8 e atoms & elements (boardworks)

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Published on March 31, 2014

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© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 36 KS3 Chemistry 8E Atoms and Elements

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 36 8E Atoms and Elements Elements in the periodic table Summary activities Chemical reactions What are atoms and elements? Symbols for elements Contents Making compounds

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 36 How many different substances are there? There are millions of different substances! What are they all made of? How many different substances can you think of?

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 36 All substances are made of atoms All substances are made of very tiny particles called atoms. hydrogen and oxygen atoms carbon and hydrogen atoms carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur atoms iron, aluminium, silicon, oxygen and boron atoms Many substances are made up of different types of atoms.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 36 What is an element? All substances are made of very tiny particles called atoms. The elements are the simplest substances in the universe. The elements are the building blocks of all other substances. copper carbon There are about one hundred substances that are made up of just one type of atom. These are the elements. helium

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 36 An element is a substance made up of only one type of atom. Atoms in elements Copper is an element made up of copper atoms only. Carbon is an element made up of carbon atoms only. Helium is an element made up of helium atoms only.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 36 Atoms and molecules of elements In some elements, the atoms are joined in groups of two or more. A particle containing atoms grouped in this way is called a molecule. An element is a substance made up of only one type of atom. Other elements, that contain atoms joined in molecules are hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and bromine. Oxygen is an element made up of oxygen atoms only. How many atoms are there in an oxygen molecule?

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 36 8E Atoms and Elements Elements in the periodic table Summary activities Chemical reactions What are atoms and elements? Symbols for elements Contents Making compounds

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 36 The symbol for many of the more common elements uses just the first letter of the name. Introducing chemical symbols A standard set of symbols is used to represent elements: hydrogenH = carbonC = fluorineF = oxygenO = nitrogenN = Others elements have the first two letters. lithiumLi = aluminiumAl = heliumHe = Some of the symbols are not always as you might expect. leadPb = goldAu = silverAg = iodineI =

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 36 Symbols as an international language

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 36 How to write symbols for elements Two important rules should be followed when writing the symbols of elements so that there is no confusion. 1. The first letter of an element’s symbol is always a capital letter. 2. If there are two letters in the element’s symbol, the second letter is always a small letter. e.g. N (not n) for nitrogen e.g. Co (not CO) for cobalt No, Watson! It was carbon monoxide poisoning – not cobalt.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 36 Chemical symbols game

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 36 The Story of ‘The Kid’

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 36 1. Board game: carbon, helium, two sulphurs 2. Relative: sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen 3. Fuel: carbon, oxygen, aluminium 4. Group of fish: sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen, aluminium 5. For the rubbish: boron, iodine, nitrogen CHeSS SON COAl SHOAl BIN Spelling with symbols activity Write down the symbols for each element listed and use these to spell out a word that matches the clue.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 36 In some elements, the atoms are joined together and form molecules. Combining the symbols of the atoms in a molecule gives you the formula of the molecule. What is the formula for the molecules in each element? Symbols for molecules of elements nitrogen oxygen N2 O2 There are groups of two atoms in each molecule.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 36 8E Atoms and Elements Elements in the periodic table Summary activities Chemical reactions What are atoms and elements? Symbols for elements Contents Making compounds

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 36 Arranging elements

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 36 antimony (Sb) Is this element a or a ? H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Sc Ti Mg V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge Se BrCa Kr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Pd Ag Cd In Sn SbSr TeRh Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Au Hg Tl Pb Bi PoLa AtPt Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt ? ?Ac ? Al P N O S Cl F Ne Ar Rn I Si Xe He B C AsFeFe Mg SPMg SP CuCu metal non-metal IISb Hard to say! Sb Metal or non-metal? iodine (I)iron (Fe)copper (Cu)phosphorus (P)sulfur (S)magnesium (Mg)

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 36 Metals and non-metals in the periodic table The periodic table is a list of all the known elements which are arranged according to the similarities in their properties. Non-metals are mostly on the right. Metals are on the left and in the centre. What type of elements are between metals and non-metals? Xe

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 36 Types of elements in the periodic table

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 36 Metal, non-metal or metalloid? H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Sc Ti Mg V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge Se BrCa Kr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Pd Ag Cd In Sn SbSr TeRh Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Au Hg Tl Pb Bi PoLa AtPt Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt ? ?Ac ? Al P N O S Cl F Ne Ar Rn I Si Xe He B C As silicon (Si) metalloidfrancium (Fr) metalscandium (Sc) metalkrypton (Kr) non-metalcobalt (Co) metal What are metalloids? Which side are the non- metals on? Which side are the metals on? Metalloids sometimes behave like metals and sometimes like non-metals. Metals are on the left and in the centre. Non-metals are mostly on the right.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 36 8E Atoms and Elements Elements in the periodic table Summary activities Chemical reactions What are atoms and elements? Symbols for elements Contents Making compounds

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 36 Combining elements How is possible to have so many different materials from a limited number of elements?

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200524 of 36 Combining elements How do you get so many different cheeses? What is the key ingredient in all cheeses? Milk is combined with a small number of ingredients under different conditions to make a huge number of different cheeses. In a similar way, a small number of elements can be combined in many different ways to make a huge number of different compounds.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200525 of 36 What is a compound? A compound is the substance produced when two or more elements combine in a chemical reaction. A compound is always made up of two or more different types of atom. Two elements, hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O), combine to make the compound, water. Which two elements combine to make the compound carbon dioxide?

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200526 of 36 Making a compound – carbon dioxide A compound has very different properties to the elements from which it is made. carbon dioxide A colourless gas which is used to put out fires. to make carbon A black solid which can be used as a fuel. combines with compoundelements oxygen A colourless gas which is essential for life.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200527 of 36 Making a compound – water What are the elements which make up water? In what ways are the elements different to their compound? to makecombines with compoundelements water A liquid which is essential to our lives and has many different uses. hydrogen A colourless gas which is used in hot air balloons. A colourless gas which is essential for life. oxygen

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200528 of 36 Element or compound?

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200529 of 36 Element or compound?

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200530 of 36 8E Atoms and Elements Elements in the periodic table Summary activities Chemical reactions What are atoms and elements? Symbols for elements Contents Making compounds

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 36 Chemical reaction to make water Elements combine with each other to make new substances called compounds. In a chemical reaction new substances are formed. hydrogen The substances which combine in a reaction are the reactants. The new substances produced in a reaction are the products. Compounds can also combine with elements or other The products have different properties to the reactants from which they are formed. water compounds to make new compounds. + oxygen

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200532 of 36 When the two elements, hydrogen and oxygen, combine in a chemical reaction, Atoms joining in a chemical reaction In a chemical reaction, the atoms in the reactants become joined in different ways and this is how new substances are formed. hydrogen oxygen water+ + H H H H O O the hydrogen and oxygen atoms do not just mix together they become joined to one another.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200533 of 36 8E Atoms and Elements Elements in the periodic table Summary activities Chemical reactions What are atoms and elements? Symbols for elements Contents Making compounds

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200534 of 36 Glossary atom – The smallest particle that can exist on its own. compound – Substance made up of two or more different elements that are chemically joined together. element – Substance made up of only one type of atom. formula – The symbols and numbers that represent the atoms in a substance. molecule – Two or more atoms that are chemically joined together. periodic table – Table in which all known elements are arranged based on their properties. symbol – One or two letters that represent an element.

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200535 of 36 Anagrams

© Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200536 of 36 Multiple-choice quiz

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