80 Things for Regents ESCI Exam with Graphics

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Information about 80 Things for Regents ESCI Exam with Graphics

Published on January 1, 2008

Author: Gabriel

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80 Things for Regents ESCI Exam with Graphics May 2002 by Paul Jeb Ticonderoga High School (Chris Masters for Technology Assistance):  80 Things for Regents ESCI Exam with Graphics May 2002 by Paul Jeb Ticonderoga High School (Chris Masters for Technology Assistance) Slide2:  Density = Mass/Volume Planet Densities on pg.15 Earth’s Interior Densities Pg. 10 Slide3:  Properties of Atmosphere Pg. 14 Slide4:  Frost wedging is an example of this Slide5:  As it approaches 0 it gets less dense…that is why ice floats Slide6:  Rough surfaces absorb at greater rates than smooth surfaces Slide9:  Polaris is the north star Sailors used the stars to navigate Polaris is directly above the North Pole Slide10:  Meridians are Lines of Longitude Prime Meridian passes through Greenwich England Slide11:  Time zones are based on the sun being directly overhead… The earth rotates 15 degrees every hour Slide12:  Gradient is the Change in field value / distance Slide13:  The contour lines that indicate a depression are called Hachure lines Slide14:  Bold faced numbers on a Topographical map are called Index Contour lines Slide15:  Period of rotation is 15 degrees every hour From space, objects that are closest to the equator seem to have a greater distance/time ratio Slide16:  Definition and formula on Pg. 1 ESRT Pg. 15 Eccentricity of Planets orbits Slide17:  Period of revolution of all planets found pg.15 ESRT Period of rotation is once every 24hrs for the Earth Slide18:  The earth is also traveling through space at its fastest speed pulled by the gravitational forces of the sun According to Keplers law of motion still sweeping the same arc area Slide19:  Hours of Daylight are determined by the tilt of the earth during its revolution around the sun Vernal Equinox March 21 and Sept. 23 Solstice (winter)Dec.21 (summer)June 21 Slide20:  The same side of the moon faces us because it rotates at the same rate it revolves around us Slide21:  Due to the rotation of the earth from west to east Rise in east Set in west Slide22:  If the angle of incidence is low insolation is low In the Northern Hemisphere the Sun appears in the south at its highest point Slide23:  Angle of Insolation determines the strength of the heating rays of the sun Seasons of the year will change the altitude of the suns path Slide24:  Pendulum works on the principle that an object in motion stays in motion with the earth rotating below it. Coriolis effect has to do with the earth’s ground speed at different rates due to the distance from the equator Slide25:  Radioactive Decay pg. 1 ESRT Absolute dating of rocks use Uranium 238 Potassium 40 Rubidium 87 Slide26:  Density for oceanic crust 3.0 found ESRT pg. 10 Slide27:  Continental crust is thicker but less dense (2.7) Slide28:  Specific Heat data found pg.1 The lower the specific heat value, the less energy it takes to heat something Metals-low specific heat Slide29:  Plate tectonic convergence shown pg. 5 ESRT Slide30:  Rates are affected by temperature and presence of water Slide31:  Frost Wedging Exfoliation –change in temperature from surface to interior Slide32:  Large rock –small surface area Small rock – large surface area Slide33:  Right Hand rule –point thumb in direction of sinking air- fingers show clockwise Slide34:  Point thumb in hand for rising air, fingers show counterclockwise motion Slide35:  Specific Heat chart Pg. 1 ESRT Low specific heat poor radiators but great conductors Slide36:  Greatest amount of insolation occurs on the longest day, but combined with re radiation from the earth… the hottest days come in July and August Slide37:  Greatest angle of insolation occurs at 12:00 Noon but re-radiation from ground results in heat for the afternoon Slide38:  Warm air is less dense than cold air Barometric Pressure changes can be associated with air masses Slide39:  Molecular weight of water is less than the molecule of Nitrogen or Oxygen it replaces when moisture enters the air Slide40:  Up slope fog will result with the drop in pressure causing adiabatic cooling Temperature will also decrease Slide41:  Debris left by a melting glacier is called a terminal moraine Streams tend to sort sediments Slide42:  Young streams down cut due to large gradient changes Old streams meander due to small elevation changes Slide43:  If the layers are not overturned the oldest layer is on the bottom Index fossils Pg. 9 can be used to determine how old a layer of rock is Slide44:  Igneous rock Identification Pg.6 ESRT Texture can also indicate cooling rates Slide45:  Metamorphic Rock Identification Pg.7 ESRT Foliated rocks have mineral alignment or banding Slide46:  The band of winds across the United States are called the Prevailing Westerlies Slide47:  Porosity is the amount of space between particles Smaller particles have smaller spaces associated with them, but there are more of them Slide48:  Permeability is the rate which water can flow through soild Sorted particles usually have faster permeability rates Slide49:  Water can be drawn above the water table by capillary action –capillary fringe Slide50:  Continental Plates and Oceanic Plates are part of the Lithosphere Slide51:  Images of Celestial objects can be distorted by the atmosphere Colors of the moon and sun when they are near the horizon are caused by refraction of the light by water molicules in the atmosphere Slide52:  See Earth Science Reference Tables Pg.14 Temperature and Pressure relationships Slide53:  Specific Heat of Water Pg 1 ESRT Slide54:  High specific heat elements require large amounts of energy to change their temperature Slide55:  Mud slides and avalanches Vegetation reduces erosion Slide56:  Volume of water dependent on size of watershed and climate Slide57:  Velocity dependent on gradient, channel shape, and discharge Slide58:  Erosion on the outside Deposition on the inside Slide59:  Settling rates are dependent on density, shape, and size Slide60:  Geologic history page 8 and 9 ESRT Divisions are Eons, eras, periods, and epochs Slide61:  Crystal lattice dependent on atomic structure Causes cleavage, hardness, and other physical properties ESRT Pg 16 minerals Slide62:  ESRT Pg 5 Form rift valleys when magma reaches surface mid-ocean ridges form Slide63:  Subduction zones Mountain building on continental crust Melting of subducting plate Slide64:  Primary waves are compressional Pg. 11 ESRT Lag time determines epicenter distance Slide65:  No s-waves travel through the Earth’s molten outer core P-waves go everywhere Slide66:  Triangulation from 3 seismic station to locate epicenter on surface Focus depth = distance below epicenter Slide67:  Law of Superposition Newer material deposited on top Slide68:  Cross-cutting relations Older rock must be present for fault or intrusion to exist Slide69:  Deposition not constant Uplift, subsidence, and/or erosion separate depositional events Slide70:  Not much erosion by liquid water Rapid erosion = steep, rough slopes Mechanical weathering dominates Slide71:  Liquid water and chemical weathering dominates Slow steady erosion = moderate, smooth slopes Slide72:  Pressure is the weight of air Warm air holds more water vapor which is lighter than nitrogen or oxygen Conversion Pg. 13 ESRT Slide73:  Sea breeze on warm days Wind belts Pg. 14 ESRT Convection currents Slide74:  Law of Superposition Slide75:  Molten rock found passing through layers may form veins or dikes Contact metamorphism occurs to the rock the magma heats to distortion Slide76:  Erosion takes place removing layers, then new layers are deposited on top Grand Canyon has an number of Unconformities… they evidence of some rock formations are missing Slide77:  Erosion by wind lack of water reduces slumping of material Slide78:  Water rounds particles Gravity causes soil to slump Slide79:  Atmospheric Pressure pg.14 Slide80:  High pressure is associated with cold dense air (no room for water vapor) Drop in pressure caused by air rising Adiabatic cooling causes moisture to be squeezed out of the air Slide81:  Pressure Gradient is the measure of pressure changes over distance Large differences = high wind speeds Slide82:  Sinking air will travel to areas of rising air Slide83:  Station Model will show : Temperature Dew Point Cloud cover Barometric Pressure ESRT Pg. 13 24 Slide84:  Isobars are lines that represent the same pressure The closer the lines the greater the winds Slide85:  Dew point is the temperature at which the air is 100% saturated with moisture Slide86:  Cold Front: symbols Occluded Front: symbols Warm Front: symbols Types of air masses, and weather symbols Pg. 13 ESRT

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