Published on March 8, 2014
Stitch and classification By Sunil Talekar, Student handout-SOFT Pune
Stitch and classification STITCH Industrial sewing machines are classified according to their intended use and the means of forming stitches. A stitch can be defined as, one unit of conformation resulting from one or more strands or loops of thread intralooping, interlooping, or passing through material‟ also categorized as per stitch quality.
Stitch and classification STITCH quality Stitch quality is measured with; • STITCH SIZE • STITCH LENGTH • WIDTH • DEPTH • TENSION • SEQUENCE • ELONGATION • ELASTICITY • RESILIENCE • FABRIC DISTORTION • YARN SEVERANCE • ABRASIVE STRENGTH.
Stitch and classification STITCH forming types INTRA-LOOPING – is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by the same thread. INTERLOOPING – is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by a different thread. INTERLACING – is passing of a thread over or around another thread or loop of another thread,.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPES The six classes of stitches as given are • Class 100 chain stitches • Class 200 stitches originating as hand • Stitches Class 300 lock stitches • Class 400 multi thread chain • Stitches Class 500 over edge • Stitches Class 600 covering chain stitches
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 100 FUTURES • The chain stitch class 100 is formed with one or more needle threads that form a loop on the underside of the fabric. • There is no lower thread. • It can be easily removed and it is used for basting operations in tailored men swear and women's wear. • It can only be used where the marks of needle penetration close up afterwards in pressing. • A basting operation, in positions such as edges, flaps, collars, and so on, is a temporary stitch, allowing accurate placement of permanent stitches.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 100-properties Followings are the properties of chain stitch. • In chain stitching; same thread is used to interconnect each loop. • Stitch can be easily unpicked from the last to the first. • Chain stitching is generally used for temporary stitching. • The appearance of face and back are different in apparel. • Chain stitching is done for pocket opening.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 100 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS 101 CLASS 103 CLASS 104 CLASS THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES ONE THREAD BASTING, OR LIGHT CONSTRUCTIO N ONE THREAD BLINDSTITCH FOR HEMMING ONE THREAD BLINDSTITCH FOR HEMMING
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 200 FUTURES • Stitch class 200 consists of hand formation of stitches done by hand with the exception of 205,which simulates a hand running stitch but is formed by a special machine. • Typical types are basting stitches and back stitches. • Same stitch as that of hand stitch is formed by a piece of thread. • Thread is drawn in every stitch or every other stitch and the length of stitching is limited. • Since friction is given at the same position of the sewing thread many times, the thread is untwined during sewing resulting in thread breakage unless the thread is a high-durable one. • Even when the sewing is made, the stitch looks broken. Therefore, the thread that can be used is limited
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 200-properties Followings are the properties of hand stitch. • A slow process and need huge manpower to finish bulk order. Used for handwork.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 200 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES 202 Class One Thread Basting, Tacking or Repairs 205 Class ONE THREAD Pick Stitch Topstitching
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 300 FUTURES • The lock stitch class 300 is the most commonly used and is easiest to understand. • Lock stitch machine requires 2 threads to form a stitch, a needle thread that feeds from the top and a lower thread that feeds from a bobbin. • A rotary hook or shuttle catches the needle thread loop as it passes around the bobbin and interlocks the two threads. • If a lock stitch thread breaks, the two threads used to form the stitch lock and the whole line of stitches won't unravel. • Lock stitch machines are versatile and can be used for a variety of operations. • It is also the only stitch formation that can be back stitched.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 300-properties Followings are the properties of hand stitch. • • • • • • • • • supplied from a bobbin on the other side. low bulk and thin, good strength and abrasion resistance Poor elasticity, non ravel limited sewing length, need to replace bobbin thread. Cant use for seams requiring stretch. Equal amount of needle and bobbin threads are used and upper and lower threads interlocks in the center of the fabric. The 301 uses the least amount of thread and produces the flattest stitch. It is the tightest and most secured stitch among all stitch types. Because this stitch formation is the same on both sides of the seams, it is reversible and used extensively for top stitching, especially along collar and cuff edges, and fronts of jackets.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 300 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES 301 Class Two Thread Seaming Multiple Plies 304 Class Two Thread Zig-Zag Stitch; a stretch lockstitch 306 Class Two Thread Blind Stitch Two Thread Three Step ZigZag; a stretch lockstitch with more stretch 315 Class
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 400 FUTURES • The 400 class is the second most frequently used stitch type. • This multi thread chain stitch requires one or more needle threads that form loops as they pass through the fabric and interloop with the looper thread on the underside, all of which feed continuously from the cones. • The 400 class requires an upper and a lower thread and use a looper to carry the lower thread and form a thread loop on the underside of the fabric. • Machines producing 400 Class do not back tack although stitches can be condensed to secure the ends of the threads.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 400-properties Followings are the properties of class 400. • non ravel, strong, good elasticity, less likely to cause seam pucker due to structural jamming. • good seam stretch • does not need to wind bobbin • lower resistance to runback and have increased bulk under the seam
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 400 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS 401 Class 404 Class 406 Class THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES Two Thread Seaming Multiple Plies with moderate stretch Two Thread Topstitching or Seaming with stretch Two Thread Bottom Cover Stitch; a (greater) stretch
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 500 FUTURES • The stitch types in this class are formed with one or more groups of threads, and have as a general characteristic that loops from at least one group of threads pass around the edge of the material. • The loops form a narrow band of stitching along the edge of the fabric with threads intersecting at the edge and preventing the fabric from fraying. • All have high elasticity, they do not unravel easily, and a trimming knife on the machine ensures a neat edge prior to sewing. • These stitches are often called overedge, overcast, over lock, serge, or merrow.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 500 FUTURES • Overedge machines must have three stitch forming devices, a needle to carry the thread through the fabric, a looper or spreader to carry the thread from the needle to the edge of material on the bottom, and a looper or spreader to carry thread up and over the edge of the material on the top. • The various stitch types uses various combinations of these three devices
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 500-properties Followings are the properties of class 400. • • • • Excellent stretchable good recovery Seam or edge neatening suitable for many types of fabric subject to fraying or slippage.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 500 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS THREAD COUNT 501 Class One Thread 502 Class Two Thread 503 Class Two Thread TYPICAL USES One Needle Overedge stitch for Serging / "Blanket Stitch" One Needle Overedge stitch for Serging Overedge stitch for Serging with Crossover on Edge of Fabric
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 500 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS 504 Class 522 Class 514 Class THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES Three Thread One Needle Overedge stitch for Serging and Light Seaming Stitch" Four Thread Mock Safety Stitch for Seaming with wide bite and Greater Stretch for Knits Four Thread Overedge Stitch for Seaming with wide bite and Greater Stretch for Knits
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 500 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS 515 Class 516 Class THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES Four Thread True Safety Stitch for Seaming with Good Stretch for Wovens and Knits Five Thread True Safety Stitch for Seaming with Good Stretch for Wovens and Knits
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 600 FUTURES • The cover stitch or 600 class, often called a flat lock or a flat seam stitch, is an advanced version of the 400 class and is used primarily on knits and lingerie. • Machines producing the 600 class are extremely fast and efficient, operating at 9000 rpms. • The stitch is formed by two or more needle loops passing through the material, Interlooping on the underside and interlocking on the upper side. • A spreader or cover thread finger carries the cover thread across the surface of the fabric between the needles. • These stitches, referred to as top and bottom cover stitches, are commonly used to cover both sides of the seam with thread. • Threads must be chained off and be crossed by another seam. • This stitch class uses a lot of thread but provides excellent top and bottom cover and flat seams. • Stitches in this class are most complex of all and may have up to nine threads in total including four needle threads
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 600-properties Followings are the properties of class 600. High elasticity, seam neatening and Flat seam stitch, Bulk, Fast machine speed No need of Bobbin Greater thread consumption Covering stitches for decorative purpose, Can be used to join two raw edges, suitable for knitted garments.
Stitch and classification STITCH CLASS TYPE 600 STITCH DIAGRAM STITCH CLASS THREAD COUNT TYPICAL USES 401 Class Four Thread CoverStitch or Seaming Knits 404 Class Five Thread CoverStitch or Butt-Seams Six Thread Wide CoverStitch or Butt-Seams 406 Class
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