Published on March 9, 2014
Structure of aliphatic hydrocarbons
Aliphatic hydrocarbons Aliphatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that consist of straight or branched chains of carbon atoms, or rings of carbon atoms other than those containing a special ring called a benzene ring
Pentane – a straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbon
A branched chain hydrocarbon
Cyclohexane – a cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbon
Homologous series A homologous series is a family of organic compounds with the same general formula, similar chemical properties, and successive members differing by CH2 Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are three different homologous series of aliphatic hydrocarbons
Alkanes Alkanes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2 They are named systematically, with a prefix indicating the number of carbon atoms per molecule, and the ending “ane”
Alkanes Methane Ethane C2H6 Propane Butane CH4 C3H8 C4H10 Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18
Alkanes Alkane molecules are tetrahedral, e.g. propane
Structural formulas The structural formula of an alkane indicates the way atoms in a molecule of the alkane are bonded together The following slides show the structural formulas of some of the alkanes
Structural isomers Structural isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas Butane (C4H10)is the simplest alkane which has structural isomers, called butane and 2methylpropane respectively The name 2-methylpropane indicates that there is a methyl (CH3) group attached instead of one of the hydrogen atoms to the second carbon in propane
Isomers of butane
An isomer of octane (C8H18) 2,2,4-trimethylpentane is so called because there are two methyl groups attached (in place of hydrogen atoms) to the second carbon atom and one (in place of another hydrogen atom) to the fourth carbon atom in a pentane molecule
Physical properties of alkanes Physical state: The first four alkanes are gases, while pentane and higher alkanes are liquids Insoluble in water Soluble in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane
Alkenes Alkenes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n They are named systematically, with a prefix indicating the number of carbon atoms per molecule, and the ending “ene”
Alkenes Ethene C2H4 Propene C3H6 But-1-ene C4H8 But-2-ene C4H8
Physical properties of alkenes Physical state: Gases Insoluble Soluble in water in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane
Alkynes Alkynes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n-2 Ethyne (C2H2) is the first member of the series
Physical properties of ethyne Physical state: Gas Insoluble in water Soluble in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane
... aromatic compounds and aliphatic ... Structure. Aliphatic compounds ... Aliphatic acids are the acids of nonaromatic hydrocarbons, such ...
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Multiple choice questions: 1. The catalytic hydrogenation is more easier is case of which alkenes: (a) (b) (c ...
Because of differences in molecular structure, ... aliphatic hydrocarbons: Alkanes C n H (2n + 2) Linear alkanes: Methane; Ethane; Propane; Butane; Pentane ...
Classes of Hydrocarbons ... each other The two structures are ... Hydrocarbons Aromatic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Aliphatic ...
This is the definition of aliphatic hydrocarbon ... This is the chemical structure ... Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Definition: An aliphatic compound is ...
Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into three main groups according to ... The structure with the lowest total energy is the most stable and corresponds ...
Looking for online definition of aliphatic hydrocarbon in the Medical Dictionary? aliphatic ... one that has cyclic structure and aliphatic ...
Structure Search; Learn Chemistry > Wiki > Substances > Substance: ... List_of_aliphatic_hydrocarbons" Categories: Hydrocarbons | Lists. Navigation Main page;