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Information about GLOBAL WARMING

Published on February 20, 2009

Author: sagarvtk


S.SIVAKUMAR & C.KRISHNAN, I M.Tech.(R.S.): S.SIVAKUMAR & C.KRISHNAN, I M.Tech.(R.S.) GLOBAL WARMING Causes, effects and possible solutions WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING?: WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING?  US History Encyclopedia : Gases created through human industrial and agricultural practices (primarily carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels and wood, as well as methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons) increase the heat-reflecting potential of the atmosphere, thereby raising the planet's average temperature. Political Dictionary: A phenomenon whereby solar radiation that has reflected back off the surface of the earth remains trapped at atmospheric levels, due to the build-up of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, rather than being emitted back into space. GLOBAL WARMING Vs CLIMATE CHANGE: GLOBAL WARMING Vs CLIMATE CHANGE Global warming is the combined result of anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in solar irradiance. Climate change refers to any change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the average and/or the variability of its properties (e.g., temperature, precipitation), and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING: CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING Burning of fossil fuels & increase in the concentration of green house gases Land use Natural global warming PowerPoint Presentation: GREEN HOUSE EFFECT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS: ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS LAND USE: LAND USE Modern agricultural practices -employed to breed animals, grow cereals, fruits & vegetables and other foods, all for human consumption. -The two important greenhouse gases emitted by agricultural practices are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20). Clearance of land - for timber sales or for the expansion of human settlements and cattle ranches. -the main greenhouse gas emitted is carbon dioxide (CO2). NATURAL GLOBAL WARMING CAUSES: NATURAL GLOBAL WARMING CAUSES Changes in solar energy output -sun is the only source of energy for the functioning of the Earth’s climate system -A change in solar output by only 1% per century may change the average temperature of the planet by between 0.5 to 1.0°C. Changes in the Earth’s orbital characteristics Changes in the shape of the Earth’s orbit around the sun as well as the tilt of the Earth’s axis alter the total amount of solar energy received by the planet. How Much Temperature Increase?: How Much Temperature Increase? Some models propose up to 9 ° C increase this century Two studies put the minimum at 1.5 ° C and maximum at 4.5 °C or 6.2°C Another study puts the minimum at 2.5°C PowerPoint Presentation: MELTING GLACIERS ( Mt. Kilimanjaro & Alps) MELTING GLACIERS: MELTING GLACIERS RISE IN SEA LEVELS: RISE IN SEA LEVELS Present rate is 1.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr (7.4 in/century) Accelerating at a rate of 0.013 ± 0.006 mm/yr 2 If acceleration continues, could result in 12 in/century sea level rise Scenarios claiming 1 meter or more rise are unrealistic A mean sea level rise of two meters would suffice to virtually submerge the entire country of 1,190 small islands, most of which barely rise two meters above sea level. INCREASING TIDES & SHORE LINES: INCREASING TIDES & SHORE LINES Increased risk of floods, potentially displacing tens of millions of people, due to sea level rise and heavy rainfall events, especially in Small Island States and low-lying deltaic areas. Bangladesh is projected to lose about 17% of its land area with a sea level rise of one meter - very difficult to adapt due to lack of adaptive capacity: Increased risk of floods, potentially displacing tens of millions of people, due to sea level rise and heavy rainfall events, especially in Small Island States and low-lying deltaic areas. Bangladesh is projected to lose about 17% of its land area with a sea level rise of one meter - very difficult to adapt due to lack of adaptive capacity projected present EFFECT ON HUMANS: EFFECT ON HUMANS Fewer deaths from cold, more from heat CO 2 fertilization effect Precipitation changes Droughts and famine (some areas) Expanded arable land in Canada, Soviet Union INCREASE IN HURRICANES: INCREASE IN HURRICANES Two studies showed the total number of hurricanes has not changed However, the intensity of hurricanes has increased (more category 4 and 5 hurricanes and cyclones) Probably due to higher sea surface temperatures (more energy) Difficult to know if this trend will continue EFFECTS ON WILD LIFE: EFFECTS ON WILD LIFE Polar Bears Require pack ice to live Might eventually go extinct in the wild Sea turtles Breed on the same islands as their birth Could go extinct on some islands as beaches are flooded Other species like penguins are also fastly declining. KYOTO PROTOCOL: KYOTO PROTOCOL The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases to prevent anthropogenic climate change Adopted on 11 December 1997 by the 3rd Conference of the Parties, which was meeting in Kyoto. It entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of May 2008, 182 parties have ratified the protocol. The Kyoto Protocol requires the developed countries to reduce their emissions to an average of 5.2 percent below the 1990 levels by 2012 The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons - averaged over the period of 2008-2012 EMISSIONS BY VARIOUS COUNTRIES: EMISSIONS BY VARIOUS COUNTRIES TOP POLLUTION PRODUCING CITIES IN THE WORLD: TOP POLLUTION PRODUCING CITIES IN THE WORLD Beijing London Los Angeles Manila New York Tokyo POSITON OF GOVERNMENTS: POSITON OF GOVERNMENTS AUSTRALIA :Prime Minister Kevin Rudd signed the instrument of ratification on 3 December 2007, just before the meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change:it took effect in March, 2008 CANADA :On 17 December 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005, requiring it to reduce emissions to 6% CHINA :In 2004 the total greenhouse gas emissions from the People's Republic of China were about 54% of the USA emissions EUROPIAN UNION: On 31 May 2002, all fifteen then-members of the European Union deposited the relevant ratification paperwork at the UN. The EU produces around 22% of global greenhouse gas emissions . Agreed to a cut, on average, by 8% from 1990 emission levels POSITION OF GOVERNMENTS: POSITION OF GOVERNMENTS INDIA : Signed and ratified the Protocol in August, 2002. Since India is exempted from the framework of the treaty, it is expected to gain from the protocol in terms of transfer of technology and related foreign investments. RUSSIA : Vladimir Putin approved the treaty on 4 November 2004 and Russia officially notified the United Nations of its ratification on 18 November 2004 USA : The United States (U.S.), although a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, has neither ratified nor withdrawn from the Protocol. Given that the US produces 24 percent of global CO2 emissions , its non-participation in any binding agreement remains a serious handicap. IPCC: IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) is a scientific body tasked to evaluate the risk of climate change caused by human activity. Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), two organizations of the United Nations. The stated aims of the IPCC are to assess scientific information relevant to: - human induced climate change, - the impacts of human-induced climate change, - options for adaptation and mitigation. . In 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, headed by Dr.Rajendra K. Pachauri was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize , which was shared by Al Gore. PowerPoint Presentation: WHAT YOU CAN DO?? Plant a tree A single tree will absorb one ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime. Shade provided by trees can also reduce your air conditioning bill by 10 to 15%. Use a clothesline instead of a dryer whenever possible You can save 700 pounds of carbon dioxide when you air dry your clothes for 6 months out of the year Be sure you’re recycling at home You can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide a year by recycling half of the waste your household generates. PowerPoint Presentation: Buy organic foods as much as possible Organic soils capture and store carbon dioxide at much higher levels than soils from conventional farms. If we grew all of our corn and soybeans organically, we’d remove 580 billion pounds of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere! Reduce the number of miles you drive by walking, biking, carpooling or taking mass transit wherever possible Avoiding just 10 miles of driving every week would eliminate about 500 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions a year! Eat less meat Methane is the second most significant greenhouse gas and cows are one of the greatest methane emitters. Their grassy diet and multiple stomachs cause them to produce methane, which they exhale with every breath. CONCLUSIONS: CONCLUSIONS Global warming is happening Most warming is probably the result of human activities There will be positive and negative (mostly) repercussions from global warming The costs to mitigate global warming will be high – better spent elsewhere? We should protect our earth: We should protect our earth Its our only home Thank you: Thank you

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