5490 Week 8 Part 2 Lecture

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Information about 5490 Week 8 Part 2 Lecture
Education

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: Enosh13

Source: authorstream.com

Week 8 (Part 2) Self-Management & Social Stories: Week 8 (Part 2) Self-Management & Social Stories Self-Management: Self-Management Self-management: Self-management Independence in a variety of situations Antecedent Based Self-Management Strategies Self-Monitoring Self-Administered Consequences Other Self-Management Tactics Self-management: Self-management These interventions involve: promoting independence by teaching individuals with ASD to regulate their behavior by recording the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the target behavior, and securing reinforcement for doing so. Benefits of Self-Management : Benefits of Self-Management students become more independent, self-reliant, and responsible for their own behavior and less dependent on external controls and continuous supervision • have an opportunity to participate in the design and implementation of their own behavior management programs, rather than traditional “top down” external contingency approaches • acquire a “pivotal” skill that facilitates generalization of adaptive behavior, supports autonomy, and has the potential to produce long lasting behavioral improvements across a range of contexts. Evidence: Evidence Self-management meets criteria for being an evidence-based practice within the early childhood elementary, middle, and high school age groups. This practice can be used to promote the development of play, social, adaptive, behavior, and language/communication skills. With what ages is self-management effective? :  With what ages is self-management effective? Self-management interventions can be used across the age range starting in early childhood through high school to help learners with ASD acquire key skills needed to interact with others, initiate and maintain conversations, develop self-help skills, and reduce interfering behaviors (e.g., stereotypic, disruptive behaviors) What skills or intervention goals can be addressed by self-management? :  What skills or intervention goals can be addressed by self-management? Self-management interventions can be used to reduce inappropriate and interfering behaviors (disruptive behaviors, not completing school work and chores independently and efficiently, etc.) and to increase social, adaptive, and language/communication skills. What skills or intervention goals can be addressed by self-management? : What skills or intervention goals can be addressed by self-management? Specific skills that were the focus of interventions in the evidence-based studies include giving compliments to others, responding to others, sharing, increasing on-task behavior, initiating interactions, reducing the occurrence of interfering behaviors, promoting daily living skills, increasing play skills, and conversing with others. Summary: Summary Effective implementation of self-management interventions involves teaching learners how to independently (a) self-monitor and discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate behavior, (b) accurately self-record whether they have behaved appropriately or inappropriately, and (c) self-reinforce or request for reinforcement when they have met a predetermined behavior criterion. Summary: Summary To promote independence with the self-management system and further improve the learner's behavior, the behavior criterion and session length should be gradually increased over time. Story-Based Intervention: Story-Based Intervention Story-Based Intervention Package: Story-Based Intervention Package Use written descriptions of the target behavior Situations in which the behaviors should occur Likely outcome of performing the behaviors Who / what / when / where and why Increase perspective taking skills Story-Based Intervention Package: Story-Based Intervention Package The National Standards Project considers Story-Based Intervention Packages as an “established” treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. With what ages is story-based intervention effective?: With what ages is story-based intervention effective? The evidence-based research suggests that social narratives can be used effectively with learners with ASD. In the evidence base, children and youth ranging in age from early childhood to middle school who were identified as having ASD, autism, PDD-NOS, and Asperger’s served as participants. What skills or intervention goals can be addressed? : What skills or intervention goals can be addressed? address behavioral difficulties teach social skills promote effective and appropriate communication. What skills or intervention goals can be addressed ? : What skills or intervention goals can be addressed ? In the evidence base, studies targeted the following skills or behaviors: repetitive behavior, social interactions, disruptive behavior, generalization of independent behavior, expression of frustration, choice-making and play, and on-task behavior . Social Stories: Social Stories Social Stories™ are the most well known story-based interventions and they seek to answer the “who,” “what,” “when,” “where,” and “why” in order Social Stories: Social Stories Social stories help children understand social interactions, situations, expectations, social cues, the script of unfamiliar activities, and/or social rules. Social Stories: Social Stories They are brief descriptive stories that provide information regarding a social situation. When children are given information that helps them understand the expectations of a situation, their problem behavior within that situation is reduced or minimized. Social Stories: Social Stories strategies that can help individuals: recognize the impact of their behavior on others; develop new skills and the motivation to use them effectively navigate difficult situations. Writing a Social Story: Writing a Social Story Begin by observing the child in the situation you are addressing. Try to take on the child’s perspective and include aspects of his or her feelings or views in the story. Include usual occurrences in the social situation, clear “expectations”, and the perspective of others, along with considering possible variations. Writing a Social Story: Writing a Social Story There are three types of sentences used in writing Scripted Story: Descriptive sentences Perspective sentences Directive sentences Steps for Implementation :  Steps for Implementation Step 1. Identifying the Social Situation for the Intervention Teachers/practitioners refer to IEP or IFSP for learner‟s goals. Teachers/practitioners discuss goals with IFSP/IEP team members, including family and learner. Teachers/practitioners select a social behavior for change, preferably one that will result in positive social interactions, a safer environment, additional social learning opportunities, or all three. Steps for Implementation :  Steps for Implementation Step 2. Defining the Target Behavior or Skill Teachers/practitioners clearly define the target behavior or skill so that it is observable and measurable. Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 3. Collecting Baseline Data Teachers/practitioners determine the type of data (e.g., permanent product, assessment) needed to assess the target skill. Teachers/practitioners collect data on at least three occasions over three to five days to identify the baseline skills of the learner before beginning the intervention . Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 5. Choosing the Appropriate Length of Story Teachers/practitioners select a number of sentences per page that are appropriate for the learner’s functioning level and age. Teachers/practitioners construct each sentence (or page) to allow the learner to focus on a specific concept. Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 6. Including Photos, Picture Icons, or Hand-drawn Pictures Teachers/practitioners use visuals that are appropriate for the individual learner. If appropriate, teachers/practitioners include the learner in creating or selecting pictures to include. Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 7. Implementing the Social Narrative Teachers/practitioners use the social narrative as a regular part of the learner‟s daily schedule. Teachers/practitioners read the social narrative to the learner, or the learner is encouraged to read it aloud or silently as part of the daily routine. Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 8. Monitoring Learner Progress 1. Teachers/practitioners collect data to measure the effectiveness of narrative intervention on the target behavior or skill for a minimum of two weeks. 2. Teachers/practitioners ask others who work or live with the learner to collect data on the target behavior across settings. . Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 9. Reviewing Data and Modifying the Narrative if Necessary Depending on intervention findings, teachers/practitioners may continue to use the narrative, increase use of the narrative, or adapt the narrative. When the social narrative procedures are altered (modification in narrative or frequency), teachers/practitioners change only one variable at a time. Teachers/practitioners collect and review data following each adaptation or change . Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation Step 10. Addressing Generalization and Maintenance of Learned Behavior or Skill Teachers/practitioners promote generalization of the target skill by including multiple peers and/or adults in the social narrative process. Teachers/practitioners promote maintenance of the target skill by fading the use of the narrative and by increasing the time between readings, and/or by having the learner progress from read-aloud to silent reading. If the learner begins to show signs of returning to target baseline levels, the social narrative is reintroduced. Steps for Implementation: Steps for Implementation These steps for implementation were adapted from: Wragge , A. (2008). Social narratives: Online training module. (Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Education). In Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI), Autism Internet Modules, www.autisminternetmodules.org. Columbus, OH: OCALI . Summary: Summary While no large-scale research studies have been done on the effectiveness of social narratives for individuals with ASD, many small studies have reported moderate to substantial gains in self-awareness, self-calming, and self-management (Myles & Simpson, 2003).

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