A Brief History Of Surgery

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Information about A Brief History Of Surgery

Published on July 1, 2008

Author: memorablemedicine

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Tracing the roots of surgery to 9000 years ago.

A Brief History of Surgery Nick Harvey MemorableMedicine.com

Chirurgery Latin: chirurgia Greek: cheir = hand ergon = work anglicized to Surgery

Latin: chirurgia

Greek: cheir = hand

ergon = work

anglicized to Surgery

Trephanation Neolithic 6500 BC France New World 1500 BC Inca

Neolithic

6500 BC France

New World

1500 BC Inca

Dentistry 7000 BC Mehgarh, Pakistan 2650 BC Egypt

7000 BC Mehgarh, Pakistan

2650 BC Egypt

Ancient Egypt 2000-2500 BC Religious reasons?

2000-2500 BC

Religious reasons?

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt Trephination Draining dental abscesses Circumcision Castration Amputation Lithotomy Opiates …

Trephination

Draining dental abscesses

Circumcision

Castration

Amputation

Lithotomy

Opiates



Ancient India 600 BC – Sushruta Sushruta Samhita 120 surgical instruments 300 surgical procedures I&D Rhinoplasty Bowel anastmosis Cataract removal Prostatectomy Tonsillectomy Leeches Ethical code Technical skills lab!

600 BC – Sushruta

Sushruta Samhita

120 surgical instruments

300 surgical procedures

I&D

Rhinoplasty

Bowel anastmosis

Cataract removal

Prostatectomy

Tonsillectomy

Leeches

Ethical code

Technical skills lab!

Ancient Greece 460-370 BC – Hippocrates Disliked opening the body Knowledge from the battlefield

460-370 BC – Hippocrates

Disliked opening the body

Knowledge from the battlefield

Ancient Greece “ cutting persons labouring under the stone should be left to such persons as practice it”

“ cutting persons labouring under the stone should be left to such persons as practice it”

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece Kritodemos & Alexander the Great Operated with a spoon!

Kritodemos & Alexander the Great

Operated with a spoon!

Ancient Greece 3 rd Century BC Herophilus: allowed to dissect Arcagathus: famous for enthusiastic use of knife & cautery 130 AD – 200 AD Claudius Galen – Gladiator’s surgeon, advanced practice

3 rd Century BC

Herophilus: allowed to dissect

Arcagathus: famous for enthusiastic use of

knife & cautery

130 AD – 200 AD

Claudius Galen – Gladiator’s surgeon, advanced practice

Ancient China 200 BC - Hua Tuo Physician & surgeon Executed & scripts burnt

200 BC - Hua Tuo

Physician & surgeon

Executed & scripts burnt

Middle Ages 5 th – 14 th Century AD Practice of surgery declines Left to barbers

5 th – 14 th Century AD

Practice of surgery declines

Left to barbers

Modern Surgery “ There is no more science in surgery than in butchering” Lord Thurlow

“ There is no more science in surgery than in butchering”

Lord Thurlow

Modern Surgery Bleeding Infection Anaesthesia Transplants Minimal invasion

Bleeding

Infection

Anaesthesia

Transplants

Minimal invasion

Bleeding 10 th Century Ligatures Abulcasis 16 th Century Ligatures over cautery Ambroise Par é 20 th /21 st Century ABO system (1901 - Karl Landsteiner) Diathermy Harmonic scalpel

10 th Century Ligatures

Abulcasis

16 th Century Ligatures over cautery

Ambroise Par é

20 th /21 st Century ABO system (1901 - Karl Landsteiner) Diathermy

Harmonic scalpel

Infection 1847 Hand washing Ignaz Semmelweis 1860 Germ theory Louis Pasteur 1867 Cleanliness & gloves Joseph Lister 1928 Penicillin Alexander Fleming

1847 Hand washing

Ignaz Semmelweis

1860 Germ theory

Louis Pasteur

1867 Cleanliness & gloves

Joseph Lister

1928 Penicillin

Alexander Fleming

Anaesthesia 200 Hua Tuo 1842 Ether Crawford Long 1844 Nitrous oxide Horace Wells 1846 Ether William Morton 1847 Ether John Snow 1596-1942 Curare Walter Raleigh - Harold Griffith

200 Hua Tuo

1842 Ether

Crawford Long

1844 Nitrous oxide

Horace Wells

1846 Ether

William Morton

1847 Ether

John Snow

1596-1942 Curare

Walter Raleigh - Harold Griffith

Modern Surgery Other big names 1316 - Guy de Chauliac Chirurgia magna 1616 - William Harvey An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals 1651 - Richard Wiseman Several Chirurgical Treatises 1661 - Marcello Malpighi Describes capillaries 18 th C - John Hunter Anatomist & Surgeon 1895 - Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen X-rays 1953 - John Gibbon Heart/Lung bypass machine

Other big names

1316 - Guy de Chauliac

Chirurgia magna

1616 - William Harvey

An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals

1651 - Richard Wiseman

Several Chirurgical Treatises

1661 - Marcello Malpighi

Describes capillaries

18 th C - John Hunter

Anatomist & Surgeon

1895 - Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

X-rays

1953 - John Gibbon

Heart/Lung bypass machine

Allografts 1905 Cornea (Eduard Zirm) 1954 Kidney (Joseph Murray) 1959 Azathioprine 1963 Lung (James Hardy) 1964 Heart - chimpanzee (James Hardy) 1966 Pancreas (Richard Lillehei & William Kelly) 1967 Heart (Christiaan Barnard) 1967 Liver (Thomas Starzl) 1968 Heart & Lung - failed (Denton Cooley) 1970 Cyclosporine 1981 Heart & Lung (Bruce Reitz) 1987 Lung (Joel Cooper) 1998 Hand (Jean-Michel Dubernard) 2005 Face (Bernard Devauchelle) 2006 Penis (Hu Weilie)

1905 Cornea (Eduard Zirm)

1954 Kidney (Joseph Murray)

1959 Azathioprine

1963 Lung (James Hardy)

1964 Heart - chimpanzee (James Hardy)

1966 Pancreas (Richard Lillehei & William Kelly)

1967 Heart (Christiaan Barnard)

1967 Liver (Thomas Starzl)

1968 Heart & Lung - failed (Denton Cooley)

1970 Cyclosporine

1981 Heart & Lung (Bruce Reitz)

1987 Lung (Joel Cooper)

1998 Hand (Jean-Michel Dubernard)

2005 Face (Bernard Devauchelle)

2006 Penis (Hu Weilie)

Modern Laparoscopy 1901 Cystoscope, Kelling 1911 Proctoscope, Bernheim 1918 Pneumoperitoneum, Goetze 1929 135 o scope, Kalk 1934 Forceps & cautery, Ruddock 1936 Sterilization, Boesch 1938 Veress needle 1977 Assisted appendicectomy, Dekok 1983 Appendicectomy, Semm 1985 Cholecystectomy, Mühe 1996 Robotic telesurgery

1901 Cystoscope, Kelling

1911 Proctoscope, Bernheim

1918 Pneumoperitoneum, Goetze

1929 135 o scope, Kalk

1934 Forceps & cautery, Ruddock

1936 Sterilization, Boesch

1938 Veress needle

1977 Assisted appendicectomy, Dekok

1983 Appendicectomy, Semm

1985 Cholecystectomy, Mühe

1996 Robotic telesurgery

Sushruta’s general advice to physicians “A physician who has set out on this path should have witnessed operations. He must be licensed by the king. He should be clean and keep his nails and hair short. He should be cheerful, well-spoken and honest.”

“A physician who has set out on this path should have witnessed operations. He must be licensed by the king. He should be clean and keep his nails and hair short. He should be cheerful, well-spoken and honest.”

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