Published on January 8, 2009
Global Livestock CRSP:A mechanism for university participation in development assistance and international engagement : Global Livestock CRSP:A mechanism for university participation in development assistance and international engagement Montague Demment Director, Global Livestock CRSP Department of Plant Sciences UC Davis UC Davis Role In GL-CRSP:Management Entity : UC Davis Role In GL-CRSP:Management Entity Programmatic Leadership Fiscal Responsibility RFPs and Competition for Grants Review Progress of Projects Represent the Program Gain New funding Opportunities Global Livestock CRSP Statistics : Global Livestock CRSP Statistics $87M in grants from USAID 565 Students trained to BA, BS, MS and PhD 5,420 Non-degree trainees 14 US Universities 76 Foreign Institutions 300+ Scientists and Practitioners Title XII: Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger : Title XII: Famine Prevention and Freedom from Hunger “…in order to prevent famine and establish freedom from hunger the U.S. should strengthen the capacities of U.S. universities to improve their participation in the U.S. government’s international efforts to apply more effective agricultural sciences to the goal of increasing world food production and . . . support the application of science to solving food and nutritional problems of developing countries.” Problem Models : Problem Models Results orientation with strong logic framework Integrative mechanism for disciplinary research Continuum from research to extension Diversification of member institutions Incorporation of collaborators on the front end Capitalize on other funding sources Slide 6: FOOD SECURITY PREDICTION DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIC LAND USE Global Livestock CRSP PROJECTS : Global Livestock CRSP PROJECTS Sub Saharan Africa: Animal Source Foods and HIV/AIDS Livestock and Watershed Management Pastoral Risk Management Livestock Early Warning System Livestock Marketing Information Systems Yellowstone/Serengeti/Mara Ecosystem Management Constraints on Consumption of ASF in Children Central Asia: Wool and Cashmere Marketing Gobi Forage Latin America: Meat Consumption and Child Nutrition Other Projects & Programs : Other Projects & Programs Small Grants Program Degree Enhancement Program Jim Ellis Mentorship Awards Borlaug LEAP Fellowships Afghanistan Initiative Advantages to the CRSP Model : Advantages to the CRSP Model Collaboration with U.S. Universities Breadth and depth of agriculture & related science Capacity to carry basic science to implementation Training capabilities Advantages to the CRSP Model : Advantages to the CRSP Model Internationalization of U.S. Universities Faculty support for research focused on development issues U.S. student : focused out Host country students: focused out then back Expanding the mission of the U.S. land grant universities Advantages to the CRSP Model : Advantages to the CRSP Model Long Term Collaborations Host country/U.S. scientist linkage and support Host country input into program development Build university capacity to engage international donors UC Davis GL-CRSPThree Experiences : UC Davis GL-CRSPThree Experiences Dr. Emilio Laca, Project PI (Department of Plant Sciences, UCD): Livestock Development and Rangeland Conservation Tools for Central Asia Dr. Mimako Kobayashi, Post Doctoral Researcher (Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance & Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UCD): Livestock Development and Rangeland Conservation Tools for Central Asia Dr. Joanne Graham, Post Doctoral Researcher (Program in International Nutrition, UCD) Child Nutrition Project Rangeland Conservation in Central Asia: A professor’s perspective : Rangeland Conservation in Central Asia: A professor’s perspective Dr. Emilio A. Laca Department of Plant Sciences UC Davis US Participants : US Participants Johnson, Douglas A., USDA-ARS Saliendra, Nicanor Z., USU Ivans, Sinisha, USU Tieszen, Larry, USGS EDC Wylie, Bruce, USGS EDC Reed, Bradley, USGS EDC Gilmanov, Tagir, SDSU Carpenter-Dalsin, Mary, UCD Grivetti, Louis E., UCD Kobayashi, Mimako, UCD Young, Julie, UCD Breuer, Abigail, UCD Wolf, Adam, UCD Doran, Morgan, UCD Seigies, Joern, UCD Perez, Jorge, UCD Olmstead, Karen, UCD Kucher, Sveta, UCD Plant, Richard, UCD Laca, Emilio A., UCD Howitt, Richard, UCD Jarvis, Lovell S., UCD Pittroff, Wolfgang, UCD Kazakhstan : Kazakhstan Abuova, Gaukhar, National Institute of Nutrition Akshalov, Kanat, Barayev Kazak Scientific Institute for Grain Crops Research Alimaiev, Iliya, Institute of Forage and Rangelands Asanov, Kasim A., Institute of Forage and Rangelands Dolgikh, Maria, Project Coordinator Kazakhstan Karibayeva, Kuralay, Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development Khosmukhamedova, Zhanna, Project Coordinator Kazakhstan Malmakov, Nurlan, Institute of Sheep Breeding Nikolaenko, Alexandr, Central Asian Regional Environmental Center Nurgazy, Arman, Almaty State Agricultural University Sarbasov, Gaziz, Institute of Sheep Breeding Satybaldin, Azimkhan A., Ministry of Science-Academy of Science Shabanova, Ludmila, Institute of Ecology and Sustainable Development Sharmonov, Tourgeldy, National Institute of Nutrition Sidelnikova, Sofia, Agent and Translator Zhambakin, Zhapar, National Federation of private Farmers of Kazakhstan Zhanuzakov, Manarbek, Almaty State Agricultural University Turkmenistan : Turkmenistan Atamuradov, Habibulla, National Institute of Deserts, Flora, and Fauna Babaev, Agadjan G., Desert Research Institute, Turkmenistan Durikov, Muhamet, National Institute of Deserts, Flora, and Fauna Gedemov, Tachdurdy, Biotechnology, Scientific Technological Centre, Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan Hodjakov, Ovlyakuli, Institute of Animal Breeding and Veterinary Sciences Nikolaev, Valerii, National Institute of Deserts, Flora, and Fauna Soyunova, Ogultach, Institute of Economics, Turkmenistan Uzbekistan : Uzbekistan Abdusattarov, A., Uzbek Livestock Research Institute Aripov, Uktam, Sheep Breeding Research Institute Ashirov, Muradilla, Uzbek Livestock Research Institute Babadjanov, Garhod, Academy of Sciences - Samarkand Branch Beniwal, Surendra, Central Asia Regional Office ICARDA Khusanov, Rasulmat, Institute of Market Reforms Ministry of Agriculture Mardonov, Bakhtiyor, Academy of Sciences - Samarkand Branch Mukimov, Tolib, Sheep Breeding Research Institute Nasyrov, Mukhtor, Samarkand State University Rahimov, Denis, Academy of Sciences - Samarkand Branch Shakirova, Alfia, Academy of Sciences - Samarkand Branch Suleimenov, Mekhlis, Central Asia Regional Office ICARDA Toderich, Kristina, Academy of Sciences - Samarkand Branch Shavkat, Yuldashev, Uzbek Sericulture Research Institute Yusupov, A., Sheep Breeding Research Institute Zemcova, Olga, Academy of Sciences - Samarkand Branch Syria, Israel, UK : Syria, Israel, UK Aw-Hasan, Aden, ICARDA Bounejmate, Mustapha, ICARDA Gintzburger, Gustave, ICARDA Iñiguez, Luis, ICARDA Thomson, Euan, ICARDA Brosh, Arieh, New Ya'ar Research Center, ARO, Israel Kerven, Carol, UK Overseas Development Institute Project: across scales and disciplines : Project: across scales and disciplines Leaf to Region Hemoglobin to Chlorophyll NGO’s to Cabinet Sheep behavior to State-of-the-art Stochastic Dynamic Programming Funding : Funding Core Funding from GL-CRSP USDA-ARS Leveraged funds IFAD Leveraged funds ALO funding ILRI funding Host-country funding World Bank/GEF funding UCD Other CO2 Flux Sites : Precipitation 324 mm yr-1 237 mm yr-1 148 mm yr-1 CO2 Flux Sites Integration of CO2 Flux Data: USDA-ARS & Central Asia : Participating institutions: UC-Davis GL/CRSP EROS Data Center Utah State Univ. USDA-ARS South Dakota State Univ. Integration of CO2 Flux Data: USDA-ARS & Central Asia Importance to US Functional similarities between US and Central Asian rangelands allows robust modeling for spatial extrapolation of CO2 flux in the Northern Hemisphere. Unified modeling approach across continents Personal benefits : Personal benefits A unique perspective of the profound similarities of problems faced by rural people in many developing countries Direct knowledge of the impacts of the Soviet Union (literacy, women’s rights, famines, destruction of land) Connections and friends New paradigm to evaluate and design research An abundance of materials to feed the passion of International Agricultural Development students Experience as a manager and scientific leader Sheep production in Central Asia: A graduate student’s perspective : Sheep production in Central Asia: A graduate student’s perspective Dr. Mimako Kobayashi Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics UC Davis GL-CRSP and Graduate Students : GL-CRSP and Graduate Students GL-CRSP supported my graduate study: Supported me financially: March 1999 – December 2003 Took me to various places, incl. Kazakhstan Connected me with many people Raised me as a researcher Got me the degree! (March 2004, Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics, “Livestock Production in Transition Economies: The Case of Kazakhstan”) GL-CRSP and Interdisciplinary Research : GL-CRSP and Interdisciplinary Research In my dissertation, modeling efforts were combined: Range science: rain fall and grass grow Animal science: grass eaten and sheep grow ? XLUMBE sheep simulation model (Dr. Laca) Economics: producer sell sheep and wool ? Bio-economic model of extensive sheep production Set my research style ? Current position at CADMS, School of Veterinary Medicine GL-CRSP and Internationalization : GL-CRSP and Internationalization I traveled with/for the GL-CRSP: 1999 & 2001: Kazakhstan (Field research) 2000: Autlan, Mexico (Annual meeting) 2003: Montreal, Canada (Academic conference) 2002: Washington DC (Program conference) (2005: Lake Tahoe!) Animal Source Foods to Improve Micronutrient Nutrition and Human Function in Developing Countries : Animal Source Foods to Improve Micronutrient Nutrition and Human Function in Developing Countries Joanne Graham, Nutritionist USDA-ARS Western Human Nutrition Center Animal source foods and dietary quality : Animal source foods and dietary quality Past 2 decades, focus on micronutrient (MN) interventions to improve growth, health and function of people in developing countries: Protein and energy intakes generally adequate Diets are low in ASF and multiple MNs Such “low quality” diets are associated with stunting, delayed or permanently impaired cognitive function and school performance, poor pregnancy outcome etc. But few intervention studies to determine a causal role for ASF in child growth and development. Results of food interventions to improve child growth and nutritional status : Results of food interventions to improve child growth and nutritional status ? Energy ? weight, not length ? Protein Usually limited benefit ? ASF Dry skim milk improved growth in 12/15 trials. Milk 3 x/week ? growth of macrobiotic infants. One trial has compared meat and milk… Slide 32: Role of Animal Source Foods to Improve Diet Quality and Growth and Development in Kenyan Schoolers Principal Investigators Charlotte G. Neumann, MD, MPH UCLA Nimrod O. Bwibo, MBBS, MPH U of Nairobi Suzanne P. Murphy, Ph.D, RD U of Hawaii Funded by: USAID Grant #DAN-1328-6-00-0046-00 119-18 Other Support: National Cattlemen’s Beef Assoc (NCBA), James Coleman African Study Center (UCLA) Slide 33: Co-Investigators Marion Sigman, Ph.D Child Development UCLA Shannon Whaley, Ph.D Child Development UCLA Robert Weiss, Ph.D Biostatistics UCLA Lindsay H. Allen, Ph.D Biochemical Nutrition UC Davis Child Nutrition Project Embu Kenya Senior Staff S. Nyerere, MSc Nutritionist, Coordinator CNP M. Kamore, MA Psychologist CNP R. Ngaruro, MSc Nutritionist Min Health W. Mureithi, BS Community Liason Min Agric Z. Akula, Diplomate Project Manager CNP Doctoral/Postdoctoral Scholars UCLA: C. Gewa (Nutr); S. Alber and L.J. Liang (Biostat); E. Mukadi (Educ); T. C. Daley (Psych) Wageningen: M. Grillenberger (Nutr); UC Davis: J.H. Siekmann, Ph.D; E. Reid; A.C. Zubieta (Biochemistry) Study design : Study design Energy: 250 kcal from githeri (maize and beans) + oil Meat: 250 kcal from githeri + 60-80 g beef. Milk: 250 kcal from githeri + cup of milk. Control: (goat to household after study). Nested hierarchical design: interventions randomized among 12 schools, one intervention/school. Hierarchical Random Effects Model examined changes in slopes of outcomes of the groups over time. Rate of change for each outcome estimated for each child, calculated over all time points. Results: Anthropometry (sig. change vs. controls) : Results: Anthropometry (sig. change vs. controls) Weight gain: all snacks by 10%. Height gain: milk by 15% in more stunted children. Weight/height: meat and energy fell 50% less (130% less in boys). Meat least fat increase. Mid-Arm Muscle Area (MAMA): Meat increased by 90%, milk by 50% & energy by 70%. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC): Meat increased by 80%, milk and energy by 40%. Ravens Scores : Ravens Scores Slide 37: Change in end of term test scores Behavior during play : Behavior during play Compared to all other groups, the MEAT GROUP Had greatest increase in % time spent in high activity levels, and least % time in low activity. Were more talkative, playful – and “disruptive” Spent more % time in leadership and initiative. Summary : Summary Meat Supplementation Improves cognitive function (Raven’s, Math) Results in high levels of physical activity Increases initiative and leadership behavior Increases muscle mass (Cause or effect of higher physical activity?) Milk Supplementation Increases growth of shorter children Both greatly reduce vitamin B12 deficiency (especially meat).