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Published on April 15, 2008

Author: Miranda

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Slide1:  Creative Process Chao-Ming Cheng Department of Psychology National Taiwan University Slide2:  Mihaly Csikszentmialyi (1999). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. Chapter 1: Setting the stage Chapter 2: Where is creativity? Chapter 3: The creative personality Chapter 4: The work of creativity Chapter 5: The flow of creativity Chapter 6: Creative surroundings Slide3:  Csikszentmihalyi (1996) and his associates conducted interviews with 91 exceptionally creative individuals between 1991 and 1995 for three criteria: 1. Have made a difference to a major domain of culture 2. Still actively involved in that domain 3. Had to be at least 60 years old Slide4:  Figure 1.1 The increasing pace of change: two examples (reproduced with the kind permission of Dr. Edgar Mitchell) Slide5:  從人類的歷史來看, 有關文化(包括文學與與藝術)的發展、文明的設計與科學的推動無一不涉及人類創造力的運作, 而未來更將是一個「腦力」與「科技」競爭的時代。 因此,創造力的研究極具重要性與前瞻性以此趨勢來看,它必將是本世紀最重要的研究領域之一。 Slide7:  Creativity What it looks like How it works How it develops Who is creative Where does it come from 創造力的解析:  創造力的解析 1、創造力的定義 2、創造的性格特徵 3、創造的認知特徵 3、創造力與情境因素 4、創造性思考的特徵 5、三個矛盾 6、創造性思考的原則 7、學校教育與創造力的培養 一、創造力的定義:  一、創造力的定義 1. 新奇性 (Novelty): 產生新奇事物、理念或成果的能力。因此,其思考方式不是一般的、傳統的或習慣的思考方式 2. 適切性(Appropriateness): 思考的結果是適切的、有意義的、有價值的或對社會有益的 Slide11:  Where is Creativity? There is no way to know whether a thought is new except with reference to some standards (domain). There is no way to tell whether it is valuable until it passes social evaluation (field). Therefore, creativity does not happen inside people’s heads, but in the interaction between a person’s thoughts and a sociocultural context. Slide12:  Creativity can be observed only in the interrelations of a system made up of three main parts. Domain: a set of symbolic rules and procedures. E.g., mathematics, algebra, number theory. Domain are in turn nested in what we usually call culture, or the symbolic knowledge shared by a particular society or by humanity as a whole. Slide13:  2. 依賴豐富的過去知識 Gardner(1993): Albert Einstein: logic-spatial ability Sigmund Freud: language and human nature Weisberg(1995) Pablo Picasso: Guernica (Basue) Watson與Crick(1952): DNA雙股螺旋 源於Linus Pauling角質蛋白的螺旋結構 Tomas Edison: 電燈的發明源於瓦斯燈與電弧燈 Slide14:  Field: All the individuals who act as gatekeepers to the domain. It is their job to decide whether a new idea of product should be included in the domain. E.g., field of visual art: art teachers, curators of museums, collectors of art, critics, and administrators of foundations and govern agencies that deal with culture. Person: Someone whose thoughts or action change a domain or establish a new domain (e.g., Galileo or Freud). However, a domain cannot be changed without the explicit or implicit consent of a field responsible for it. Slide16:  2. Vincent van Gogh began painting in 1880. His adaptations of the impressionist style were considered strange and eccentric, and his personal life was complicated by illness and poverty. He sold only one painting before his death in 1890 (Fichner-Rathus, 1986). Because van Gogh’s works were not accepted by the public of his time, were they inappropriate? If they had never been accepted, would they have been creative? However, works by van Gogh that were rejected by 19th-century audiences are considered master-pieces today. Slide17:  Cultures differ in their conceptions of the nature of creativity itself. Western cultures: product-oriented, originality-based Eastern cultures: a process of individual growth or self-actualization. In Hinduism, creativity is seen as spiritual expression rather than innovation or problem solving. Time and history are seen as cyclical. To make traditional truths come alive by finding a new interpretation-rather than seeking to break with tradition—is the focus of creative activity. Slide18:  If Eastern creation can be characterized as a circular movement in the sense of successful reconfiguration of an initial totality, then the Western view of both creation and human creativity seems to involve a linear movement toward a new point. Slide19:  Creativity and Culture Values It is interesting to think about which areas in our culture are most tied to our cultural values (in which creativity is not encouraged) and how that may affect our openness to creativity. e.g., In Bali, the more serious the art form, like sculptures of gods or ritual dances, the less the permitted change, and the less serious the art form, like carvings of kitchen gods, the theatrical performances of clowns, the playing of instruments or the weaving of container, the greater the originality can be. Creative Personality:  Creative Personality 1.Sternberg與Lubart(1992) 勤奮工作 願意冒險 忍受模糊、複雜與不對稱 2.人格特質: 獨立性、不從眾、言行與思想不因襲傳統、具叛逆性、具憂鬱性格、善於變通、感到安寧與幸福、自我接受但缺乏自我控制、不太關心在別人面前是否有好印象 Slide21:  Creative Personality (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) : Finding: Experiencing the existence of contrast or paradox, e.g., nurturing and precarious, supportive and marginal. This type of bimodal early experience, providing both support and challenge, appeared tied to later creativity. Complexity: Tendencies of thought and action that in most people are segregated. Slide22:  Ten Dimensions of Complexity (Yin-Yang and paradoxical personality) A great deal of physical energy, but quiet and at rest. Smart, but naïve at the same time. Playfulness and discipline, or responsibility and irresponsibility. Alternating between imagination and fantasy, at one end, and a rooted sense of reality at the other. Extroversion and introversion Humble and proud at the same time Slide23:  7. Psychological androgyny: masculinity/femininity; aggressive and nurturant, sensitive and rigid, dominant and submissive, regardless of gender 8. Rebellious/traditional-conventional 9. Both passionate and objective. 10. Suffering and pain yet also a great deal of enjoyment. Slide24:  Personality Characteristics Willingness to Take Intellectual Risks (to think thoughts others are unwilling to think or express ideas that are of the beaten path) (MacKinnon, 1978). Creative risk taking opens an individual to criticism, ridicule, or feeling of foolishness. E.g., Greg Louganis’s 1990 Olympic diving. Perseverance, Drive, and Commitment to Task. Many risks involve failure or less-than-complete success that requires continuing, persistent efforts. Willingness to continue in the face of obstacles, to maintain motivation without immediate reward, and to say focused on a task for long periods of time. Slide25:  Curiosity: want to know why, how, and what Openness to Experience Tolerance for Ambiguity: Creative solutions rarely spring from full blown. More often they emerge over a period of time that includes moments of insight and time of struggle, persistence, and confusion. Slide26:  Broad Interests Value Originality Intuition and Deep Emotions: MacKinnon (1978) Intuitive or implicit perception 25% General population 90% Creative writers 92% Mathematicians 93% Research scientists 100% Architects Slide27:  The use of intuition, combined with openness to emotional experience, can lead to very intense emotions of feelings being real Being Internally Occupied or Withdrawn: Quiet loners, creative activities demands a great deal of alone time. Slide28:  The IPAR Studies (The Institute of Personality Assessment and Research, University of California, 1950-1970 Under the Direction of Donald MacKinnon) Creative People Intelligent: willing to take a risk, to try, and see what might work, a high level of energy, a kind of cognitive flexibility. Original: associated with fluency of thought (many ideas). Slide29:  Independent: open to experience, both of the inner self and the outer world. Curious, receptive, and willing to earn. Intuitive: looking for hidden meanings potential, metaphors, implications, or alternate uses in the things. A strong sense of destiny Slide30:  Gardner (1993, 1994) noted three additional themes First, the matrix of support that surrounded the creators at the time of their creative activities Second, Faustian bargain: Made enormous sacrifices to their work, sometimes sacrifices interpersonal relationships Third, 10-year rule: it took 10 years to produce creative products Slide31:  Cognitive Characteristics Metaphorical Thinking: The ability to find parallels between unlike ideas. Flexibility and Skill in Decision Making: The ability to look at a situation from many points of view or to generate many categories of responses. Independence in Judgment: Do not feel compelled to seek approval from others or follow the latest trends. Slide32:  Coping Well with Novelty Logical Thinking Skills: Different from conventional thinking. Visualization Escaping Entrenchment: Escape entrenched thinking, impatient with routines, repetitious assignments, or practice activities. Finding Order in Chaos Slide33:  The Work of Creativity: The five-stage view The emergence of problems: Three sources a) Personal experiences We are a perverse race, only suffering interests us. The experiences of scientists are relevant to the problems they deal with. b) Requirements of the domain Within or cross domains c) Social pressures Slide34:  The third source of ideas and problems is the field one works in. 2. Presented and Discovered Problems Problem finding Slide35:  3. 問題發現(problem finding)甚於問題解決(problem solving) Einstein: new problem, new possibility, new angle of regard E.g., replacing a flatted tire Getzels與Csikszentmihalyi(1972,1976) Painting of articles selected from 27 things Slide36:  The Wallas (1926) Four Steps for Creativity Preparation Incubation Illumination Verification The Torrance and the Parnes-Osborn Model Slide38:  3. The Mysterious Time The functions of idle time (incubation) The field, the domain, and the unconscious Even in the unconscious the symbol system and the social environment play important roles. 4. The “Aha” Experience 5. The 99 Percent Perspiration Slide39:  Torrance (1988) Sensing problems or difficulties Making guesses or hypotheses about the problems Evaluating the hypotheses, and possibly revising them Communicating the results The Parnes-Osborn Model, revised by Treffinger, Isaksen, & Dorval ( 2000) Slide41:  A. UNDERSTANDING THE CHALLENGING (involves investigating a broad goal, opportunity, or challenge) 1. Constructing Opportunities: “I want to improve the parking situation on campus” 2. Exploring Data: Gathering data abut the number of spaces available, the number of classes held at various times of day. Slide42:  3. Framing Problems: Build more parking lots Create more parking spaces on campus? Limit the number of students parking on campus? Limit the number of vehicles on campus? Match the number of vehicles to the number of spaces available? Provide students who live outside walking distance easy access to campus? Slide43:  B. GENERATING IDEAS Ideas are generated for the selected problem statement(s) using a variety of tools for producing divergent ideas C. PREPARING FOR ACTION Exploring ways to make the promising options into workable solutions—translating ideas into action. Slide44:  1. Developing Solutions: Applies deliberate strategies and tools to analyze, refine, and select among ideas. Developing solutions will entail using criteria to systematically evaluate each of the proposed ideas. How much would it cost? Is it legal? Is the technology available? Would it be convenient for students? Would it be convenient for staff? Would it be acceptable to the university administration? Slide45:  Chapter 5 The Flow of Creativity The concept of flow: the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it (Csikszentmihalyi , 1990). Happiness, in fact, is a condition that must be prepared for, cultivated, and defended privately by each person. Activities were not random but goal-directed activities that demanded some type of energy and skill. Optimal match between challenge and skill. Discovery is a pleasure experience, stimulating brain’s pleasure center. Slide46:  Chapter 6. Creative Surroundings Great Centers of Learning and Commerce (for insight) One must be in a position to access the domain in which one plans to work. Information is clumped in different geographical nodes. Certain environments have a greater density of interaction and provide more excitement and a greater effervescence of ideas. Access to the field is not evenly distributed in space. Often sudden availability of money at a certain place attracts artists or scientists to an other barren environment. Slide47:  Inspiring Environments (a delightful setting) Creating Creative Environments (places and institutions) (for preparation and evaluation) Preparation and evaluation benefit from familiar, comfortable settings and social interaction (sharing thoughts, experimenting with ideas, and asking questions of peers are important parts of individual creativity). Patterning Activities reflecting your needs and your tastes. 四、創造力與情境因素 :  四、創造力與情境因素 Isen, Dauban與Nowicki(1987) Effects of comedic movies on candle-problem solving and RAT Mozart’s experiences Edison Slide49:  Examined biographies of eminent 19th-century creators across domains Highly creative individuals are more likely to be firstborn and to have lost one or both parents early in life. They are reared in stimulating, diversified, and enriching home environments, exposed to a wide range of ideas. They liked school, enjoyed books, had many hobbies, and learned outside of school. Slide50:  Whereas some report warm, supportive peer groups, others report some marginality in social situations Come from homes with clear expectations but few rules, that their parents have well-established interests, and that they have more childhood traumas than less-creative students. Slide51:  Association and Creativity: Mednick’s Associative Theory Intelligence and Creativity: Threshold Theory Below 120 IQ, Highly correlated Larger than 120 IQ, weak correlated Perkins (1981, 1988, 1994) Self-reports, memory, and honesty of creative individuals are questionable. Slide52:  Perkins also examined the effectiveness of physical evidence of the history of a creative effort (e.g., Picasso’s Guernica) Immediate self-reports are more reliable. Perkins did not find evidence for incubation; he viewed the creative process as having made up of ordinary mental processes used in extraordinary ways. The key to creativity is not the process but the purpose. Slide53:  Weisberg (1986, 1988, 1993, 1999) He questioned the idea of creative leaps or flashes of insight by citing research in which solutions to problems come, not in a sudden change of direction, but in gradual increments based on experience. Guernica Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony DNA Creativity doesn’t exists, at least not as a unique process. Slide54:  Creativity may emerge from the interaction of an individual’s past experiences and the problem at hand. Creativity might be compared to the proverbial straw that broke the camel’s back. Creativity can be enhanced in two basic ways: increasing expertise and increasing commitment and persistence. A new idea may not seem new at all, but may merely be a logical extension of existing ideas. Slide55:  Ward, Smith, and Vaid (1997) Four general categories of creative cognition: Conceptual combination: bridging together of diverse ideas in new ways Conceptual expansion: Stretching of existing concepts to accommodate new experiences or challenges, or inventions based on previous experience. Metaphors, analogies, and mental models use existing ideas to understand, interpret, or extend seemingly diverse concepts. Insight, imagery, and response to recently activated knowledge Slide56:  The Sternberg and Lubart (1991, 1993) Investment Model Buy low (pursue ideas that are novel or out of favor) and sell high (then convince the field of the value of those ideas. Once the ideas gain favor, they allow others to pursue them while they go on to pursue other endeavors). Six types of interacting resources contribute to creative performance: intellectual processes, knowledge, intellectual style, personality, motivation, and environmental context (Triarchic Theory of Intelligence). The role of knowledge in creative performance is an upside-down U. 五、創造性思考的特徵:  五、創造性思考的特徵 1.高智力特質? Sternberg, Conway, Ketson 與Bernstein(1981) 專家把「創造力」看成是「語文智力」的一部分。創造力與頓悟是智力的重要成分 Guilford 創造力是一種「擴散性思考」 Getzels與Jackson(1962) 創造力與智力無關 Slide58:  Barron (1963); Gardner(1993) IQ < 90 r = .88 90 < IQ < 110 r = .69 110 < IQ < 130 r = -.30 IQ >130 r = -.09 Sack(1995) 自閉症兒童在視覺藝術上的創造力 Slide59:  Remote Association Test(RAT)(Mednick & Mednick, 1967) e.g.1 RIVER NOTE BLOOD e.g.2 BOARD DUCK DOLLAR e.g.3 FILE HEAD TOE Mednick與Mednick(1967) RAT分數預測化學工廠的研究人員、研究生與IBM技術人員的創造力表現 Andrews(1975)與Baron(1988) RAT不穩定 Slide60:  2. 依賴豐富的過去知識 Gardner(1993): Albert Einstein: logic-spatial ability Sigmund Freud: language and human nature Weisberg(1995) Pablo Picasso: Guernica (Basue) Watson與Crick(1952): DNA雙股螺旋 源於Linus Pauling角質蛋白的螺旋結構 Tomas Edison: 電燈的發明源於瓦斯燈與電弧燈 Slide61:  類比思考(analogical thinking)(Dunbar,1994) 局部類比(local analogy) 區域類比(regional analogy) e.g.1. Weber and Perkins(1992) 心臟導管手術與水電工人的輸通水管原理一 樣 e.g.2. Archimedes的排水解題 Slide62:  3. 問題發現(problem finding)甚於問題解決(problem solving) Einstein: new problem, new possibility, new angle of regard E.g., replacing a flatted tire Getzels與Csikszentmihalyi(1972,1976) Painting of articles selected from 27 things Slide63:  4. 不是既存知識的再生(reproduction),而是既存知識的重組(restructuring) Weisberg(1995): Restructure of past Picasso的畫Les Demoiselles Calder的雕塑 Pollock的潑色畫風 二元聯想(bissociation)(Koestler,1964) 兩個思想或理念,原來是無關的,最後被連結成為相關,而產生創造 e.g.1 : 潮汐與月球的運動 e.g.2 : Gutenberg印刷術的發明: seal, wine press Slide65:  六、三個矛盾 1.矛盾1: 創造性思考的歷程即是特殊的,又是一般的 2.矛盾2: 創造性歷程強調既存知識的影響,也在強調抗拒既有知識的影響 3.矛盾3: 竭盡心智與努力苦思一個問題的解決往往妨害創意的產生,降低注意與動機反而有助於創意的產生 七、創造性思考的原則:  七、創造性思考的原則 1.警覺習慣想法的限制 2.突破習慣的想法 3.重新知覺與理解問題 4.不輕易否決不可行的理念 5.嘗試並列並尋求兩個看似無關的理念 6.在可行的想法中旁出新的想法 7.側翼思考 Slide68:  1. In 1905 an unknown clerk in the Swiss patent office published a paper in which he advocated abandoning the idea of absolute time. This fundamental postulate of the theory of relativity (the relationship between time, size, and mass, which are said to change with increased speed) suggested that the laws of science should be the same for all observers, regardless of speed. The clerk’s name was Albert Einstein (Hawkins, 1988). Slide69:  3. In first grade, Michelle was given an outline of a giant shark’s mouth on a worksheet that asked, “What will our fishy friend eat next? She dutifully colored several fish and boats, and then wrote the following explanation. “Once there was a shark named Peppy. One day he ate three fish, one jellyfish, and two boats. Before he ate the jellyfish he made a peanut butter and jellyfish sandwich. Slide70:  4. At 19, Juan was homeless and a senior in high school. One cold evening he thought that a warm space inside the school would be a more appealing sleeping place than he could see. Getting into the building was no problem, but once he was inside, a motion detector would make him immediately detectable to the guard on the floor below. Juan entered a storage room and carefully dislodged a pile of baseball bats. The guard attributed the motion detector’s outburst to the falling bats and Juan slept until morning. Slide71:  New to whom? If a research at the University of Michigan works for years to engineer a gene transfer to cure a particular disease only to discover that a researcher at Stanford published the same techniques only 2 weeks before, is the Michigan researcher’s work no longer creative? For some researchers, only ideas that are new to a particular discipline or culture are designated creative. Alternatively, to be considered creative, a product or idea must be original or novel to the individual creator. Slide72:  Appropriateness? If I am asked the time and I reply, “The cow jumped over the computer yesterday,” my response would certainly be novel. Was Juan’s late-night entrance to the school appropriate? Because van Gogh’s works were not accepted by the public of his time, were they inappropriate? If they had never been accepted, would they have been creative? However, works by van Gogh that were rejected by 19th-century audiences are considered master-pieces today. Slide73:  Which behaviors are creative or not creative? In the midst of a discussion of plants, 6-year-old Toshio raises his hand. “Do you think the plants would grow taller and stronger if, instead of watering them, we milked them? Jane dressed for the first day of eighth grade in long underwear with a black half-slip over the top, a purple satin blouse, and grapes hanging as earrings. Slide74:  Maria wrote the best essay on federalism her teacher had ever seen. It was clear, well documented, and thorough, including implications of federalism seldom considered by high school students. Eduardo’s first-grade class has been taught to subtract by taking away the designated number. There are numerous manipulatives available for students’ use. Eduardo refuses to use the method he has been taught. Instead, he used his fingers to count up from the smaller to the larger number (min model). Slide75:  Sam is wearing a baseball cap on hat day. Unbeknown to his teacher, he has installed a mirror under the brim. When the hat is cocked at the correct angle, he can see the desk next to his. This will be handy during the sixth-period quiz. Susan is asked to illustrate a scene from the biography of Frederick Douglass being read by her second-grade teacher. Having heard that he traveled through England and Wales, she draws Frederick Douglass walking across a row of smiling whales. Slide76:  Max’s music class has been given the assignment of composing a short piece in the study of one of the classical composers they have studied to date. Max creates a rap about Beethoven’s hair (and its lack of style) using the rhythms of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. Tzeena is known for her caricatures. During English class she has at times passed around sketches in which she has drawn her teacher’s head attached to the body of an ostrich. Slide77:  Why do people create? Individuals exercised creative thinking not only to communicate, but to find and to solve problems I think I teach people how to find meaning. I write about the most chaotic, tragic, had-to-deal-with events, and these events are sometimes so violent and so horrible that they burst through bunds of form and preconceptions. I’m hoping that readers will find how to get the meaning out of these events. How do you find beauty and order when we’ve had this bloody horrible past? (Maxine Hong Kingston, in Moyers, 1990, p.11) Slide78:  I drew them several times and there was no feeling in them. Then afterwards—after I have done the ones that were so stiff--came the others… How it happens that I can express something of that kind? Because the thing has already taken form in my mind before I start on it. The first attempts are absolutely unbearable. I say this because I want you to know that if you see something worthwhile in what I am doing, it is not by accident but because of real intention and purpose. (Vincent van Gogh, in Ghiselin, 1985, p.47) Slide79:  In 1873, Chester Greenwood received a pair of ice skates for his 15th birthday. Unfortunately, Chester was unable to enjoy the skates, because each time he ventured on the ice, the chill Farmington, Maine, air made his sensitive ears uncomfortable enough that he was forced indoors. The earmuffs Chester designed to solve this problem were sold across New England by the time Chester was 19 (Caney, 1985) Slide80:  In 1924 Kimberly-Clark began to market Cellucotton sheets as disposable clothes for removing makeup. In 1929 they patented the pop-up box and renamed the product Kleenex. Sales were still only moderate. A marketing survey revealed that over half the people purchasing Kleenex were using them, not to remove makeup, but as disposable handkerchiefs. A new marketing strategy and slogan, “Don’t put a cold in your pocket,” led to a 400% sales increase in 2 years (Caney, 1985) Problem solving preceded by problem finding (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1976) Slide81:  Theories and Models of Creativity When I am, as it were, completely myself, entirely alone, and of good cheer —say, traveling in a carriage, or walking after a good meal, or during the night when I cannot sleep; it is on such occasions that my ideas flow best and most abundantly. Whence and how they come, I know not; nor can I force them… Nor do I hear in my imagination the parts successively, but I hear them, as it were, all at once. What a delight this is I cannot tell! All this inventing, this producing, taking place in a pleasing lively dream…This is perhaps the best gift I have my Divine Maker to thank for. (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, in Ghiselin, 1985, pp34-35) Slide82:  Generally speaking, the germ of a future composition comes suddenly and unexpectedly. If the soil is ready—that is to say if the disposition to work is there—it takes root with extraordinary force and rapidity---In the midst of this magic process it frequently happens that some external interruption wakes me from my somnambulistic state: a ring at the bell, the entrance of my servant, the striking of a clock…Dreadful, indeed, are such interruptions. Sometimes they break the thread of inspiration for a considerable time… In such cases cool headwork and technical knowledge have to come to my aid. Slide83:  Even in the works of the greatest master we find such moments, when the organic sequence fails and a skillful join has to be made…But it cannot be avoided. If that condition of mind and soul, which we call inspiration, lasted long without intermission, no artist could survive it. (Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, in Vernon, 1975, pp57-58)

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