9 Oyieke Illicit Trade

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Information about 9 Oyieke Illicit Trade
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Published on October 10, 2007

Author: Melinda

Source: authorstream.com

CHALLENGES OF ILLEGAL TRADE IN WILDLIFE IN EASTERN AFRICA REGION:  CHALLENGES OF ILLEGAL TRADE IN WILDLIFE IN EASTERN AFRICA REGION DR. HELIDA OYIEKE Collins Handa Bernard Agwanda NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF KENYA APRIL 2006 Introduction:  Introduction The conservation of endangered fauna and flora species is of global concern Illegal trade in wildlife is presently the third largest contraband business (after trade in illegal drugs and weapons) and worth an average of $10 billion per annum. Some contributing factors Policy issues International demands Game trophies Pets Medicine Animals and Plants Exploited:  Animals and Plants Exploited Common Animals from Region:  Common Animals from Region Plants common in the trade:  Plants common in the trade Locally traded wildlife/consumed illegally):  Locally traded wildlife/consumed illegally) World Trends in Ivory consumption:  World Trends in Ivory consumption % occurrence of bushmeat in sampled Nairobi butcheries :  % occurrence of bushmeat in sampled Nairobi butcheries Impacts of Illegal trade:  Impacts of Illegal trade Species loss with adverse ripple effects Reducing key wildlife population Loss of revenue due to reduced tourist attraction Health risks arising from zoonotic diseases Economic costs due to surveillance, policing & legal battles Loss of life during poaching Present Monitoring & Detection systems in Kenya:  Present Monitoring & Detection systems in Kenya Management & monitoring services: KWS, FD, KEPHIS, Customs dept. MOH-Public health dept. Scientific Authorities NMK, KARI, KFRI, Govg. Chemists Law Enforcement: Police Wildlife Rangers Linkages between law enforcement and Science:  Linkages between law enforcement and Science Scientists confirm identity and submit technical report to law enforcers for prosecution Challenges in the System:  Challenges in the System Insufficient technical capacity at identification. Taxonomists are becoming less and less (regional) Policy conflicts within the region (e.g Kenya vs. Tanzania). In 2005, 70% poachers in Mara were from TZ! Civil strife Armed poachers from neighboring countries Insecurity Human wildlife conflicts Reason to poach Inadequate facilities and human capacity for prevention, monitoring and detection Current identification services rely on::  Current identification services rely on: Skills & experience of taxonomists at NMK and other scientific institutions Diverse and well curated taxonomic reference collection at NMK Identification Techniques:  Identification Techniques Morphometrics Identification to species level (mainly by NMK) Ouchterlony Immunodiffusion tests used to distinguish bushmeat from domestic meat also identifies specimens to species using their antiserum. Molecular and DNA techniques Mainly used in human cases and not wildlife Weaknesses of Identification Techniques in use:  Weaknesses of Identification Techniques in use Ouchterlony Immunodiffusion tests (not commonly used) Works for flesh specimens but not other trophies NMK identification method relies on morphometrics of species which has its own challenges esp. in dealing with similar looking species DNA Barcoding as forensic technique:  DNA Barcoding as forensic technique DNA Barcoding is a technique that uses a short gene sequence from a standardized region of the genome as a diagnostic “biomarker” for species.  Different species have different DNA barcodes, making it possible to use barcodes to: identify specimens discover possible new species, and to make taxonomy more effective Has a high potential for use in monitoring illegal trade Recommendation:  Recommendation Harmonized policies on wildlife trade nationally & regionally Proper coordination Scientific and legal authorities Provision of adequate and efficient monitoring & detection equipment/facility Build capacity in molecular techniques Establishing and strengthening DNA Barcoding facilities and human capacity Data basing and documentation Some of the confiscated trophies housed at NMK:  Elephant turks elephant rhino Hippo Warthog Some of the confiscated trophies housed at NMK Some of the confiscated trophies housed at NMK Cont.:  Some of the confiscated trophies housed at NMK Cont. Leopard skins Rhino horns Slide21:  Ivory products common in Asian Markets Slide22:  Leopard Leopard skin Slide23:  Cheeter skin Cheeter skin Slide24:  Serval cat skin

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