8 Soci 1015 Chapter7 Family

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Information about 8 Soci 1015 Chapter7 Family

Published on February 24, 2008

Author: Barbara

Source: authorstream.com

Families:  Families Patterns, theories, and issues Slide2:  Outline marking / return Reschedule, Chapter 8 “Education” to Jan 28 and 30th -hence, Chapter 9 next week Family Composition, 2006 Census Canada:  Family Composition, 2006 Census Canada Nuclear family in decline, Single parent household increase, 1:4 For first time – “married people” are minority of popl’n, 52% of adults not married in 2006 Common-law couples, account for 16% of all families. Same-sex married couples N=7415 in 2006 Slide4:  Is the “traditional marriage and family” in decline? Is the institution of the family under seige? Or …are marriages and families in transition? Text uses term “families” Who constitutes family ? What makes a family ? Politics of the Family:  Politics of the Family Same sex marriage Divorce Birth control Etc… Focus on the Family Dr. James Dobson Family Coalition Party:  Family Coalition Party The Family Coalition Party is Ontario's only pro-Life, pro-family political party, and the only provincial party that endorses the principles of the Preamble to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in the Canadian Constitution: "Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law..." "A political party cannot be all things to all people. It must represent certain fundamental beliefs which must not be compromised to political expediency, simply to swell its ranks." ---Ronald Reagan Slide7:  Netherlands' Experiment Proving Fatal to Institution of Marriage Earlier this week, The Washington Post reported that after two years of legalized homosexual "marriage" in the Netherlands, public perceptions of a difference between heterosexual and homosexual couples have almost vanished. Activists in Amsterdam claim that homosexual couples are "just like any other married couple" and that "the only thing that makes their marriage unusual" is that they are both the same sex. They point to acceptance by relatives, neighbors and even "conservative" politicians as evidence of the similarities between heterosexual and same-sex "marriage." However, this claim stands in stark contrast to a Dutch study that was released earlier this year in the scientific journal AIDS. The study found that the average "steady homosexual male partnership" lasts only 1.5 years. Those reporting "steady" relationships also reported an average of 8 "casual" sex partners each year. Clearly, this is not the same as a heterosexual marriage. Buried at the very end of the article was the admission that "many gay men and lesbians consider marriage to be a vestige of the past" and that such a view is "common among heterosexuals in Europe as well." The complacency of many Dutch citizens about same-sex civil "marriage" should serve as a wake-up call. It demonstrates that far from strengthening the institution, this radical movement is really about de-constructing marriage and effectively abolishing it. Note the role of …:  Note the role of … Beliefs Values Ideology …on the one’s “view” of the family, or the state of the family today. Importance of Families -key social institution:  Importance of Families -key social institution Personal: families provide companionship, sexual expression, children, a sense of belonging, and shared resources Governments encourage heterosexual marriage and childbearing because it produces and socializes future citizens Slide10:  Employers rely on families to: Produce and socialize future employees Provide recuperation that enables people to continue working FAMILY FUNCTIONS:  FAMILY FUNCTIONS 1) emotional needs of members 2) socialization 3) reproduction 4) sexual regulation 5) economic cooperation Different views of family . . . :  Different views of family . . . “provide stability, emotional support, and financial assistance; age-integrated social interaction; socialization concerning values, morals, and life skills; legal rights and obligations.” “The family is truly many things to its members. It is commonly an active and rich source of pain, it is sensitively reflective of problems whose roots are outside its boundaries, and it is commonly where people turn to find relief from pain. In the stress process, it has uniquely pivotal positions.” Pearlin (1983). Stress-Distress Process:  Stress-Distress Process stress distress Family as stressor Family as mediator Family distress Definitions of Family:  Definitions of Family Sociologists and anthropologists have long assumed that family members: Were related by blood, marriage, or adoption Shared a dwelling and other resources Census family: Married and cohabiting couples, with or without never-married children Single parents living with never-married children Types of Census Families in Canada:  Types of Census Families in Canada What types of families do not appear in this table? Nuclear and Extended Families:  Nuclear and Extended Families Nuclear family: comprises parents and their children Most Canadians live in nuclear families Extended family: comprises several generations (or siblings, with their spouses and children) who share a residence Prevalent among some cultural groups, among people with lower incomes, and at some stages of the life cycle Slide18:  Modified extended family does not share a dwelling, but shares resources Hence – tremendous variety in “family” structure & composition.:  Hence – tremendous variety in “family” structure & composition. Monogamy and Polygamy:  Monogamy and Polygamy Monogamy: legal marriage to one spouse at a time Polygyny: legal marriage to more than one wife at a time Polyandry: legal marriage to more than one husband at a time Polygyny is much more prevalent than polyandry Arranged and Free-choice Marriage:  Arranged and Free-choice Marriage Marriages continue to be arranged in many parts of the world, as well as among some immigrant groups in Canada Arranged marriages are often more stable than free-choice unions, because: Both families have a stake in the marriage Divorce may be legally restricted Women may have to relinquish custody of children, or not be able to support themselves Patterns of Authority and Descent:  Patterns of Authority and Descent A head of the family makes major decisions and represent the family to the outside world Patriarchy: the oldest male is the family head Matriarchy: the oldest female is the family head Slide24:  Patrilineal descent: the new couple belongs to the groom’s family Matrilineal descent: the new couple belongs to the bride’s family Bilateral descent pattern: common for kinship and inheritance in Canada HISTORICAL CHANGES IMPACTING UPON FAMILIAL STRUCTURE/INTERACTION :  HISTORICAL CHANGES IMPACTING UPON FAMILIAL STRUCTURE/INTERACTION Geographic mobility Female labour force participation Verticalization of lineage Narrowing, lengthening Increased diversity in “types” of unions/ties. Implication of these changes in family structure on _______ ?:  Implication of these changes in family structure on _______ ? Social support of elderly Assistance to new mothers Child care Etc… Theory:  Theory Political-economic theory of the family:  Political-economic theory of the family Family formation reflects economic organization of society Engels: family life is transformed with the change from hunting-and-gathering to pre-industrial and industrial societies. 19th century: men’s workplace removed from home Family becomes unit of shared consumption, instead of a unit of production Slide29:  Entrance of married women into paid labour force is caused by economic forces Labour market changes lead to new ideologies Structural Functionalism:  Structural Functionalism With industrialization, the nuclear family begins to specialize in socialization of children Adults differentiate into instrumental (husbands) and expressive roles (wives) Critique: what is seen as functional for society may have been functional mainly for heterosexual men Social Constructionist Approach:  Social Constructionist Approach Also called symbolic interactionism: The way people define and interpret reality shapes behaviour Families help children develop sense of self Feminist Theories:  Feminist Theories Focus is on women’s experience, and on socio-economic differences between genders Gender differences are social and cultural, and are maintained by socialization and institutions What is considered “feminine” (achievements, characteristics) is granted lower status than the “masculine” Slide33:  Post-feminism: focus on differences between women’s experiences, depending on social position and cultural background Postmodernist Approaches:  Postmodernist Approaches The traditional nuclear policy is more a myth than a historical reality Next slides - - “Stephanie Coontz” Beliefs about family in everyday language and policy discourse are socially constructed and historically situated Fineman: family should be reconceptualized Caution with common-sense view of the family:  Caution with common-sense view of the family “Caution” cont’d . . . :  “Caution” cont’d . . . White, middle class bias? Many “issues” ignored, not talked about, etc… Hence caution with notion of the “good ol’days” Main thesis (Coontz):  Main thesis (Coontz) Was there ever a “Golden Age” of the family? Or do we view the past through rose-tinted glasses? Slide38:  Current focus on horizontal intimacy (between partners) should be changed to focus on vertical organization (between parents and children) Reason: childbearing and child-rearing are no longer linked with legal marriage Gendered Division of Domestic Labour:  Gendered Division of Domestic Labour In most heterosexual couples: Husbands work full time and perform occasional domestic chores Wives are employed for fewer hours than husbands; responsible for routine domestic chores and child care, even when employed full time Reason: marital power relations Younger, well-educated couples with few or no children: More likely to share domestic work more equitably Consequences of Unequal Division of Domestic Labour:  Consequences of Unequal Division of Domestic Labour Mothers develop closer ties with children Children learn traditional role models Women are less likely to pursue education, to work full-time or overtime, and to be promoted This influences their income in case of divorce or widowhood Slide42:  Women’s lack of confidence in their earning ability influences their decision-making power in marriage Low Fertility and Assisted Conception:  Low Fertility and Assisted Conception Fertility is important for social acceptance and gender identity Assisted conception becomes more common, as fewer children are available for adoption Reasons: improved contraception, ability of single mothers to raise their children Slide44:  Problems: Commercialization Low success rate (15% per treatment cycle) Problems with surrogacy: Commodification of children Exploitation of women Cost and Regulation of Child Care:  Cost and Regulation of Child Care Despite sharp increase of employed mothers for the last 40 years, supply of child care is insufficient and costs are unaffordable for many parents The most prevalent type of child care (sitter) is unregulated Quality of care in licensed facilities may be problematic Slide46:  Popularity of the conservative view that child care is a family matter has increased i.e., It should be provided by unpaid labour of family members Aside … larger discussion… whom should take responsibility for care of elderly, family, education, etc… The State, The Family, the Individual ? Impact of Divorce on Children:  Impact of Divorce on Children Slide48:  Children from one-parent families have higher likelihood of: Lower educational attainment Behavioural problems Delinquency Higher divorce rates when they marry Main research question: are these negative outcomes caused by parental separation, or by lower socio-economic status? Slide49:  When controlled for decline in income after divorce, the incidence of problems declines Children require adjustment during the two years after separation A close relationship with both parents is associated with positive adjustment Impact of Repartnering on Children:  Impact of Repartnering on Children Stepfamilies require negotiation Never-married mothers who become pregnant before they complete their education are likely to repartner in a few years Their families are likely to be conflictual They may have an increased likelihood of behavioural problems in children Slide51:  Children in stable lone-parent families are better off than children in conflictual two-parent families. Wife Abuse (left off here Mon):  Wife Abuse (left off here Mon) Separated women are more likely to be assaulted than divorced or married women Many women remain with abusive spouses due to: Lack of low-income or temporary housing An inability to support themselves and children Fear of reprisal from the abusive spouse Abusers often come from families with abusive parents Spousal violence (%) among current and previous partners, 1999 & 2004:  Spousal violence (%) among current and previous partners, 1999 & 2004 Canadian Family Policies:  Canadian Family Policies Early 20th century: child welfare legislation, equal guardianship rights for both parents, basic social services 1940s–70s: income security programs for families (next slide) 1980s–90s: abuse and neglect laws, enforcement of child support Since the 1970s, unemployment rate has been rising steadily At the same time, marital dissolution increased, which increased the costs of social programs Low income among families with children under 18:  Low income among families with children under 18 Source: Macionis & Gerber, 2008, pg 483 In 2005 …median household income, Canada…:  In 2005 …median household income, Canada… For two-parent families $67,600 For lone-parent households $30,000 Therefore, ½ of all lone-parent households earned less than $30,000 annually % children living in poverty in various countries, 2000 (textbook pg 178):  % children living in poverty in various countries, 2000 (textbook pg 178) Slide59:  There has been a recent re-emphasis on “personal and family responsibility” and reduction in social services Future Families:  Future Families Cohabitation will become more common As employment become more difficult to find, commuter marriages will be likely in professional and managerial occupations There will be greater impermanence in marriage Slide61:  Birth rates will continue to decline because of: High costs of raising children Unavailability of affordable, high-quality child care Middle-aged people (especially women) will have to provide care for both children and aging parents Sandwich generation, but really how common?

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