4Triads

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Published on January 17, 2008

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Ancient Roman Mythology The triads:  Ancient Roman Mythology The triads Vesa Matteo Piludu, Helsinki, 2nd October 2007 Department of Comparative Religion University of Helsinki Primitivist school (XIX century – Early XX):  Primitivist school (XIX century – Early XX) Rome had no mythology, it was ”copied” by the Greek one Rome’s religion was considered more ”primitive” than the Greek one: superstition, magic ”Unmoral” religion The she-wolf was considered ”totemic” Evidenced the cult of the dead The numens (guardian spirits) were considered mana Irrationality Dumezil, George: structuralist, functionalist:  Dumezil, George: structuralist, functionalist Expert of the Indo-european religions Mythology has an inner logic (structure, system) Roman Mythology: not a “copy” but an adaptation of the foreign cults to the Roman culture and ideology Theory of the triads: tree gods, tree social functions Regal function, Soldiers, producers Roman Archaic Triad: Iuppiter (regal-political) Mars (soldiers-producers) Quirinus (producers-citizens) Jupiter – Jove - Iuppiter (Ingres):  Jupiter – Jove - Iuppiter (Ingres) Iuppiter:  Iuppiter Jovis - pater:  Jovis - pater Jupiter is a vocative compound derived from archaic Latin Iovis and pater (Latin for father), Jou-, Diou- Vedic Dyauh (Div-), Greek Zeus = heaven, shining heaven Italian Diurno, Giorno, Dio, Divino … English day, divinity *dyēus- pəter- ("O Father God"), the Indo-European deity from whom also derive the Germanic *Tiwaz Pater = benevolence, genealogy Temple of Terracina:  Temple of Terracina Iuppiter Latialis and Iuppiter Optimum Maximus :  Iuppiter Latialis and Iuppiter Optimum Maximus Top of the mountains = Mons Albanus, Capitol hill Iuppiter Latialis = assimilated to king Latinus Mask on the branches of the trees Roman Iuppiter = god of sovranity Augur god = aves as messengers of his will Connection with wine (Vinalia) Iuppiter Optimum Maximus = God of the Roman state Symbol of the Roman state Ius (law) and Fides (loyality) Victory in war Iuppiter is the god of the free men (repubblican era) Tonans and Triumphator:  Tonans and Triumphator Jupiter developed into a special protector of the Roman people. Added to Tonans, ‘thunderer’, and Fulgur, ‘wielder of lightning’, were such titles as Imperator, ‘supreme commander’, Invicutus, ‘invincible’, Triumphator, ‘triumphant’, and Praedator, ‘booty snatcher He is a son of Saturn and brother of Neptune and Juno (who is also his wife). Fetiales:  Fetiales Priests – experts of the ”international law” Ius Fetiale Declaration of war (spear throw over the border) Stipulation of peace or treat (sacrifice of a pig with the sacred stone) wand and stone (thunder) Augures:  Augures Soothsayers (privates) Augures publici populi Romani Quiritium = official Soothsayers of the Roman People (of the State) Lituum Signa:  Signa from loca effata (hills) definition of the templum (sacred area) signa ex caelo (thunders, lightnings) ex avibus (eagles, vulture - woodpecker, crow, cock) augura pullaria (observation of the chickens) Capitol:  Capitol Iuppiter had a temple on the Capitol, together with Juno and Minerva, but he was the most prominent of this Capitoline triad. His temple was not only the most important sanctuary in Rome; it was also a center of political life. Here official offerings were made, treaties were signed and wars were declared, and the triumphant generals of the Roman army came here to give their thanks. Temple:  Temple The largest temple in Rome was that of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitol Hill. The building was begun by Tarquinius Priscus and completed by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, although it was inaugurated, by a tradition recorded by the historians, on September 13, at the beginning of the Republican era (509 BC). The surviving remains of the foundations and of the podium, most of which lie underneath Palazzo Caffarelli, are made up of enormous parallel sections of walling made in blocks of grey tufa-quadriga stone (cappellaccio) and bear witness to the sheer size of the surface area of the temple's base (about 55 x 60 m). Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus:  Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus Campus Martius:  Campus Martius Triumphs:  Triumphs A victorius general advanced in a chariot, crowned with laurel, in the appareal of the God His face was tinged in red Justice:  Justice It was once believed that the Roman god Jupiter was in charge of cosmic Justice, and in ancient Rome, people swore to Jove in their courts of law, which lead to the common expression "By Jove!", Mars (Villa Adriana):  Mars (Villa Adriana) Mars:  Mars The Sacred spear of Rome was called Mars Ancilia (sacred shields) God of the borders, protector God of the furor belli (fury of war) Ver sacrum (initiation and conquest) Mars peace bringer:  Mars peace bringer Wolf and Fuga:  Wolf and Fuga Mars is portrayed as a warrior in full battle armor, wearing a crested helmet and bearing a shield. His sacred animals are the wolf and the woodpecker, and he is accompanied by Fuga and Timor, the personifications of flight and fear. The month March (Martius) is named after him (wars were often started or renewed in spring). October= end of wartime, purification (lustratio) Mars: agriculture and war:  Mars: agriculture and war The Roman Mars was also the protector of the farmer's land and his crops. The agricultural aspect of Mars may have been an extension of his military nature - if he was going to help the Romans protect their territory, he might as well help protect the individual citizen's land and its production as well. Remember, the idealized Roman citizen was a farmer who left he plow to fight as a soldier when the state called. Soldier and farmer were opposite but inseparable sides of the same coin. Feriae Marti:  Feriae Marti He had several festivals in his honour. On the 1st, 9th and 24th of March, during the Feriae Marti, the Salii proceeded through Rome, stopping at certain points to perform a very complicated ritual dance involving much jumping about and to chant a hymn that was so old the Romans themselves forgot the meaning of the words by the late Republic. After their processionals, the Salii retired to a feast of fairly luxurious standards (there are stories of the Emperor Claudius skipping out on a palace dinner party to join the Salii). Salii:  Salii The priests of Mars, who also served Quirinus, were called the Salii ("jumpers"), derived from the procession through the streets of the city which they completed by jumping the entire way and singing the Carmen Saliare. Others festivals and rituals:  Others festivals and rituals The Equirria were on February 27 and March 14, on which horse races were held. Celebrants held horse races on the Campius Martius (field of Mars), and drove a scapegoat out of the city of Rome, expelling the old and bringing in the new. March 1 was the New Year in the Julian Calendar. Equus October was a festival on 15 October (idus), in which the right hand horse of the winning pair of a race was sacrificed to Mars. The tail was rushed to the regia to have its blood drip on the hearth there. There was a traditional fight over its head between the inhabitants of the Subura who wanted it for the Turris Mamilia, and those of the Via Sacria who wanted it for the regia. The Quinquatrus was on March 19 and the Tubilustrium on March 23, on which weapons and war-trumpets were cleansed. Suovetaurilia :  Suovetaurilia Suovetaurilia :  Suovetaurilia the sacrifice of a pig (sus), a ram (ovis) and a bull (taurus) to the deity Mars to bless and purify land (Lustratio). ”That with the good help of the gods success may crown our work, I bid thee, Manius, to take care to purify my farm, my land, my ground with this suovetaurilia” ”Father Mars, I pray and beseech thee that thou be gracious and merciful to me, my house, and my household; to which intent I have bidden this suovetaurilia to be led around my land, my ground, my farm; that thou keep away, ward off, and remove sickness, seen and unseen, barrenness and destruction, ruin and unseasonable influence and that thou permit my harvests, my grain, my vineyards, and my plantations to flourish and to come to good issue, preserve in health my shepherds and my flocks, and give good health and strength to me, my house, and my household” Cato the Elder's De Re Rustica, "On Agriculture Temples:  Temples His main sanctuaries where the temple on the Capitol, which he shared with Jupiter and Quirinus the temple of Mars Gradivus ("he who precedes the army in battle") where the Roman army gathered before they went to war, the temple of Mars Ultor ("the avenger” of Caesar), located on the Forum Augustus … inside the pomerium, because the killers of Caesar were in the city The Campus Martius ("field of Mars"), situated beyond the city walls, was also dedicated to him. Here the army was drilled and athletes were trained. In the Regia on the Forum Romanum, the 'hastae Martiae' ("lances of Mars") were kept. When these lances 'moved', it was seen as a portent of war. The warlord who was to lead the army into battle had to move the lances while saying 'Mars vigila' ("Mars awaken"). As Mars Gradivus, the god preceded the army and led them to victory. Temple of Mars Ultor:  Temple of Mars Ultor Mars Ultor:  Mars Ultor The god Quirinus (silver denarius, mid-1st century BCE) :  The god Quirinus (silver denarius, mid-1st century BCE) Quirinus:  Quirinus Quirinus was originally most likely a Sabine god. The Sabines had a settlement near the eventual site of Rome, and erected an altar to Quirinus on the Collis Quirinalis, the Quirinal Hill, one of the Seven Hills of Rome. When the Romans settled there, they absorbed the cult of Quirinus into their early belief system — previous to direct Greek influence — and he was said to be the deified Romulus. While (see Ovid, Fasti 2.475-512; in Fasti 4. 907-942 he recounts a mid-spring ritual he observed the flamen of Quirinus conducting on April 25). Servius: Quirinus Mars of the peace:  Servius: Quirinus Mars of the peace Quirinus is the Mars of the peace Temple inside the pomerium Calm Mars Quitites = citizens Curia = assembly of the free men The free man was also milites (soldier) Flamen:  Flamen The official costume of a flamen, of great antiquity, was a hat called an apex and a heavy woollen cloak called a laena. The laena was a double-thick wool cloak with a fringed edge, and was worn over the flamen's toga with a clasp holding it around his throat. The apex was a leather skull-cap with a chin-strap and a point of olive wood on its top, like a spindle, with a little fluff of wool at the base of the spindle (Servius Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil ii.683, viii.664, x.270). Flamens:  Flamens A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion. There were fifteen flamines in the Roman Republic. The most important three were the flamines maiores (or "major priests"), who served the three chief Roman gods of the Archaic Triad. The remaining twelve, two of whom are unknown, were the flamines minores ("lesser priests"). The fifteen flamines were part of the Pontificial College which administered state sponsored religion in Rome. Flamines maiores:  Flamines maiores The three flamines maiores were required to be patricians. The Flamen Dialis oversaw the cult of Jupiter, the sky deity and ruler of the gods. The Flamen Martialis oversaw the cult of Mars, the god of war, leading public rites on the days sacred to Mars. The sacred spears of Mars were ritually shaken by the Flamen Martialis when the legions were preparing for war. The Flamen Quirinalis oversaw the cult of Quirinus, who presided over organized Roman social life and was related to the peaceful aspect of Mars. The Flamen Quirinalis led public rites on the days sacred to Quirinus. A fourth flamen maior was added after 44 BC dedicated to Julius Caesar. When the imperial cult got underway, further flamines were appointed to worship the divine Roman emperors. Flamen Dialis:  Flamen Dialis The Flamen Dialis was an important position in Roman religion. He was the high priest of Jupiter, and, according to tradition, was forbidden to touch metal, ride a horse, or see a corpse. It was unlawful for him to be out of the city for a single night He was not allowed to swear an oath He was forbidden either to touch or to name a dog, a she-goat, ivy, beans, or raw flesh. None but a free man might cut his hair; the clippings of which, together with the parings of his nails, were buried beneath a felix arbor. No one might sleep in his bed, the legs of which were smeared with fine clay; and it was unlawful to place a box containing sacrificial cakes in contact with the bed-stead. Flamines minores:  Flamines minores The twelve flamines minores could be plebeians. Some of the deities they worshipped were rather obscure, and only ten are known by name: Flamen Carmentalis, who worshipped Carmenta (chilbirt, spells) Flamen Cerialis, who worshipped Ceres (cereals) Flamen Falacer, who worshipped Falacer (?) Flamen Floralis, who worshipped Flora (spring) Flamen Furrialis, who worshipped Furrina (waters) Flamen Palatualis, who worshipped Palatua (?) Flamen Pomonalis, who worshipped Pomona (fruit trees) Flamen Portunalis, who worshipped Portunes Flamen Volcanalis, who worshipped Vulcan Flamen Volturnalis, who worshipped Volturnus There were two other flamines minores during republican times, but the gods or goddesses whom they worshipped are not known Temple of Portunos (Rome, Forum Boarium) was built ca 100 BC and restored in the first century BC. :  Temple of Portunos (Rome, Forum Boarium) was built ca 100 BC and restored in the first century BC. Temple of Portunus :  Temple of Portunus Portunes:  Portunes Portunes (alternatively spelled Portumnes or Portunus) was a god of keys and doors and livestock. He protected the warehouses where grain was stored. Probably because of folk associations between porta "gate, door" and portus "harbor", the "gateway" to the sea, Portunus later became conflated with Palaemon and evolved into a god primarily of ports and harbors Portunus gives to the sailor perfect safety in traversing the seas; but why has the raging sea cast up so many cruelly-shattered wrecks?" the Christian apologist Arnobius asks, ca 300 CE (Seven Books against the Heathen III.23 His festival, celebrated on August 16, the seventeenth day before the Kalends of September, was the Portumnalia, a minor occasion in the Roman year. On this day, keys were thrown into a fire for good luck in a very solemn and lugubrious manner. Collegium Pontificum:  Collegium Pontificum The College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum (collegium in Latin means a board or committee rather than an educational institution) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. The college consisted of the pontifex maximus, the Vestal Virgins, the Rex Sacrorum, and the flamines. The College of Pontiffs was one of the four major priestly colleges, the others being of the augurs, the priesthood of the fifteen, and the seven feasters. The title pontifex comes from the Latin for "bridge builder” The pontifex maximus was the most important member of the college. Until 104 B.C., the pontifex maximus held the sole power in appointing members to the other priesthoods in the college. The Vestal Virgins were the only female members of the college. They were in charge of guarding Rome's sacred hearth, keeping the flame burning inside the Temple of Vesta. The Rex Sacrorum held the place of the head of state. The position originated after the fall of the monarchy and was instituted to have a priestly replacement for a king during religious rites in order to appease the gods. Capituline Triad:  Capituline Triad Iuppiter, Iuno, Minerva This group, mirroring the Etruscan divine triad, consisted of Jupiter, the king of the gods, Juno (in her aspect as Iuno Regina, "Queen Juno"), his wife and sister, and Jupiter's daughter by the titaness Metis, Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. Unlike the earlier Archaic Triad, which was fairly typical of a trio of supreme divine beings, this grouping of a male god and two goddesses was unusual in ancient Indo-European religions. Maybe it is derived from the Etruscan trio of Tinia, the supreme deity, Uni, his wife, and Menrva, their daughter and the goddess of wisdom. Greek triad: Zeus, Hera, Athena Capituline Triad:  Capituline Triad Iuno:  Iuno Queen of the gods, Regina, politico-religious mistress presides over birth femenine of genius, males’ guardian spirit expression of the female fertile nature Etruscan Uni iun- akin to the greek aeuum ”vital force” *yeu-, "vital force", which has such derivatives as the English youth Joung – italian: Giovane – vital force at his peak, iuvenis ("young man" As Lucina she leads the newborn to the light of day Also marriage She could also throw lightning bolts like Jupiter Iuno:  Iuno Iuno:  Iuno Matronalia:  Matronalia connection with the fecundity of the women, . Many considered the month of June, which is named after Juno, the patroness of marriage, to be the most favorable time to marry. Every year, women held a festival in honor of Juno called the Matronalia. they wore their hair loose (when Roman decorum otherwise required them to wear it up), and were not allowed to wear belts or At home, women received gifts from their husbands and daughters, and Roman husbands were expected to offer prayers for their wives. Women were also expected to prepare a meal for the household slaves (who were given the day off work) Warlike aspect:  Warlike aspect Juno's own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire. She often appeared armed and wearing a goatskin cloak, which was the garment favored by Roman soldiers on campaign. This warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, whose goatskin was called the aigis. Minerva:  Minerva Minerva: the "goddess of a thousand works” (Ovid):  Minerva: the "goddess of a thousand works” (Ovid) Goddess of arts, artisans and trade Falerii, city goddess Etruria – Menrva, Minerua Strong identification with the Greek Athena men-, activities of the mind Her name has the "mn-" stem, linked with memory. See Greek "Mnemosyne" (gr. μνημοσύνη): memory Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter. She was considered to be the virgin goddess of warriors, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, crafts As Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and doctors. warlike character Artisans and flute-players:  Artisans and flute-players The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the feminine plural, Quinquatria, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, the artisans' holiday. hunting of wild beasts, of the exhibition of plays, and of contests of orators and poets it seems that women were accustomed to consult fortune-tellers and diviners upon this day A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, who were particularly useful to religion. Slide54:  In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic. La Sapienza and Minerva:  La Sapienza and Minerva

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