5.2 structure of aliphatic hydrocarbons

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Information about 5.2 structure of aliphatic hydrocarbons
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Published on March 9, 2014

Author: brownm7

Source: slideshare.net

Structure of aliphatic hydrocarbons

Aliphatic hydrocarbons  Aliphatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that consist of straight or branched chains of carbon atoms, or rings of carbon atoms other than those containing a special ring called a benzene ring

Pentane – a straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbon

A branched chain hydrocarbon

Cyclohexane – a cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbon

Homologous series  A homologous series is a family of organic compounds with the same general formula, similar chemical properties, and successive members differing by CH2  Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes are three different homologous series of aliphatic hydrocarbons

Alkanes  Alkanes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2  They are named systematically, with a prefix indicating the number of carbon atoms per molecule, and the ending “ane”

Alkanes  Methane  Ethane C2H6  Propane  Butane CH4 C3H8 C4H10  Pentane  Hexane  Heptane  Octane C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18

Alkanes  Alkane molecules are tetrahedral, e.g. propane

Structural formulas  The structural formula of an alkane indicates the way atoms in a molecule of the alkane are bonded together  The following slides show the structural formulas of some of the alkanes

Methane

Ethane

Propane

Butane

Pentane

Structural isomers    Structural isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas Butane (C4H10)is the simplest alkane which has structural isomers, called butane and 2methylpropane respectively The name 2-methylpropane indicates that there is a methyl (CH3) group attached instead of one of the hydrogen atoms to the second carbon in propane

Isomers of butane

An isomer of octane (C8H18)  2,2,4-trimethylpentane is so called because there are two methyl groups attached (in place of hydrogen atoms) to the second carbon atom and one (in place of another hydrogen atom) to the fourth carbon atom in a pentane molecule

Physical properties of alkanes  Physical state: The first four alkanes are gases, while pentane and higher alkanes are liquids  Insoluble in water  Soluble in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane

Alkenes  Alkenes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n  They are named systematically, with a prefix indicating the number of carbon atoms per molecule, and the ending “ene”

Alkenes  Ethene C2H4  Propene C3H6  But-1-ene C4H8  But-2-ene C4H8

Ethene

Propene

But-1-ene

But-2-ene

Physical properties of alkenes  Physical state: Gases  Insoluble  Soluble in water in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane

Alkynes  Alkynes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n-2  Ethyne (C2H2) is the first member of the series

Physical properties of ethyne  Physical state: Gas  Insoluble in water  Soluble in non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane

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