Published on March 11, 2014
Presented by Ryan McDonagh March 10, 2014 A FRAMEWORK FOR SECURING WIRELESS HOME NETWORKS
What is Network Security? Why is Network Security Important Why did I select Network Security for my dissertation? Aims of the project How are Wireless Networks secured? What are the critical weaknesses of Wireless Networks? How are these weaknesses exploited? How can intrusions be prevented? What are the key learnings to date? What will the future focus of study be? Questions AGENDA
At the most basic level, Network Security measures keep users and their personal data safe, while keeping intruders out of the network. Goals of Network Security: Prevent unauthorized network access Identify misuse or abuse of a network Protect user data They can include: Firewalls - to deny access from undesired sources and unwanted payloads (protocols) Access Control Lists – to deny access to resources, except for specific users and rights Encryption protocols – to obfuscate traffic so that only authorized parties can read it WHAT IS NETWORK SECURITY?
Network security protects not only user data, but the users themselves. Compromise of data security can result in: Financial losses – from extortion, bribery, blackmail, or simple theft of data Identity Theft Personal Inconvenience – time lost from cleaning up from attacks, scanning and cleaning for viruses, restoring damaged or destroyed data WHY IS NETWORK SECURITY IMPORTANT
Network security impacts all of us, although most of us never give it a second thought. I was interested in how my private data transfers were secured and protected. Other reasons Curiosity – a widespread technology that is seldom discussed warrants further study Personal Protection – I wanted to be able to recognize risky situations so that I might help prevent my family and friends becoming victims of data theft WHY WAS NETWORK SECURITY SELECTED AS A TOPIC
. To create an easy-to-understand set of instructions for setting up a secure home wireless network To detail pitfalls to avoid when setting up a network To learn new skills that are applicable to the workplace. AIMS OF THE PROJECT
Wireless networks employ security mechanisms, or protocols, which help to ensure that only people with the correct credentials can connect. First protocol was WEP (1999) - Wired Equivalent Privacy Uses 40 bit or 104 bit encryption keys Uses Common Key encryption Cryptographically flawed. Second was WPA (2003) – Wifi Protected Access Meant to be a short term solution to patch WEP’s weaknesses. Uses a more secure implementation of the RC4 cipher that WEP used. Uses much larger encryption keys than WEP. Master-key generates unique encryption keys for every data packet. An attack was devised against WPAv1, it is not practical against household WAPs. HOW ARE WIRELESS NETWORKS SECURED? (1)
Later was WPAv2– Wifi Protected Access v2 Written from scratch. Strong encryption with replay detection. No publically known cryptographic weaknesses. Finally there is WPS (2007)– Wifi Protected Setup Created to simplify network set up and connection. Allows people with limited computing or network knowledge to set up a secure wireless network. WPS routers are vulnerable to brute-force attacks. HOW ARE WIRELESS NETWORKS SECURED? (2)
WEP - Fundamentally flawed at the cryptographic level Security issues stem from the short initialisation vector attached to each frame. At only 24-bits in length, there aren’t that many possible initialisation vectors! Duplicate initialisation vectors can be used to deduce the network key. WPAv1 / WPAv2 - Secure at a cryptographic level Attackers can capture the “four-way handshake” and crack it to find the network key Successfully cracking the four-way handshake depends on a number of factors. WPS- vulnerable to brute-force attacks Comes pre-enabled on some WAPs – and in some cases cannot be turned off. Only around 11,000 possible WPS PINs. CRITICAL WEAKNESSES OF WIRELESS NETWORKS
WEP: Passively gather packets or artificially generate packets with replay attack. Crack the key using Aircrack. WPA: Observe and capture the four-way handshake. Force a four-way handshake by de-authenticating a connected client. WPS: Initiate a Reaver attack. After some times have passed, the WPS PIN will be displayed in the console. HOW ARE WIRELESS NETWORKS EXPLOITED
WEP is completely broken. It should never be used. Although handy, WPS should be turned off. A strong password and WPAv2 are difficult to crack. HOW CAN INTRUSIONS BE PREVENTED
Wireless security protocols are constantly being developed and attacked. No wireless security measures are 100% secure Complex paswords are important! WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNED
Document other defence mechanisms What happens after network intrusion? AREAS OF FUTURE FOCUS
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