4Unit 1

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Information about 4Unit 1
Education

Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Siro

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Unit One Happiness:  Unit One Happiness  Preparation  Listening-Centered Activities  Reading-Centered Activities Preparation:  Preparation Questions for discussion. 1. The definition of happiness In the discussion, you may take the following factors into your consideration. 1. Factors contributing to happiness. 2. Is happiness a passive attainment? Or do you think that you have to work at being happy? 3. Is happiness just a personal matter? Definition of happiness:  Definition of happiness Happiness is a feeling of contentment coming from being well or doing well or a feeling of satisfaction at having got what one wanted. 2. Do you think that fun and pleasure are equal to happiness? Are they the same thing? :  2. Do you think that fun and pleasure are equal to happiness? Are they the same thing? Achieving happiness inevitably involves pain, the opposing side of fun. In many cases, fun is only temporary, which would not lead to any real happiness. Stories Behind the Faces:  Stories Behind the Faces Directions: work in groups to produce a sequence of three faces. Think of the story the sequence tries to convey. Exchange the drawings with another group and try to tell story according to the faces you get. One of the faces should be smiling, and the others may have any expression you wish. Here are three sequences of pictures, you may choose any one of them to make up your story.:  Here are three sequences of pictures, you may choose any one of them to make up your story. Happiness Test:  Happiness Test Step one Take the following happiness test to find out whether you are happy or not. On a scale of 1 to 7, indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. 1-Strongly disagree 2-Disagree 3-Slightly disagree 4-Neither agree nor disagree 5-Slightly agree 6-Agree 7-Strongly agree a. In most ways my life is close to my ideal. ______ b. The conditions of my life are very good. _______ c. I am satisfied with my life. __________ d. So far I think I have been quite lucky. ________ e. If I could live the past 5 years over again, I would change almost nothing. ________ B. Interpret Your Score :  B. Interpret Your Score 5-9 Extremely dissatisfied with your life 10-14 Very dissatisfied 15-19 Slightly dissatisfied 20 Neutral 21-25 Somewhat satisfied 26-30 Very satisfied 31-35 Extremely satisfied Step Two Discuss the following questions in groups.:  Step Two Discuss the following questions in groups. What aspect about yourself are you most satisfied with? What aspect about yourself are you most dissatisfied with? Will you be happier after graduation? Listening-Centered Activities:  Listening-Centered Activities Listening I Exercise I Directions: The passage you are going to hear is composed of three parts. Listen to it carefully and fill in the blanks with the information you get from the tape. Barcelona Spanish grin profoundly commentator Slide11:  The study and its finding Conclusion More supporting evidence from further observations The analysis of the facial_ Expressions of 22 Olympic gold medal winner at the medal ceremonies They didn’t smile very much at the medal ceremonies. Smiling is a form of communication between individuals. When we are all alone, we usually don’t smile to ourselves when we are happy. Exercise II Directions: Listen to the passage again and choose the best answer for each question you hear from the tape.:  Exercise II Directions: Listen to the passage again and choose the best answer for each question you hear from the tape. What’s the nationality of the researchers? B. How much of time did the gold medal winners smile? A When did the athletes smile quite a lot? C How did the gold medal winners feel during the ceremony? D On which occasions would we not smile? A Which is true? D Listening II:  Listening II Exercise I Directions: Listen to the TV interview and fill in the table with the information you get from the tape. well-being Sherwood Portugal Holland lottery Exercise II Directions: Listen to the interview again and work in groups to answer the questions and complete the following sentences.:  Exercise II Directions: Listen to the interview again and work in groups to answer the questions and complete the following sentences. What does the interviewer compare wealth to? Wealth is like health. If you don’t have your health or if you are extremely poor, you will be miserable. How does Professor Sherwood define the word “happiness”? Happiness is wanting what we have rather than getting what we want Do you agree with their opinions? Give your reason. In-class Reading:  In-class Reading 1. Understanding the Main Idea of the Passage :  1. Understanding the Main Idea of the Passage 1) Introduction (Para. 1): A question is raised: What engenders a sense of well-being/happiness? 2) Different speculations about the source of happiness in history (Para. 2): A. Ancient philosophers believed that happiness accompanied a life of intelligent reflection. B. Competing ideas about the source of happiness in later centuries: a. Happiness comes from living a virtuous life versus indulging pleasures. b. Happiness comes from knowing the truth versus preserving illusions. c. Happiness comes from restraint versus getting rid of rage and misery. Slide18:  3) Some myths about happiness that have been exploded by social scientists (Para. 3- 6): A. Question: Does happiness favor people of a particular age? Answer: No. Knowing someone's age gives no clue to the person's lasting sense of well-being. B. Question: Does happiness have a favorite sex? Answer: No. Like age, gender gives no clue to subjective well-being. C. Question: Are steady improvements in the economy accompanied by increasing happiness? Answer: Not necessarily. Steady improvements in the economy are not accompanied by a steady increase in people's assessments of their own happiness. Slide19:  4) The four traits of happy people and trait-happiness correlation (Para. 7 - 12): A. The four traits that are typical of happy people (Para. 7- 10): a. Happy people like themselves. b. Happy people typically feel personal control. c. Happy people are usually optimistic. d. Happy people tend to be extroverted. B. Trait-happiness correlation (Para. 11 - 12): a. With each of the trait-happiness correlations, the causal arrows are uncertain. b. Happiness seems changeable only within limits imposed by our genetic makeup. Slide20:  5) The relationships of happy people (Para. 13- 15): Close relationships mark happy lives. Evidence: A. Those who can name several intimate friends are healthier and happier. B. A supportive, intimate, committed marital relationship is among life's greatest satisfactions. During the 1970s and 1980s, more married adults said they were "very happy" than did those who never married. 6) Conclusion (Para. 16): Better clues about happiness come from knowing what traits a person has and whether the person enjoys a supportive network of close relationships. 2. Understanding Specific Information :  2. Understanding Specific Information 1) Happy people can make sound judgments and decisions. 2) Teenagers are somewhat unhappier because their life is full of stress. 3) Men are usually happier than women because they are better paid and enjoy greater social power. 4) If they feel miserable, men are more likely to turn to alcohol than women are. 5) Happy people usually have very positive opinions of themselves. 6) Nursing-home patients are unhappy because they do not feel personal control over their life. Slide22:  7) Pessimists are happier because they can often live up to their own expectations. 8) Introverts are less happy than extroverts though they live a serene and less-stressed life. 9) Our happiness level is determined, to a large extent, by our genes. 10) People are happier when they are with others. 11) Marriage is more closely related to men's happiness than to women's. 12) Happiness depends more on a person's age and gender than on his or her traits. Passage Reading:  Passage Reading 1. Ancient philosophers believed that happiness accompanied a life of intelligent reflection. (l.5-6) The word "reflection" means serious thought or consideration 深思,考虑,想法 a) He doesn't get much time for reflection. b) On reflection, he says, he very much regrets the comments. c) After thirty years as a judge, her reflections on life and justice were well worth listening to. Slide24:  Other meanings of "reflection": 1) an image seen in a mirror or shiny surface (反映出来的)影像 a) She stared at her reflection in the bedroom mirror. b) In Greek mythology, Narcissus fell in love with his own reflection that he saw in a pool of water. 2) the process by which light and heat are sent back from a surface and do not pass through it 反射 a) He put silver foil around the fire to increase heat reflection. b) The reflection of the lights in the rain made driving difficult. 3) something that shows the effects of, or is a sign of, a particular condition, situation, etc. 反映 a) Inhibition in adulthood seems to be very clearly a reflection of a person's experiences as a child. b) His unhappiness is a reflection of his mistaken marriage. 2. Social scientists have exploded some myths about who's happy and who's not by identifying predictors of happiness and life satisfaction. ( l. 13 - 14) :  2. Social scientists have exploded some myths about who's happy and who's not by identifying predictors of happiness and life satisfaction. ( l. 13 - 14) In this sentence, the word "explode" means "prove that something that many people think or believe, is wrong or not true (推翻,戳穿) " a) The privatization of electricity has exploded the myth of cheap nuclear power. b) Such rumors have only recently been exploded. c) This book finally explodes some of the myths about the origin of the universe.(P13) Other meanings of "explode": Slide26:  Other meanings of "explode": 1) burst loudly and with great force, often causing damage or injury爆炸 e.g. They were clearing up when the second bomb exploded. 2) express strong feelings suddenly and violently大发雷霆 e.g. Bess decided that she had better leave before she exploded. 3) increase suddenly and rapidly in number or intensity 激增,迅速扩大 e.g. The population exploded to 40,000 during the tourist season. 3. reveal and conceal :  3. reveal and conceal These two words are antonyms. 1) The word "reveal" means "make known or show something that was previously secret or hidden". a) She has refused to reveal the whereabouts of her daughter. b) A survey of the British diet has revealed that a growing number of people are overweight. 2) The word "conceal" means "prevent something from being seen or known about, hide". a) The entrance to the house is concealed behind high gates. b) Is there something you're concealing from me? 4. in-, im- and ex- :  4. in-, im- and ex- "Introvert" and "extrovert" are antonyms. Similar pairs of antonyms, one with "in-" or "im-"and the other "ex-", are: include--exclude internal—external intrinsic--extrinsic implicit--explicit introvert--extrovert inclusive--exclusive inhale--exhale interior--exterior import—export 5. Living standards have soared during the twentieth century and are expected to continue rising in the decades ahead.(L.30-31) :  5. Living standards have soared during the twentieth century and are expected to continue rising in the decades ahead.(L.30-31) In the twentieth century people’s living standards have largely risen and in the coming few decades this situation will continue. (soar: rise) e.g. Economists believe that the jobless total will soar to 3.5 million by the spring. (quiz 1) 6. Depending on our outlooks and recent experiences, our happiness fluctuates around our happiness set point, which disposes some people to be ever cheerful and others gloomy. ( l. 67 - 69):  6. Depending on our outlooks and recent experiences, our happiness fluctuates around our happiness set point, which disposes some people to be ever cheerful and others gloomy. ( l. 67 - 69) The word "dispose" means "make ready or willing; incline (使有倾向,使愿意) ". a) More pay and shorter hours of work disposed him to take the new job. b) His prejudice disposed him to rule in their favor. Translating the following sentences:  Translating the following sentences 1. The list goes on, but the implication is clear: To discover the truth about happiness, we must ask how these competing ideas relate to reality. ---The list continues, but the implication is clear: To discover the truth about happiness, we must ask how these competing ideas associate with reality. ---对立的观点我们还可以举出很多,但蕴含的意义已经很清楚了:要想了解快乐的真谛,我们必须搞清楚这些相互对立的观点是否贴近现实。 2. Does that mean that we humans can look forward to increasing happiness? :  2. Does that mean that we humans can look forward to increasing happiness? ---Does that mean that we humans can expect to feel pleasure in increasing happiness? ---这是否就意味着我们人类渴望享有更多的幸福呢? 3. It seems that people become less satisfied over time with a given level of income. :  3. It seems that people become less satisfied over time with a given level of income. ---It seems that people become less happy over time about a given level of income. ---随着时间的推移,人们似乎并不怎么满足于已有的收入水平。 4. On self-esteem test, they agree with statements such as “I’m a lot of fun to be with” and “I have good ideas”. :  4. On self-esteem test, they agree with statements such as “I’m a lot of fun to be with” and “I have good ideas”. ---On self-esteem tests, they are in accordance with statements such as “I’m a lot of fun to be with” and “I have good ideas”. ---在自尊测试中,他们对于诸如“与我相处很有趣”,“我有很多好主意”的说法都表示认可。 5. They believe themselves to be more ethical, more intelligent, less prejudiced, better able to get along with others, and healthier than the average person. :  5. They believe themselves to be more ethical, more intelligent, less prejudiced, better able to get along with others, and healthier than the average person. ---They believe themselves to be more ethical, more intelligent, less prejudiced, better able to form a friendly relationship with others, and healthier than the average person. ---他们认为自己比别人道德高尚,更聪明,少偏见,更善于与他人相处,也比常人更健康。 6. Or are outgoing people more enthusiastic and less anxious about reaching out to others? :  6. Or are outgoing people more enthusiastic and less anxious about reaching out to others? ---Or are outgoing people more enthusiastic and less anxious about making contact with others? ---还是外向的人与他人交往更热情,更不拘谨呢? 7. If these traits indeed produce happiness, people who act as if they had high self-esteem begin feeling better about themselves, and people who are urged to smile feel happier. :  7. If these traits indeed produce happiness, people who act as if they had high self-esteem begin feeling better about themselves, and people who are urged to smile feel happier. ---If these traits indeed produce happiness, people who act as if they had high self-esteem begin feeling better about themselves, and people are forced to smile feel happier. ---如果这类性格真能给人带来快乐,那么人们也许可以装作具有这类性格以使自己更快乐些。试验显示了那些佯装自信的人自我感觉真的好起来了,那些强装笑颜的人也更快乐了。 Quiz::  Quiz: 1. The police took drastic ____ against the criminals. A) ways B) methods C) procedures D) measures 2. If you undertake this project, you are bound to ____ many difficulties. A) encounter B) face with C) overcome D) handle Slide39:  3. Tom's mouth watered ____ the big cake. A) in the sight of B) at the sight of C) on the sight of D) with the sight of 4. I have never been to London but that's the city _____. A) where I most like to visit B) I'd most like to visit C) which I like to visit most D) what I'd like most to visit Slide40:  5. When we reached the pier, the ferry had still not arrived; so we _____. A) needn't have hurried B) needed not hurry C) didn't need to hurried D) need not to have hurried 6. The windows were never opened ____ the room for a few minute in the morning. A) except air B) except to air C) besides to air D) except for air Slide41:  7. The garden has been _____. There are weeds growing everywhere. A) ignored B) miscarried C) neglected D) unnoticed 8. I was ____ to find his article on such an ____ topic so ____. A) surprised, excited, bored B) surprised, exciting, boring C) surprising, exciting, boring D) surprising, excited, bored Slide42:  9. In a chemical change, energy cannot be created, _____. A) nor can it be destroyed B) not can it be destroyed C) so can it be not be destroyed D) either it cannot be destroyed 10. ____ one occasion he help an old woman who was in danger _____ the risk of his life. A) In, at B) On, at C) In, with D) At, in Slide43:  11. She ____ the wet clothed on the grass to dry them in the sun. A) settled B) opened C) served D) spread 12. Young adults ____ older people are more likely to prefer pop songs. A) other than B) more than C) less than D) rather than Slide44:  13. Allen placed so much ____ on sports and not enough on his studies. A) agitation B) emphasis C) hesitation D) interest 14. It's already 8 o'clock now. Don't you think it's about time _____? A) we are going to work B) we go to work C) we went to work D) we can go to work Slide45:  15. The actors have to ____ before they appear in front of the strong lights on the television. A) cover up B) make up C) paint up D) do up 16. There's no beer left and the pubs are shut so you'll have to _____. A) go for B) go without C) go off D) go through Slide46:  17. I don't really know how to ____ the problem. A) tackle B) handle with C) cope D) deal 18. He had deceived a great many people but she ____ him at once. A) saw into B) look into C) saw through D) looked through Slide47:  19. It is imperative that you ____ there in person. A) be B) will be C) would be D) are 20. By success I don't mean ____ usually thought of when that word is used. A) what is B) that we C) as you D) all is Slide48:  21. ---Do you enjoy listening to records? ---I think records are often ____ an actual performance. A) as good as or better than B) as good or better than C) like good or better than D) as good as any other 22. Cramming for exams rarely helps; ____, many students stay up until dawn, studying on the night before a big test. A) moreover B) likewise C) nevertheless D) sequentially Slide49:  23. John D. Rockefeller, ____, owned 90 percent of all American oil refineries. A) as still a young man B) while still a young man C) a young man however D) in spite of a young man 24. Silver is the best conductor of electricity, copper ____ it closely. A) followed B) following C) to follow D) being followed Slide50:  25. A Dream of the Red Chamber is said ____ into dozens of languages in the last decade. A) to have been translated B) to be translated C) to translate D) to have translated 26. I was required to ____ my absence for yesterday's discussion. A) account for B) bring forth C) make out D) take over Slide51:  27. The punishment was not ____ the seriousness of the crime. A) proportionate to B) influenced by C) greater than D) unreasonable for 28. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are _____. A) out of work B) out of reach C) out of stock D) out of practice Slide52:  29. The teacher explained the lesson ____ to the students. A) at detail B) at length C) at leisure D) at large 30. One should keep some money ____ for emergencies. A) at hand B) on hand C) by hand D) with hand

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