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6.5 Rome And The Roots Of Western Civilization

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Information about 6.5 Rome And The Roots Of Western Civilization

Published on October 26, 2007

Author: dewert

Source: slideshare.net

Description

What the Roman Empire gave the West, including its influences in art, law, architecture, language, and technology.
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Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization

Objectives Know and understand the contributions Rome made to Western culture. Artistic Legal Architectural Language Technology/engineering

Objectives

Know and understand the contributions Rome made to Western culture.

Artistic

Legal

Architectural

Language

Technology/engineering

Classical civilization Greco-Roman culture or the mix of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman influences. Bear in mind that the Roman Empire spanned a wide expanse of territory and incorporated a number of cultures. Just as Roman culture influences them, they influence Rome and a whole new mix comes out.

Classical civilization

Greco-Roman culture or the mix of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman influences.

Bear in mind that the Roman Empire spanned a wide expanse of territory and incorporated a number of cultures. Just as Roman culture influences them, they influence Rome and a whole new mix comes out.

Fine arts Greek sculpture emphasized the ideal human form. Roman sculpture presented more realistic representations of people. The Romans were practically-minded, after all.

Fine arts

Greek sculpture emphasized the ideal human form. Roman sculpture presented more realistic representations of people. The Romans were practically-minded, after all.

From this… to this.

Bas-relief Type of sculpture with figures that project from a flat background. Often used to tell stories. Trajan’s Column Bas-relief of a play

Bas-relief

Type of sculpture with figures that project from a flat background. Often used to tell stories.

Notice how the bas-relief spirals around the column all the way to the top. Can see close up pictures here , here , or here .

Notice how the bas-relief spirals around the column all the way to the top.

Can see close up pictures here , here , or here .

 

Mosaics Very intricate and made by many small tiles.

Mosaics

Very intricate and made by many small tiles.

Close-up of a mosaic.

Painting Doesn’t survive as well, but we have many fine examples from Pompeii.

Painting

Doesn’t survive as well, but we have many fine examples from Pompeii.

Pompeii August 24, AD 79

 

From a bar

Graffiti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Virgil wrote the Aeneid, an epic about the mythical Trojan hero Aeneas who travels to Italy after the Trojan War and becomes an ancestor of the Romans. Was a nationalistic work and a love note to Roman virtues. Written between 29-19 BC, a time of transition from the republic to the empire. Meant to reunite Romans under “Roman-ness” after the civil wars.

Literature

Virgil wrote the Aeneid, an epic about the mythical Trojan hero Aeneas who travels to Italy after the Trojan War and becomes an ancestor of the Romans.

Was a nationalistic work and a love note to Roman virtues.

Written between 29-19 BC, a time of transition from the republic to the empire. Meant to reunite Romans under “Roman-ness” after the civil wars.

History Livy, Plutarch, and Tacitus wrote histories of Rome. Tacitus was more accurate than past historians, mainly because he was trying to write history. Still somewhat biased – like even modern historians.

History

Livy, Plutarch, and Tacitus wrote histories of Rome. Tacitus was more accurate than past historians, mainly because he was trying to write history. Still somewhat biased – like even modern historians.

What Rome gave us Language The Latin language was predominant in the western Empire and became the basis for the Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, and French languages – the Romance languages. Started off as just bad Latin, but then established themselves as separate languages. Influenced other languages as well, at least insofar as the words they use. English, for example, doesn’t really have Latin syntax grammar, but has many Latin words. Part of this is because Latin was the language of the Roman Catholic Church and of academics. Naturally, it influenced non-Romance languages.

What Rome gave us

Language

The Latin language was predominant in the western Empire and became the basis for the Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, and French languages – the Romance languages.

Started off as just bad Latin, but then established themselves as separate languages.

Influenced other languages as well, at least insofar as the words they use.

English, for example, doesn’t really have Latin syntax grammar, but has many Latin words.

Part of this is because Latin was the language of the Roman Catholic Church and of academics. Naturally, it influenced non-Romance languages.

 

 

Architecture Many important buildings, like government buildings, use neo-Classical architecture. Like say, the U.S. Capitol Building. The columns, the dome, the arches.

Architecture

Many important buildings, like government buildings, use neo-Classical architecture. Like say, the U.S. Capitol Building.

The Romans were also big on the arch. As we’ve previously discussed, it’s an extremely efficient weight-bearing structure. You see them a lot in their aqueducts, for example.

The Romans were also big on the arch.

As we’ve previously discussed, it’s an extremely efficient weight-bearing structure.

You see them a lot in their aqueducts, for example.

The aqueducts were used to supply Rome with water and were engineering marvels. Eleven of them were built over 500 years, ran for 260 miles, and had gradients of just 1/2000. That means that for every 2,000 meters in length, they lowered in elevation just 1 meter. That’s about a yard every 1.25 miles. In some cases less – one aqueduct descends only 17 meters over 31 miles. This gradient used gravity to keep the water flowing. Most of them ran underground. Only 29 mile were above ground and required those amazing spans. They supplied Rome with nearly 300 million gallons of water a day. That’s for a population of just 1 million. That makes for about 300 gallons of water per day per person.

The aqueducts were used to supply Rome with water and were engineering marvels.

Eleven of them were built over 500 years, ran for 260 miles, and had gradients of just 1/2000. That means that for every 2,000 meters in length, they lowered in elevation just 1 meter. That’s about a yard every 1.25 miles. In some cases less – one aqueduct descends only 17 meters over 31 miles. This gradient used gravity to keep the water flowing.

Most of them ran underground. Only 29 mile were above ground and required those amazing spans.

They supplied Rome with nearly 300 million gallons of water a day. That’s for a population of just 1 million. That makes for about 300 gallons of water per day per person.

This is more than what most water systems provide today. There were over documented aqueducts that supplied water to Rome and other Roman cities throughout the empire. Some of them are still in use today.

This is more than what most water systems provide today.

There were over documented aqueducts that supplied water to Rome and other Roman cities throughout the empire. Some of them are still in use today.

Maps of aqueducts going into Rome.

 

 

 

Pantheon The Pantheon

Pantheon

 

 

 

 

The roads and road system were also engineering marvels, but we’ve already talked about them.

The roads and road system were also engineering marvels, but we’ve already talked about them.

Law Big contribution, mainly the rights of individuals. Rights under the law. Innocent until proven guilty. Burden of proof on accuser. Punishment for actions. The legal system also became basis of most Western countries’ legal systems. England, the U.S., and other Anglosphere countries, while heavily influenced by the Roman system and its reliance on rights, operate by common law.

Law

Big contribution, mainly the rights of individuals.

Rights under the law.

Innocent until proven guilty.

Burden of proof on accuser.

Punishment for actions.

The legal system also became basis of most Western countries’ legal systems.

England, the U.S., and other Anglosphere countries, while heavily influenced by the Roman system and its reliance on rights, operate by common law.

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