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8 GHGs Wightman

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Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Haralda

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  Production and Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases in Agriculture: A New York Dairy Case Study Jenifer Wightman With the Agricultural Ecosystems Program Team - Cornell University NESARE Workshop: Climate Change and Agriculture Spring 2006 Slide2:  New York State alone, contributes nearly 1% of global greenhouse gas emissions. US EPA, Energy CO2 inventories Slide3:  Residential - 6% Forest - 62% Agriculture - 26% Land Use in NY 1992 Slide4:  GOALS Assess Energy Inputs for the Dairy System Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the NY Dairy Industry Identify Strategies for Agriculture to Mitigate Emissions Slide5:  Reducing Greenhouse Gases Within Agriculture What are the gases of concern? How much does agriculture contribute? How can agriculture be accountable for its own emissions? Three Key Questions: Slide6:  Gases of Concern: Different greenhouse gases have different Global Warming Potential (GWP): Carbon Dioxide (CO2): fossil fuel combustion Methane (CH4): cow rumen, manure Nitrous Oxide (N2O): nitrogen fertilizer 1 unit of CO2 = 1 CO2equivalents 1 unit of CH4 = 23 CO2equivalents 1 unit of N2O = 310 CO2equivalents Slide7:  ENERGY Use Analysis Of NY Dairy Herd Slide8:  Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Analysis of NY Dairy Herd Slide9:  Methane and Nitrous Oxide contribute 75% of total farm Global Warming Potential (GWP) Slide10:  1) Corn growers can optimize nitrogen application to reduce: 1) costs 2) nitrogen leaching 3) energy inputs 4) nitrous oxide emissions A 30% reduction in N application equals ~0.16% of total NY state emissions 2) Dairies can investigate manure methane capture/combustion A 50% reduction of CH4 from manure equals ~0.25% of total NY State emissions 3) Dairies can optimize feed to further reduce enteric methane ON FARM MITIGATION STRATEGIES Slide11:  NY Dairy contributes 6.5 million metric tons of CO2equivalents! Slide12:  Some Perspective: NY Dairy contributes 2.6% of NY Total Emissions US average agriculture 8 % waste 4 % industry 31% Pataki greenhouse gas report Slide13:  Can agriculture reduce NY State GHGs by moving into the energy sector and producing renewable bio-fuels? Question: Can Agriculture Find Economic Opportunity in Climate Change Mitigation? Slide14:  Opportunities for Agriculture to Mitigate Climate Change: Replacing Fossil Fuels with Renewable, Carbon Neutral BIOFUELS Agriculture for food, feed, fiber and FUEL Slide15:  It takes energy to make energy. If we use 1 unit of fossil fuel to make 1 unit of biofuel, we are chasing our tail. The output:input energy ratio should be greater than 2. Definition: Renewable Fuel Slide16:  Imagine there is 1 unit of fossil fuel left: With an output:input ratio of 2:1, 2 units of a ‘renewable’ fuel are generated from 1 unit of non-renewable fuel. *Remember we need 1 unit of the renewable fuel to make the next generation of fuel. This leaves us with 1 unit of renewable fuel to be used for heating, electricity or transport. Definition: Renewable Fuel Slide17:  Definition: Carbon Neutral Fuels The earth is finite. All the carbon that has ever existed in the world is still within the earth. However, where that carbon resides is of consequence. Each gallon of gas we pull up releases buried carbon to the atmosphere altering the current climate. Burning renewable biofuels is carbon neutral because: carbon already present at the surface cycles from CO2 ->plant->CO2 Slide18:  C-C Fossil Fuel CO2 Photosynthesis Combustion CO2 Plant Biomass C-C Combustion CO2 CO2 When a fuel is carbon neutral, there is no net gain of carbon added to the atmosphere. Slide19:  In 2003, the U.S. had a $-139.5 billion energy trade balance Slide20:  Predicted Reed Canary Grass Yields on Idle NY lands Unpublished data compiled by Peter Woodbury et al This is intended for state-wide strategic planning, not for county or farm level analysis. Slide21:  Grass Pellets: Unfortunately, at the moment there is neither production of value-added biomass fuels nor is the market for their use developed. However, wood pellet sales have increase 20% yearly over the last 10 years. http://www.pelletheat.org/industry/SalesSurvey.shtml Slide22:  As energy costs rise, the price paid for energy products will also rise. Slide23:  Acknowledgements: John Duxbury Peter Woodbury John Gaunt Tracy Wise Alison Buttel Sintana Vergara AEP project team members CSREES for funding of CU Ag. Ecosystems Program Contacts: Norm Scott (manure biogas) Jerry Cherney (grass biofuels) Harold Van Es (Nitrogen management) Peter Smallidge (forest management) Larry Chase (animal diet) John Duxbury (AEP project) Peter Woodbury (GIS Land analysis) Slide24:  “The potential of agriculture to mitigate global climate change is affected not only by what happens on the farm, but also by policies that might seem one step removed. Conservation of open space, limits to sprawl, development of mass transit, & enticements for urban densification all affect the viability of agriculture to capture the sun’s energy & generate biomass, now & long into the future.” Lois Levitan - CfE

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