8 Reforming American Society

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Published on January 24, 2008

Author: Calogera

Source: authorstream.com

Reform in American Society:  Reform in American Society Chapter 8 Section 1 Religion Sparks Reform Second Great Awakening:  Second Great Awakening During the early decades of the 19th Century, people again turned to religion In many cases it was for the same reasons which led to the First Great Awakening in the 1700s – fear of change Great Awakenings First Second:  Great Awakenings First Second Free will People could seek salvation and control destiny Focus on saving soul, not hellfire and damnation. Led to reforms in the North Fate controlled by omnipotent God People could not save selves from damnation Religion=fear “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” In US and Europe Charles G. Finney:  Charles G. Finney Finney preached in NY His message differed from that of Jonathan Edwards People could be saved and seek salvation Conversion brought thousands back to the church Religion in the 19th Century:  Religion in the 19th Century Revivals were held throughout the country, but were most effective in the North New converts were asked to examine their soul and become a better person Religion in the 19th Century:  Religion in the 19th Century African-American churches united slaves in a common belief of freedom Churches in the north, like Rev. Richard Allen’s Bethel African Church, provided a cultural center Religion in the 19th Century:  Religion in the 19th Century There was a widespread belief that the world was coming to an end on October 21, 1844 William Miller had thousands of followers When nothing happened, his followers became 7th Day Adventists Transcendentalists:  Transcendentalists In the early and mid-1800s, a group of people started looking at the world, religion and the changing economy in a different way. Most sought a simpler life and focused on emotions and feeling Transcendentalists:  Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson – writer Henry David Thoreau – Walden and Civil Disobedience Unitarians – religious group who tried to make people better through reforms Utopian Communities:  Utopian Communities New Harmony - Secular, Owenist Wanted to provide an answer to the problems of inequity and alienation caused by the Industrial Revolution Failed due to financial problems and disagreements among members Utopian Communities:  Utopian Communities Shakers - Religious, Mother Ann Lee, 6000 members in several states Forbid marriage and sex Lack of members caused its demise Amana settlement allowed marriage and survived Utopian Communities:  Utopian Communities Oneida - Religious, Noyes Members shared property and spouses, free love Planned reproduction and child-rearing Made silverware for profits Utopian Communities:  Utopian Communities Brook Farm - founded by George Ripley Communal living where everyone worked for the common good. Utopian Communities Before the Civil War:  Utopian Communities Before the Civil War Utopian Communities:  Utopian Communities Utopian communities generally failed within a few years due to lack of funding or internal problems. Prison Reform:  Prison Reform Alexis de Tocqueville visited America to observe the prison system He was dismayed at the amount of abuse Prison Reform:  Prison Reform Dorthea Dix was horrified to see mentally ill and handicapped people in prisons alongside violent criminals. She led the drive to build separate facilities for mentally ill people School Reform:  School Reform Horace Mann pushed for free and compulsory education for all children. He helped establish tax supported schools, a longer school year and teacher training School Reform:  School Reform McGuffy Readers were used to teach children to read They combined phonics with stories encouraging hard work, punctuality and sobriety. School Reform:  School Reform Catherine Beecher sought to create teachers from spinster women Schools also responsible for raising children School Reform:  School Reform Secondary School Enrollment 1840-1860:  Secondary School Enrollment 1840-1860 Reform in American Society:  Reform in American Society Chapter 8 Section 2 Slavery and Abolition Abolitionists:  Abolitionists By the 1820s some people began to openly question the morality of slavery Some proposed that all Blacks be sent “back” to Africa Others wanted violent uprisings Abolitionists:  Abolitionists Charles Finney preached about the evils of slavery Most whites in the north gave slavery no attention at all Some, particularly the Irish, wanted slavery to continue Abolitionists:  Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison - editor of “The Liberator” Wanted slave holders to release their slaves immediately with no payment for their loss He associated with Africans who promoted violence Abolitionists:  Abolitionists David Walker – wrote “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” Thought that slaves that did not revolt deserved to be enslaved Abolitionists:  Abolitionists Frederick Douglass - born a slave and ran away as a child Eloquent speaker who talked about his life as a slave Worked with Garrison for a time but split with him to write “The North Star” Slavery:  Slavery America continued to import slaves until 1808 Natural birth rate caused the slave population to soar By the mid 1800s, all slaves were born in America and spoke English Slavery:  Slavery Life expectancy for slaves in America was much longer than Africans who lived in Africa Slavery:  Slavery Men, women and children worked from sun up to sun down. Slave marriages were not considered “legal under the eyes of God” so families could be sold apart. Slavery:  Slavery Immigrant labor did not come to the south so many slaves learned skills Some hired themselves out for pay Slavery:  Slavery All slaves, regardless of age, worked This little boy was a ‘companion’ for the daughter of his owner. Urban and Rural Slavery:  Urban and Rural Slavery Slaves in the cotton fields worked all day in the hot sun, ate substandard food, lived in wooden shacks and were beaten for minor infractions. Slaves in larger towns worked for pay which was shared with their owner. They did not have an overseer. Slave Uprisings:  Slave Uprisings Denmark Vesey – 1822, led a short-lived and unsuccessful uprising Slave Uprisings:  Slave Uprisings Nat Turner – 1831, led an uprising leading to the death of 55 whites. The retaliation led to the deaths of hundreds of slaves and strengthening the slave codes Slave Codes:  Slave Codes Regions and counties made laws for slaves only to make certain that slaves stay under the control of whites After uprisings, codes became stricter, some not allowing more than 2 slaves to gather Slave Codes:  Slave Codes Most states made it illegal to teach slaves how to read and write or learn a trade. They could not travel without papers. Even then, there was a chance that they would be kidnapped and sold to another owner Pro-Slavery Advocates:  Pro-Slavery Advocates Southerners defended slavery by The Bible – “Slaves should obey their masters…” Slaves were learning about Jesus and away from the ‘savages’ in Africa Slaves were ‘happy’ doing menial labor Economics of Slavery:  Economics of Slavery The cost of a prime field hand was about $1,500 - $2,000 It cost about $20 each year to care for a slave The care was necessary from birth to death, 60-70 years, and during non-growing seasons Economics of Wage Earners:  Economics of Wage Earners There was no initial cost Competition among workers kept salaries low There were no benefits and workers only got paid when there was work to do Sick or injured workers did not get paid at all Reforming American Society:  Reforming American Society Chapter 8 Section 3 Women and Reform Cult of Domesticity:  Cult of Domesticity Women’s roles changed in the early to mid 1800s but they were still treated like property Some women began protesting for equality for women and slaves Cult of Domesticity:  Cult of Domesticity Women were ‘housewives’ once they got married There jobs included cooking, cleaning, tending to the children, and household food These are the women who were impacted by the Second Great Awakening Cult of Domesticity:  Cult of Domesticity Women in the 1830s had more free time than their mothers since they could hire immigrants to help with domestic chores They joined the causes of abolitionism and temperance, and eventually, feminism Sarah and Angelina Grimke:  Sarah and Angelina Grimke Daughters of southern slaveholders, the Grimke sisters became avid spokesmen for the anti-slavery movement Angelina wrote “An Appeal to Christian Women of the South” urging them to rid the country of slavery Temperance:  Temperance The beverages of choice in the 1800s were beer and whiskey With the new machinery of the Industrial Revolution, men were getting injured and even killed Reformers blamed alcohol on the breakup of families and poverty Temperance:  Temperance Women led the temperance movement. Temperance societies sprung up throughout the country They were so successful that alcohol consumption dropped by 50% Education for Women:  Education for Women Sara Grimke ran one of several schools open for women Oberlin College opened their doors to women Elizabeth Blackwell became America’s first female doctor Education for Women:  Education for Women Catherine Beecher took a survey on women’s health and found that 3 of every 4th woman was ill since they rarely bathed or exercised. Seneca Falls Convention:  Seneca Falls Convention In 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott held a convention for women’s rights They declared that women were entitled to the same rights and equality as men Seneca Falls Convention:  Seneca Falls Convention Sojourner Truth, Isabella Baumfree, spoke about her life as a slave She was booed and hissed at because the women did not want feminism to get lost while promoting abolitionism Reforming American Society:  Reforming American Society Chapter 8 Section 4 The Changing Workplace Factory Workers:  Factory Workers When labor shifted away from homes and into factories, women and children became part of the labor force The Lowell Mills was a prototype for women in the workplace As cheaper, immigrant labor entered the country, women were replaced by men and children Factory Workers:  Factory Workers The new type of labor put a strain on families already fighting poverty and disease Before the Factory:  Before the Factory Goods were produced in homes, cottage industries Handmade items, mostly completed by women were sold at the market Home Crafts:  Home Crafts Trade unions were established during the Middle Ages to regulate quality, supply and prices. Their basic purpose remained through modern American history Home to Factory:  Home to Factory Apprentice – training phase Journeyman – skilled employee Master – most experienced artisan Factories became more efficient, prices for machine made goods fell, these workers moved from making hand-made goods to factory life Lowell Mills:  Lowell Mills Women worked most textile mills because of the low pay afforded by these jobs Strikes were staged to force the factories to give the girls better pay (or to keep it from being cut) They were not successful and conditions deteriorated. Industrial Revolution:  Industrial Revolution Striking Workers:  Striking Workers Strikes continued during the 1830s and 1840s. Employers almost always won because immigrants gave them an unlimited supply of replacement workers Immigrants flooded into factory areas, ignoring the slave south Irish Immigrants:  Irish Immigrants The Irish faced a famine due to a potato blight. About 1 million immigrants came to America They faced hostility and resentment because of their religion and love of whiskey Irish Immigrants:  Irish Immigrants Immigrants:  Immigrants Trade Unions:  Trade Unions The trades organized unions for specific skills – shoemaking, printing, comb making, etc They formed the largest union, the National Trades Union The union was dissolved because of opposition from bankers Commonwealth v. Hunt:  Commonwealth v. Hunt Supported a worker’s right to strike By 1860, labor unions were still weak and small

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