599 Introduction

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Information about 599 Introduction

Published on October 10, 2007

Author: Lindon

Source: authorstream.com

WELCOME … :  WELCOME … MAIS 599: Research Preparation: Evaluation and Practice Instructor: Dr. Mark Henze Research recognizes that …:  Research recognizes that … We wish to know more about the wonders of God’s world. Not all reality in the world operates in accordance with our assumptions. Knowledge is a cumulative thing. Questions:  Questions What were two important things that you learned over your year in China? What presumption did you have about China that you no longer entertain? What important question remains after your time in China that you would still like to have answered? Still More Questions:  Still More Questions Why do you think a course about research methods has been required for your program? What fears or concerns do you have with regard to a course on research methodology? Introductory Matters :  Introductory Matters MAIS 599: Research Preparation: Evaluation and Practice Instructor: Dr. Mark Henze Class Issues:  Class Issues Syllabus Class Times Lunch on 9:00 to 1:00 days Library Use Weekends and Friday closings Grading / Assignments Computers Cellphones / Internet Use Group Project (4 groups):  Group Project (4 groups) Descriptive vs. Correlational Research (Monday, July 10) Surveys & Questionnaires (Tuesday, July 11) Ethnographic & Focus Groups (Wednesday, July 12) Experimental Research (Tuesday, July 11) Group will be given a hypothetical problem that is capable of being researched using one of the four areas below…. Group Project (4 groups):  Group Project (4 groups) How are you defining the problem? Why is the problem important? Is it researchable? At what cost? How would you designing the project? Why did you select this methods / designs? What will you do with the data once you gather it? What do you expect it will tell you? General Thoughts and Tips: Good Hints / Things to Avoid Requirements:  Requirements 1/2 Hour Presentation (Divide as group sees fit). Present as if you are attempting to convince and grant provider to fund the project. 15 minutes of questions and class discussion. Use whatever instructional methods you believe are appropriate (handouts, projects, PowerPoint, other media?) Each person in group must present 1/4th of the project. How you divide this up is up to you. Grade will be a group grade based on: Information presented, Method of presentation, Interest generated in group (questions afterwards). Where are we going?:  Where are we going? What is Research? Finding Past Research Research Questions Research Design Research Methodologies Data Evaluation Instruments & Measures Research Evaluation Introduction to Research :  Introduction to Research MAIS 599: Research Preparation: Evaluation and Practice Instructor: Dr. Mark Henze Introduction to Research:  Introduction to Research What is Research? Why is Research Important? Problems with Research What is Researchable? Presumptions and Assumptions Ethics of Research Research Defined:  Research Defined Research is gathering reliable information (i.e., systematic investigation) to answer a question. Research Defined (Creswell / Shope):  Research Defined (Creswell / Shope) Research is a cyclical process of steps that typically begins with identifying the problem or issue of the study. It then consists of reviewing the literature, specifying a purpose for the study, and forming an interpretation of the information. This process culminates in a report disseminated to the audience that is evaluated and used in the educational community” (p. 18 – 19). The Research Process…:  The Research Process… Problem ID Past answers, questions, problems ID Factors / Hypothesis / Purpose Observe problem in action Design Study Observation / Data Data Collection Data Analysis Report Peer Review Application Why is research important ?:  Why is research important ? A. Research adds knowledge about a particular issues B. Research helps improve skills and teaching methodology C. Research creates data for making informed policy decisions. Why is research important ?:  Why is research important ? Research helps develop student skills. Research helps us understand people. Why would Christians care?:  Why would Christians care? A. God give us all the truth we need. B. God wants faith, not facts (research). C. The only things that matter are contained in the Bible. Knowledge corrupts – it leads to humanism, arrogance, pride and knowledge as an idol… God has made people so radically different that research does not yield any trends or universals Is all truth really God’s truth? Are there things we simply are not intended to know? Some statements to consider… Goals of Research???:  Goals of Research??? Obtain descriptive data (measure) Understand how concepts work (causation) Discover underlying and contributing factors (isolate) Check out (replicate) previous research (verify) Engineer a desired result or behavior (manipulate) Discover trends – temporal directions Develop ability to predict Develop efficient methodology (extrinsic - practice) Simple wonder (intrinsic learning) Which are valid goals? Which goals are most important? Problems with Research Today:  Problems with Research Today Contradictory findings Vague or poorly defined findings Questionable data Poor methods for quantifying concepts How do we measure or “quantify” things?:  How do we measure or “quantify” things? Problems with Research Today:  Problems with Research Today Unclear statement about the intent of the study. Overgeneralization of results given study limitations. Poorly defined terms and concepts used within the study Overgeneralization of Results:  Overgeneralization of Results Ann, a school counselor, wanted to “test out” her hypothesis that poor study habits were caused by aggressive tendencies. She asked junior high school students who were sent to the guidance office for fighting on the playground if they liked to study and how much time they spent studying. Twenty­three out of 31 students said that they did not like to study, and most of the children studied less than 3 hours a week. She therefore concluded that her hypothesis had proved to be fact. Problems with Research Today:  Problems with Research Today Lack of full disclosure of the data collection procedure Pragmatic “end justifies the means” worldview (manipulate the data) Karl Marx Article What things are researchable?:  What things are researchable? Whether a person can live with his heart removed? Why some people like cherry flavor and others grape? What is a person’s potential to love? What causes 2 + 2 to equal 4 Whether my child should be born in the spring or in the fall? How God responds to prayer? Is the risk worth it? Is there any accounting for human subjectivity or taste? Causation? First Principles? Complex with subjective elements? Perspectives that are beyond our observation? Unquantifiable? Presuppositions::  Presuppositions: Nature of truth How do we best know truth? What types of things are subject to measurement? observation? Are logic and mathematics incorrigible? Nature of causation Degree of human free agency (choice of behavior) Ethics / Honesty Teleology – ultimate purpose in the world Stability of the world … value of repeatability Ways of Knowing:  Ways of Knowing LOGIC All human beings are mortal Tigger is mortal Tigger is a human being Slide30:  Babies are illogical; Nobody is despised who can manage a crocodile; Illogical persons are despised Answer: Babies cannot manage a crocodile GIGO Ways of Knowing:  Ways of Knowing SENSORY EXPERIENCE “ Seeing is Believing” Ways of Knowing:  Ways of Knowing TESTIMONY OF OTHERS Coherence with Current Worldview Credibility of Speaker Character Knowledge and Expertise Ability to Observe Propensity for Bias / Self Interest Agreement with Others (Corroboration) Problem::  Problem: Experts Disagree Cyclamates, Aspartame, Splenda Global Warming Effects of Motivating with Rewards Honest People Can Be Mistaken Ways of Knowing:  Ways of Knowing PUBLIC TESTING AND REPLICATION ”Scientific Method” Also has problems: Ability to Observe Chosen Methodology Light – Is it a Wave or a Particle? ETHICS:  ETHICS Main Purpose of Research Discover Truth Improve Life ETHICS (At what cost do we research?):  ETHICS (At what cost do we research?) Importance of Research Need for Accurate and Truthful Data Knowledge of participation (Criminal Investigation) Knowledge of reason for participation Deception Misdirection Knowledge of issues being researched Compared to Rights of Participants Lack of Coercion Meaningful Choice Right to confidentiality Parental Protection Weighing of Harm to Benefits Type of Harm Probability of Harm Nazi (Mengele) ETHICS (At what cost do we research?):  ETHICS (At what cost do we research?) Protecting Relationships Ability to do research again at that locale Public perception & willingness to participate Truthfulness & Honesty in Reporting Selective reporting Truthful reporting Reporting known biases & prejudices Reporting limitations of research Methodology Proper selection of sample (participants) Impartial and unbiased data collection Non-influence of data results Slide45:  Dr. Joseph Mengele Auschwitz Studies on Twins Dr. Stanley Milgram Yale University Studies on Authority and Obedience Evaluating Research:  Evaluating Research Any Ethical Problems? But not all poor research is unethical… Learn that what some people claim is research … really is not. Learn how to evaluate research (research questions, sampling, methodology, subjectivity, data analysis Learn that good research is sometimes misreported or selectively reported. Learn to identify the limitations of research Realize that no research is perfect and to discern the wheat from the chaff. Slide47:  What is the purpose of his research? What is his actual research question? What is his goal? Does he disclose his methodology? Any inherent problems with that methodology? Do you see any problems in the way he reports his findings? Do you see any bias or possible ethical issues? Michael Moore Does a Bit of Research Slide48:  Overall Theme: The fact that Americans are not as generous with social programs thereby yielding more needy people, together with the fact that our government insists on inducing constant fear and distrust causes Americans to be less social and to rely more on weapons to get what they want. Specific Purpose of Study: Are Canadians more trusting than Americans? Michael Moore Does a Bit of Research Some things he doesn’t tell us…:  Some things he doesn’t tell us… Where is the study conducted? Sarnia, Canada Toronto, Canada Slide50:  Detroit Media Market Toronto Some things he doesn’t tell us…:  Some things he doesn’t tell us… Where is the study conducted? Sarnia, Canada Toronto, Canada When was it conducted in Toronto? Canada Day Canada Day was established by statute in 1879, under the name Dominion Day.  It is a commemoration of the day in 1867 that the first colonies of British North America entered Confederation as the Dominion of Canada.  Canada Day is celebrated with barbecues, parades, music, and of course fireworks in the evening. Some things he doesn’t tell us…:  Some things he doesn’t tell us… What does he ask them? “Do you lock your door when you are at home…?” Questions: How many homes does he go to? What kind of neighborhoods? Comparative Study Compares with what? Next Class :  Next Class MAIS 599: Research Preparation: Evaluation and Practice Literature Reviews & Using a Computer in Literature Reviews

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