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5 Key Chart Project Management (TM) Methodology

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Information about 5 Key Chart Project Management (TM) Methodology
Technology

Published on January 13, 2009

Author: jmcmahon89

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Supercharge and streamline your project management by using 5 Key Charts and 5 Key Documents. It's simple and powerful!
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Project Management in Real Life How to balance creative chaos and control

Objectives Be able to implement at least one new project management tool tomorrow Be able to eventually set up your own PMO

Be able to implement at least one new project management tool tomorrow

Be able to eventually set up your own PMO

Agenda Why bother? Project Management principles Methodology Scoping & Estimating Planning Managing People Agile techniques Manifesto Scrum, RUP, XP Test-driven development

Why bother?

Project Management principles

Methodology

Scoping & Estimating

Planning

Managing

People

Agile techniques

Manifesto

Scrum, RUP, XP

Test-driven development

Intros Take 10 seconds to tell us Your name What you do Your workshop goals

Take 10 seconds to tell us

Your name

What you do

Your workshop goals

Preview - The 5 Key Charts Estimated Finish Final Cost People QPI Quality

Preview - The 5 Key documents Scope Change Form Issues Log Project Plan Status Report Quality Checklists

Why Bother? Your projects are late, over-budget, low margin, shipping with bugs You & your team are pulling heroics to keep things under control You & your team are burned out.

Your projects are late, over-budget, low margin, shipping with bugs

You & your team are pulling heroics to keep things under control

You & your team are burned out.

Why Bother? % of projects with large schedule slips Software Engineering Institute

% of projects with large schedule slips

Software Engineering Institute

What is a project? Achieve objectives Produce deliverables Start and end date Consume resources (people, $)

Achieve objectives

Produce deliverables

Start and end date

Consume resources (people, $)

Methodology Methodology: codified, repeatable set of methods & tools PM methodology Set of standard PM processes & deliverables Project Methodology IT project: Propose, Define, Design, Develop, Test, Go-Live, Support Construction: Feasibility, Planning & Design, Production, Turnover & Startup RUP: Inception, Elaboration, Construction, Transition

Methodology: codified, repeatable set of methods & tools

PM methodology

Set of standard PM processes & deliverables

Project Methodology

IT project: Propose, Define, Design, Develop, Test, Go-Live, Support

Construction: Feasibility, Planning & Design, Production, Turnover & Startup

RUP: Inception, Elaboration, Construction, Transition

PM & Project Methodologies Propose Define Develop Conclude Design Test Structure & Plan Conclude Assess, Report, Control Proposal Proposal Charter Workplan Milestones Requiremts Site map Wireframes Use cases Graphic design Technical architecture Logical design Physical design System components Unit System User acceptance Documen-tation Training Code control Scope Change Log Issues Management Log Risk Management Log Weekly status reports 5 Key charts Customer feedback Admin. closure

Proposal

Proposal

Charter

Workplan

Milestones

Requiremts

Site map

Wireframes

Use cases

Graphic design

Technical architecture

Logical design

Physical design

System components

Unit

System

User acceptance

Documen-tation

Training

Code control

Scope Change Log

Issues Management Log

Risk Management Log

Weekly status reports

5 Key charts

Customer feedback

Admin. closure

The Scope Triangle Good Cheap Fast

The Triangle, again Scope Specifications/ Quality Time/ Schedule Budget/ Cost

Scoping Proposal/Charter/Statement of Work/Contract Objectives: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Reach (realistic), Time-bound Deliverables: Include PM & standard project deliverables from methodology! Functionality In scope & Out of scope Schedule Team (Roles & Responsibilities) Process: Include PM! Terms Cost Requirements/Design/Specs

Proposal/Charter/Statement of Work/Contract

Objectives: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Reach (realistic), Time-bound

Deliverables: Include PM & standard project deliverables from methodology!

Functionality In scope & Out of scope

Schedule

Team (Roles & Responsibilities)

Process: Include PM!

Terms

Cost

Requirements/Design/Specs

Estimating Decomposition (microscopic/bottom-up) Have at least 2 levels of abstraction Analogy (micro or macro) Delphi with feedback: get experts to go away & estimate, bring group together & show estimates, then re-estimate. Macro Modeling (heuristic, phenomenological). Derived from basic “physics” about how projects work. Observe key project variables (time, money, scope, quality, people) and make an equation. Use Excel to get a regression. Design to cost or duration. Here’s what we can do with what’s available. PERT t e =(best case + worst case + 4*most likely)/6

Decomposition (microscopic/bottom-up)

Have at least 2 levels of abstraction

Analogy (micro or macro)

Delphi with feedback: get experts to go away & estimate, bring group together & show estimates, then re-estimate.

Macro

Modeling (heuristic, phenomenological). Derived from basic “physics” about how projects work. Observe key project variables (time, money, scope, quality, people) and make an equation. Use Excel to get a regression.

Design to cost or duration. Here’s what we can do with what’s available.

PERT t e =(best case + worst case + 4*most likely)/6

Planning the work ODW Objectives --> Deliverables --> Workplan WBS Break down by phase, by product, activity, location… Uniqueness OAK: One Arse to Kick. Exactly one person’s name per task, or no-one’s responsible. (No organizations.) One task for a given person & date combo Grammar Tasks verb-noun, “Complete design document” Milestones noun-verb, “Design Complete”

ODW

Objectives --> Deliverables --> Workplan

WBS

Break down by phase, by product, activity, location…

Uniqueness

OAK: One Arse to Kick. Exactly one person’s name per task, or no-one’s responsible. (No organizations.)

One task for a given person & date combo

Grammar

Tasks verb-noun, “Complete design document”

Milestones noun-verb, “Design Complete”

Planning the work, 2 Effort versus Duration Effort (work) is the number of person-hours expended to do the task. Duration is how long it takes from beginning to end. Duration = work/resource allocation Tips Tasks, dependencies, durations, resources Use F-S relationships Ask the people doing the tasks for estimates!! Tasks 0.5 to 10 days, ideal 2-5 days Milestones & summary tasks - no person names Beware the Mythical Man-Month (Fred Brooks)!

Effort versus Duration

Effort (work) is the number of person-hours expended to do the task.

Duration is how long it takes from beginning to end.

Duration = work/resource allocation

Tips

Tasks, dependencies, durations, resources

Use F-S relationships

Ask the people doing the tasks for estimates!!

Tasks 0.5 to 10 days, ideal 2-5 days

Milestones & summary tasks - no person names

Beware the Mythical Man-Month (Fred Brooks)!

Planning Tools Stickies, index cards, string, whiteboard Great for brainstorming, communicating! Word & Excel Simple to-do list, no dependencies, little tracking. Task, Due, Responsible, Status “ Groupware” Track & communicates to-do’s, milestones, files BaseCamp, SharePoint Bugzilla, Mantis, Trac - issue tracking Desktop tools MSProject - de facto standard OmniPlan, Merlin, some web-based Portfolio Management (Enterprise) MSProject Sever, Project.net, Primavera, Clarity

Stickies, index cards, string, whiteboard

Great for brainstorming, communicating!

Word & Excel

Simple to-do list, no dependencies, little tracking.

Task, Due, Responsible, Status

“ Groupware”

Track & communicates to-do’s, milestones, files

BaseCamp, SharePoint

Bugzilla, Mantis, Trac - issue tracking

Desktop tools

MSProject - de facto standard

OmniPlan, Merlin, some web-based

Portfolio Management (Enterprise)

MSProject Sever, Project.net, Primavera, Clarity

Views - Gantt chart

Views - Network Diagram (PERT chart)

Working the plan Baselining Tracking Gantt Binary statusing “ Plan at level 3, manage at level 2” Action Items versus updating plan When does it go on the plan (versus in someone’s to-do list?) When it’s required to complete a deliverable When someone else is dependent on the output When it’s longer than x hours (4) in effort When it’s important enough for the team to know about

Baselining

Tracking Gantt

Binary statusing

“ Plan at level 3, manage at level 2”

Action Items versus updating plan

When does it go on the plan (versus in someone’s to-do list?)

When it’s required to complete a deliverable

When someone else is dependent on the output

When it’s longer than x hours (4) in effort

When it’s important enough for the team to know about

Working the plan 2 Meetings Collaborative plan development First use Gantt to walk everyone through the plan (1+ hours) Then can use personal to-do lists from PM tool

Meetings

Collaborative plan development

First use Gantt to walk everyone through the plan (1+ hours)

Then can use personal to-do lists from PM tool

Critical Path Management Critical Path is the longest path through the project plan. If any task on the critical path slips, the end date slips. Zero float. Must have successors to each task (dependencies) to calculate Possible to have multiple critical branches. “ Float” = duration until critical, =LF-EF “ Manage The Critical Path” And then know what’s likely to become critical. If you’re strapped for time, make sure you at least know what’s going on with your critical path.

Critical Path is the longest path through the project plan. If any task on the critical path slips, the end date slips. Zero float.

Must have successors to each task (dependencies) to calculate

Possible to have multiple critical branches.

“ Float” = duration until critical, =LF-EF

“ Manage The Critical Path”

And then know what’s likely to become critical.

If you’re strapped for time, make sure you at least know what’s going on with your critical path.

Views - Tracking Gantt

Resource Leveling MSProject or other PM tool Use Resource Usage view, adjust hours in daily yellow blocks Move start date, stretch duration of non-critical tasks, reassign. Otherwise Spreadsheet: People on one axis, days/weeks on other, hours in cells Look out for micro-managing

MSProject or other PM tool

Use Resource Usage view, adjust hours in daily yellow blocks

Move start date, stretch duration of non-critical tasks, reassign.

Otherwise

Spreadsheet: People on one axis, days/weeks on other, hours in cells

Look out for micro-managing

Views - Resource Graph

Views - Resource Usage

Scope Management Scope Change Request Form Client fills out form Estimator estimates Client approves/denies Work begins Scope Change Log Note well: ANY Change Request takes resources to process, even if it’s a zero-dollar, zero-time change.

Scope Change Request Form

Client fills out form

Estimator estimates

Client approves/denies

Work begins

Scope Change Log

Note well: ANY Change Request takes resources to process, even if it’s a zero-dollar, zero-time change.

Scope change request form

Schedule Management (“crashing the schedule”) If there’s a schedule issue, your levers are Schedule . Check critical path for date constraints, task dependencies, durations, task drivers, serial vs. parallel Scope . Toss out the lowest-priority items first. It’s much easier for clients to remember it was late than it was missing their least favorite function points. Quality . Look for perfectionism that can be downgraded to “good enough”. Cost . Put more people on it (Fred Brooks: “Adding manpower to a late project makes it later”). People . Burn out your people. Heroics often works, but not reliable or sustainable.

If there’s a schedule issue, your levers are

Schedule . Check critical path for date constraints, task dependencies, durations, task drivers, serial vs. parallel

Scope . Toss out the lowest-priority items first. It’s much easier for clients to remember it was late than it was missing their least favorite function points.

Quality . Look for perfectionism that can be downgraded to “good enough”.

Cost . Put more people on it (Fred Brooks: “Adding manpower to a late project makes it later”).

People . Burn out your people. Heroics often works, but not reliable or sustainable.

Estimated Finish Chart

Quality Management Ensure product meets customer needs Early = cheap QA the proposal, the requirements & the design Standards & Guidelines Checklists: proposal, reqmts, design, test Learn as you go! Process Documentation & Improvement TQM/6-sigma. Document, measure, manage. Management or peer review Testing Traceability. From reqmts to design to test cases. Agile & iterative techniques

Ensure product meets customer needs

Early = cheap

QA the proposal, the requirements & the design

Standards & Guidelines

Checklists: proposal, reqmts, design, test

Learn as you go!

Process Documentation & Improvement

TQM/6-sigma. Document, measure, manage.

Management or peer review

Testing

Traceability. From reqmts to design to test cases.

Agile & iterative techniques

Quality Measurement Tests passed

Example regression test checklist

Budget Management Final project cost Estimate weekly & chart Forces PM to know how much has been spent, how much is estimated to be spent QPI = Quick Performance Index % spent / % done Like earned value (get $ credit for tasks completed), but easier to compute & more sensitive to decisions - watch the trend. 1.0 = “ideal” >1 = spending too fast or investing or making advance payments <1 = usually not fully resourced, going to miss date.

Final project cost

Estimate weekly & chart

Forces PM to know how much has been spent, how much is estimated to be spent

QPI = Quick Performance Index

% spent / % done

Like earned value (get $ credit for tasks completed), but easier to compute & more sensitive to decisions - watch the trend.

1.0 = “ideal”

>1 = spending too fast or investing or making advance payments

<1 = usually not fully resourced, going to miss date.

Final project cost

Quick Performance Index

Issues Management Issue = an item which potentially impacts scope, quality, cost, schedule, or people. Issue reporting process Anyone can report an issue. First to PM Escalate if necessary through management. PM owns the “logging & dogging” of all project issues. All issues reported on weekly status report. Issue log or tracking system

Issue = an item which potentially impacts scope, quality, cost, schedule, or people.

Issue reporting process

Anyone can report an issue.

First to PM

Escalate if necessary through management.

PM owns the “logging & dogging” of all project issues.

All issues reported on weekly status report.

Issue log or tracking system

Issue log

Status report

Risk Management Description - what can we videotape going wrong? Avoidance - get to not happen Contingency - what we do if it does happen Probability - how likely to happen (H/M/L or numeric or percentage) Severity - damage caused if it happened (H/M/L or numeric or $$)

Description - what can we videotape going wrong?

Avoidance - get to not happen

Contingency - what we do if it does happen

Probability - how likely to happen (H/M/L or numeric or percentage)

Severity - damage caused if it happened (H/M/L or numeric or $$)

Program management Status Critical Path Issues Management Dashboard KPI’s 5 key charts and/or other measures

Status

Critical Path

Issues Management

Dashboard

KPI’s

5 key charts and/or other measures

Program dashboard Green = on track Yellow = issues, may not make it Red = not going to make it, or didn’t

Green = on track

Yellow = issues, may not make it

Red = not going to make it, or didn’t

People The soft part is the hard part People are the most complex & least understood driver of success. Energy level, skills, focus, personality, values, experiences, feelings, culture. Overwork, multitasking, clear objectives, clear role, trust, communication. Use the “People Chart”! Names: Mood, Morale, Project Confidence Chart Look for scatter and for trends. The process itself is healthy & expressive.

The soft part is the hard part

People are the most complex & least understood driver of success.

Energy level, skills, focus, personality, values, experiences, feelings, culture.

Overwork, multitasking, clear objectives, clear role, trust, communication.

Use the “People Chart”!

Names: Mood, Morale, Project Confidence Chart

Look for scatter and for trends.

The process itself is healthy & expressive.

People Chart

People - Appreciative inquiry Effective Questions, building on strengths Team meetings What worked well? What did we do to make it work? What’s the objective? What are the benefits of achieving the objective? What do we need to do next? Issues log Ideal outcome

Effective Questions, building on strengths

Team meetings

What worked well?

What did we do to make it work?

What’s the objective?

What are the benefits of achieving the objective?

What do we need to do next?

Issues log

Ideal outcome

Putting it all together - The 5 Key Charts Estimated Finish Final Cost People QPI Quality

Putting it all together - The 5 Key documents Scope Change Form Issues Log Project Plan Status Report Quality Checklists

Key agile principles Agilemanifesto.org Early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Trust team Face-to-face conversation. Working software is the primary measure of progress. Sustainable development. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. Self-organizing teams.

Agilemanifesto.org

Early and continuous delivery of valuable software.

Welcome changing requirements, even late in development.

Trust team

Face-to-face conversation.

Working software is the primary measure of progress.

Sustainable development.

Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential.

Self-organizing teams.

Scrum One month timeboxes - working tested software at end. Don’t add to iteration Self-organizing teams Daily build Daily Scrum meetings 10-15 minutes What have you done since last time, what plans till next time, what are your blocks? Blocks gone in 1 day, decisions in 1 hour Product & Release Backlog Sprint “burndown” Scrum master firewall

One month timeboxes - working tested software at end.

Don’t add to iteration

Self-organizing teams

Daily build

Daily Scrum meetings

10-15 minutes

What have you done since last time, what plans till next time, what are your blocks?

Blocks gone in 1 day, decisions in 1 hour

Product & Release Backlog

Sprint “burndown”

Scrum master firewall

Example Burndown

Extreme Programming (XP) Planning Game (story cards) Small, frequent releases System metaphors Simple design Testing Frequent refactoring Pair programming Team code ownership Continuous integration Sustainable pace Whole team together Coding standards

Planning Game (story cards)

Small, frequent releases

System metaphors

Simple design

Testing

Frequent refactoring

Pair programming

Team code ownership

Continuous integration

Sustainable pace

Whole team together

Coding standards

RUP (Unified Process) Short timeboxed iterations - peeling the onion. Phased approach Inception - Establish a common vision Elaboration - Build & test risky core Construction - Build & test the rest Transition - Deploy Develop high-risk & high-value elements first Accommodate change early 50 optional “artifacts”, models Manage requirements Visual modeling (UML) Continuously verify quality

Short timeboxed iterations - peeling the onion.

Phased approach

Inception - Establish a common vision

Elaboration - Build & test risky core

Construction - Build & test the rest

Transition - Deploy

Develop high-risk & high-value elements first

Accommodate change early

50 optional “artifacts”, models

Manage requirements

Visual modeling (UML)

Continuously verify quality

Resources PMI - Project Management Institute: www.pmi.org PMBOK - Project Management Body of Knowledge AgileManifesto.org, AgileAlliance.org Craig Larman Agile & Iterative Development

PMI - Project Management Institute: www.pmi.org

PMBOK - Project Management Body of Knowledge

AgileManifesto.org, AgileAlliance.org

Craig Larman Agile & Iterative Development

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