight 71 grams.Purchase, BastisGift, 1967 (67.11.10) The body of the vaseis divided(ason some of the others)into threezones by narrow ornamental bandsof whichthreehavespecialsaltiresquares. secondbandhas The hatchedtriangles those appliedto no. like 47. On the bottomis a rosettewith sixteen petals.The plumageon the duck's-head lugs is closerto thaton no. 47 thanto thaton no. 45. 47. Silveralabastron. Greek,sixthcentury B.C. with stopper,16.46 cm, withHeight, out stopper,15.15cm; diameter cm; 5.2 Purchase 96 grams.Classical Fund, weight 1980 (1980.11.15) The stopper,hemispherical decorated and with a whirlingpattern,is attached a to shorthollow cylinder thatslipsinto another to cylinderattached the rimof the vesselby a flangethatcoversandstrengthens The it. ornamental decorationis limitedto tongues below the neckandthreedividingbands and cablepat(squares hatchedtriangles, The tern,opposedhatchedtriangles). bottom has an elaborate rosettewith star twenty-twopoints. Likethe othersilveralabastra this class,this one is equippedwith of lugs in the formof ducks'heads. 36

49. Silverskyphos,with foot restored. Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height, as 12.5 cm; restored,16.6 cm, as preserved, width 22.04 cm; diameter 14.26-15.33 cm; weight,as restored,597 grams.Gift of Mr.andMrs.ThomasS. Brush,1971 Ex (1971.118). coll. Hagop Kevorkian As on the silveralabastra, body is the dividedinto zones by narrowornamental bands.The top zone hereis decorated with linkedhangingpalmettes lotuses, and The lightlyengraved. secondzone presents in the centerof eachsideheraldic sphinxes; undereachhandle,heraldic lions raisea rosettein the center. forelegat an elaborate In the thirdzone six grazingfallowdeer advance the left, followedby a wading to bird(probably demoiselle a The crane). last zone is againornamental-a zig-zagband surmounted eachangleby palmettes. at In technique compositionthe and is engraved drawing verycloseto thaton one of the silveralabastra 45), espe(no. of ciallyin the treatment the fallowdeer. The bodyof the skyphosis raised; the roundhandlesarecast.The foot hasbeen restored the analogyof Lydianterracotta on skyphoi. Sale cat., Sotheby's,London, Dec. 8, Bibliography: 1970, lot 36 (ill.). 37

50. Silverbeaker. Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. 10.7cm;diameter 6.12 cm;weight Height 64 grams.Purchase, AnonymousGift, 1967 (67.11.11) The body is fluted,andat the junctionof neckandshoulderthereis a notchedfillet. The beaker with a somemaybe compared in whatlargerglassbeaker the Corning Museumof Glass(ace.no. 66.1.16;Journal Studies [1967], p. 133, fig. 3). 9 ofGlass 51. Silverbeaker. Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. 6.2 Height 11.8cm;diameter cm;weight 107 grams.FletcherFund,1968 (68.11.60) This beaker with no. 50 the fluting shares andthe filletat the junctionof neckand shoulder. bottom,however, not round is Its but flatanddecorated with a fourteenpetaledrosette.The rosettelinksthe beaker to stylistically the smallsilverpitchers(nos. 39-43). 52. Silverjarwith lid. Greek,sixthcentury B.C. Height, with lid, 9.06 cm, withoutlid, 6.8 cm; diameter5 cm; weight 72.6 grams. Purchase, RogersFund,AnonymousGift, andHalinaandJohnKlejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.5) The body andlid areraised. The heavyring handleon top of the lid is solderedto it. The usedfor cosmetics. jarwasperhaps 53. Silversitulawith swingingbailand chain.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height, with bailupright,9.5 cm, to top of rim6.75 cm; lengthof chain53.34 cm; totalweight 106.7grams.Purchase, AnonymousGift, 1973 (1973.11.10) The body of the situlais raised,andthe hammered bail omega-shaped is slipped throughtwo holesnearthe rim.The chain, whichconsistsof forty links,is attached with an oval ringto the bailandfurnished with a ringat the otherend thatcanbe slipexistfor ped on a finger.No exactparallels this silversitula,but its shapecanbe saidto resemble Egyptiansitulae. Bibliography:Sale cat., Sotheby's,London, July10, 1972, no. 60 (ill.). 38

54. Silver saucer.Greek, sixth century B.C. Height 1.4 cm; diameter 7.25 cm; weight 38.4 grams. Purchase, Rogers Fund, Anonymous Gift, and Halina and John Klejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.6) The small saucer has a rounded bottom and resembles three such silver saucers excavated at Sardis and now in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. 55. Silversaucer with spout andhandle. Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. Height 2.15 cm; diameter cm;width 10.5 cm; weight 7.5 51.5 grams.Purchase, RogersFund,AnonymousGift, andHalinaandJohnKlejman Gift, 1968 (68.11.7) The shallowsaucerandthe spoutwere raisedfroma singlediskof sheetsilver;the and loop handlewasforgedseparately attached the rimwith rivets.The flatto endsof the loop aredecotened,circular ratedwith incisedrosettes.A ligature and kappa lambda composedof a retrograde on twice,lightlyengraved the outappears side below andto the rightof the handle. 56. Silverdish.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. 8.8 Height 1 cm; diameter cm;weight 87.3 Mrs.VincentAstorGift, grams.Purchase, 1966 (66.11.25) This smallshallowdishbearsa faintgraffito on the flatbottomin the formof the Greek letterchi. 39

/* , , 4 U P f* > s I~~~~~, dAki 57. Silverplatterwith swinginghandle. Greek,latesixthcenturyB.C.Height to 30.46 cm; length, edge 4.8 cm; diameter with handleextended,39.7 cm; weight 1,525.5 grams.Purchase, RogersFund, AnonymousGift, andHalinaandJohn Gift, 1968 (68.11.3) Klejman The shallowbowl of the platteris raised, of andalmosthalfof the periphery the rim rod is reinforced a semicircular thatis by rivetedto it in four places,aswell as solderedto it alongits entirelength.To this two rings supportareattached hammered thatin turnhold the hammered omegashapedswinginghandle,the finialsof which arein the shapeof buds.Suchlargeshallow are platters knownmostlyfrombronze two examples, of which,now in the British Museum,werefound in a tomb (datedto the late sixth century B.C.) in Amathus on a Cyprus; third,now in the J.PaulGetty Museumin Malibu(acc.no. 78 A.C. 403), hasa largefloralrosettein the center. 58. Silvercoverwith ringhandle.Greek, latesixthcenturyB.C. Height to top of ring 18.06 cm;weight handle5.6 cm; diameter 246.6 grams.Purchase, RogersFund, AnonymousGift, andHalinaandJohn Gift, 1968 (68.11.15) Klejman The lid properis raisedfroma singledisk. To its top, in the center,is soldereda rosette with twenty-twopetals,whichin turnis surmounted a smallballthatholdsthe by ring.The ringhandlecover,acquired togetherwith the platter(no. 57), mayhave been foundsittingin it, for a faintcircular of on discoloration the surface the insideof of to the plattercorresponds the diameter the lid. 40

59. Silverkyathos(ladle).Greek,sixthcenof turyB.C. Height 22.7 cm; diameter bowl 4.8 cm; weight 89 grams.RogersFund, 1966 (66.11.26) Of allthe archaic metalladlesknownthis is the most elaborate. wasmadein several It parts:the bowl wasraisedfroma silverdisk, andthe handleandthe loop on top were castseparately, werethe two sphinxes as it flanking at the junctionto the bowl.The handleis joinedto the bowl with rivets;the loop on top is solderedon, as arethe two below.The iconography quite is sphinxes The extraordinary. facetedhandleterminatesbelowin the forepart a wingedlion, of sculptedin the roundas farbackas its it haunches; seemsto plungeinto the bowl as if drinkingfromit. The two sphinxes heraldically placedon the rimof the bowl aresomewhat smaller scale.The handle in terminates abovein a lotus capital of form.The loop above vaguelyAchaemenian is decorated reliefwith two hybrideaglein thathaveeagles'heads,wings, and griffins talons,horses'ears,andlions'forelegs. T. Bibliography: P. E Hoving, TheChase,theCapture, 1975, p. 119, fig. 20; D. von Bothmer"Les Tresorsde l'orfevrerie la Greceorientaleau Metrode in politanMuseumde New York," Academiedes Rendus,1981, Inscriptionset Belles-Lettres, Comptes pp. 194ff, fig. 3. 60. Silverkyathos.Greek,sixthcenturyB.C. of Height 16.68

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