Published on June 12, 2008
The investigation of Scripture What does scholarship have to teach us?
It helps us discover… what the text says how it was put together if its claims are true what the words mean what’s in the background
what the text says
how it was put together
if its claims are true
what the words mean
what’s in the background
what the text says which manuscripts are best? which readings are correct? how was the text transmitted?
which manuscripts are best?
which readings are correct?
how was the text transmitted?
200 250 300 350 450 Matthew P45 B Sin. Mark P45 B Sin. A Luke P4,P45,P75 B Sin. A John P66 P45,P75 B Sin. A Acts P45 B Sin. A Romans-Hebrews P46 B Sin. A James-Jude P72,B Sin. A Apocalypse P47 Sin. A The most important early manuscripts... B = Vaticanus Sin = Sinaiticus A = Alexandrinus
200 250 300 350 450
Matthew P45 B Sin.
Mark P45 B Sin. A Luke P4,P45,P75 B Sin. A John P66 P45,P75 B Sin. A
Acts P45 B Sin. A Romans-Hebrews P46 B Sin. A
James-Jude P72,B Sin. A Apocalypse P47 Sin. A
P52 – the Rylands fragment of John Chester Beatty Romans (180 AD at latest)
P45: Chester Beatty’s Luke , about 250 AD Earliest mss with parts of all 4 Gospels and Acts Chester Beatty’s Revelation fragment , about 250 AD Contains chs 9-17
Bodmer Papyri (P66, P72, P75) from 200 A.D. or earlier contains 104 leaves P66 contains the Gospel of John 1:1-6:11, 6:35-14:26, 14-21. P72 has the earliest known copy of Jude, I Peter, and 2 Peter P75 contains most of Luke and John dated between 175 and 225 AD. Earliest known copy of Luke. Martin Bodmer
Another Bodmer find – the earliest ever copy of 1 Peter (second century)
Bodmer 14 and 15 were bought by the Vatican in 2006... They contain the earliest Luke, the earliest John after Rylands, and the earliest copy of the Lord’s Prayer...
How should Mark end? The traditional ending? At verse 8? The short ending? Both of them? The expanded longer ending? "But they reported briefly to those with Peter all that had been commanded them. And afterward Jesus himself sent out through them from the East even to the West the sacred and incorruptible message of eternal salvation." "And they excused themselves, saying, 'This age of lawlessness and unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth and power of God to prevail over the unclean things of the spirits [ or , does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth and power of God]. Therefore reveal thy righteousness now — thus they spoke to Christ. And Christ replied to them, 'The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. And for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they may return to the truth and sin no more, in order that they may inherit the spiritual and incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven.' "
Eusebius and Jerome, well aware of such variation in the witnesses, discussed which form of text was to be preferred. It is noteworthy, however, that neither Father suggested that one form was canonical and the other was not. Furthermore, the perception that the canon was basically closed did not lead to a slavish fixing of the text of the canonical books… There seems to be good reason, therefore, to conclude that, though external and internal evidence is conclusive against the authenticity of the last twelve verses as coming from the same pen as the rest of the Gospel, the passage ought to be accepted as part of the canonical text of Mark. Bruce Metzger
how it was put together who wrote it? what resource materials were used? what sort of literature is it?
who wrote it?
what resource materials were used?
what sort of literature is it?
if its claims are true are there conflicting statements? did something unusual happen? are the details authentic?
are there conflicting statements?
did something unusual happen?
are the details authentic?
All that’s left of Caiaphas
S A T O R A R E P O T E N E T O P E R A R O T A S
A P A T E R A P A T E R N O S T E R O O S T E R O
what the words mean how was this word used at the time? does it have a special sense? does it appear in the other Testament? monogenes arrabon dikaiosyne shalom
how was this word used at the time?
does it have a special sense?
does it appear in the other Testament?
Welcome to Hell…
what’s in the background what culture does this come from? what were others doing at the time? what were opponents saying?
what culture does this come from?
what were others doing at the time?
what were opponents saying?
The contents of Scripture And after the break: Is the Bible really free from mistakes?
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