4G Mobile Technology

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Information about 4G Mobile Technology
Science-Technology

Published on September 1, 2010

Author: sshettys

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: 4G MOBILE TECHNOLOGY WELCOME TO ANYWHERE Welcome to the 4G : Welcome to the 4G The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC—Mobile multimedia Anytime anywhere Global mobility support Integrated wireless solution and Customized personal service. The fourth generation of mobile networks will truly turn the current mobile phone networks, in to end to end IP based networks .If 4G is implemented correctly, it will truly harmonise global roaming. Before 1G : Before 1G 0G refers to pre-cellular mobile telephony technology. . The systems were called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells", each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. In the sixties, a system launched by Bell Systems, called IMTS, or, “Improved Mobile Telephone Service", brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. 1G, or First Generation : 1G, or First Generation The 1G, or First Generation. 1G was an analog system and was developed in the seventies.1G had two major improvements, this was the invention of the microprocessor, and the digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site.’AMPS’ was the first launched by USA and is 1G system.It was based on FDMA used to make voice calls in one country 2G, or Second Generation : 2G phones using global system for mobile communications (GSM) were first used in the early 1990s in Europe. GSM provides voice and limited data services, and uses digital modulation for improved audio quality.Digital AMPS,CDMA were some of the 2G systems. 2G, or Second Generation 2.5 Generation : 2.5 Generation An interim stage that is taken between 2G and 3G that is 2.5G. Its basically an enhancement of two major technologies to provide increased capacity and to increase higher bit rates. A very important aspect of 2.5G is that the data channel are optimised for packet data which include acess to internet through mobile devices 3G, or Third Generation : 3G, or Third Generation The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing video, audio, and graphics applications. The idea behind 3G is to have a single network standard instead of the different types adopted in the US, Europe, and Asia. Telecommunications System (UMTS) or IMT-2000, will sustain higher data rates and open the door to many Internet style applications. DRAWBACKS BY GENERATION : DRAWBACKS BY GENERATION 1G: Poor voice quality, Poor battery life Large phone size No security Frequent call drops Limited capacity and poor handoff reliability Slide 9: 2G: The GSM is a circuit switched, connection oriented technology, where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call session. This causes inefficiency in usage of bandwidth and resources. The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates. They are unable to handle complex data such as video. Slide 10: 3G: 1.High bandwidth requirement. 2. High spectrum licensing fees. 3. Huge capital. Comparison of 3G and 4G : Comparison of 3G and 4G Evolution in terms of speed : Evolution in terms of speed 4G, or Fourth Generation : 4G, or Fourth Generation Some possible standards for the 4G system are 802.20, WiMAX (802.16), HSDPA, TDD UMTS, UMTS and future versions of UMTS and proprietary networks from ArrayComm Inc., Navini Networks, Flarion Technologies, and 4G efforts in India, China and Japan. Slide 14: The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), which is the key enabler of 4G technology. Other technological aspects of 4G are adaptive processing and smart antennas, both of which will be used in 3G networks and enhance rates when used with OFDM. FEATURES: : FEATURES: Faster and more reliable 100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s) Lower cost than previous generations Multi-standard wireless system Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) Ad Hoc Networking IPv6 Core OFDM used instead of CDMA DIFFERENT ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES : DIFFERENT ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES FDMA-Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is a method where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies and then this chunk given to the users. At one time only one user is assigned to a frequency. Because of this the frequency is closed, until the call is ended, or it is passed on to another frequency Slide 17: TDMA-Time Division Multiple Access makes use of the whole available spectrum, unlike FDMA. Instead of splitting the slots by frequency, it splits them by time, over all of the frequency. Each subscriber is given a time slot, as opposed to a frequency. Therefore many uses can sit on one frequency, and have different time slots, because the time slots are switched so rapidly TDMA is used for 2G networks. Slide 18: CDMA-Code Division Multiple Access uses the spread spectrum method, the way it works means its highly encrypted, so its no surprise it was developed and used by the military. Unlike FDMA, CDMA allows the user to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same time, and hop between then. Each call is identified by its unique code, hence the term Code Division. HOW OFDM WORKS? : HOW OFDM WORKS? Orthogonal FDM's spread spectrum technique spreads the data over a lot of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this method which prevents the receivers/demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own specific one. MIMO : MIMO It uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. It is well suited to OFDM, as it is possible to process independent time symbols as soon as the OFDM waveform is correctly designed for the channel. This aspect of OFDM greatly simplifies processing. the signal transmitted by m antennas is received by n antennas In principle, MIMO is more efficient when many multiple path signals are received. OFDM TRANSMITTER : OFDM TRANSMITTER OFDM RECEIVER : OFDM RECEIVER BENEFITS: : BENEFITS: The main benefit of OFDM is high spectral efficiency, but with OFDM you also get; high resiliency to RF interference, and the multi-path distortion is lower. This is handy because in a standard terrestrial broadcasting situation there are high amounts of multipath-channels (e.g. the signal that was sent arrives at the receiving end using multiple paths of different lengths). PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION : PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION When OFDM was first implemented, it was by using banks of sinusoidal generators, e.g. just placing up a whole lot of single carriers in parallel. The use of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) was originally proposed in 1971 by Weinstein and Ebert, which greatly reduces the implementation complexity of OFDM systems. This was further reduced by the development of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). 4G TECHNOLOGIES : 4G TECHNOLOGIES Smart Antennas Beam radio signals directly at a user to follow the user as they move Allow the same radio frequency to be used for other users without worry of interference Can't keep up transmission speeds while device is moving fast (i.e. in a car) Only 32Mbps at 62mph (vs 100Mb/s) SMART ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY : SMART ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY Seamless handoff between towers/access points One transmit antenna, two receive antennas Allows connection to two access points at once :  IPv6 Support IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices, although NAT will still be required to communicate with devices that are on existing IPv4 networks. As of June 2009, Verizon has posted specifications that require any 4G devices on its network to support IPv6.[16] Slide 30: SDR(Software Defined Ratio) SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence. APPLICATIONS : APPLICATIONS Virtual Presence: 4G system gives mobile users a "virtual presence" (for example, always-on connections to keep people on event).Video Conferencing Virtual navigation: a remote database contains the graphical representation of streets, buildings, and physical characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database are transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicle Tele- geoprocessing: Queries dependent on location information of several users, in addition to temporal aspects have many applications.e.g:GIS,GPS Crisis-management applications IMPACT OF 4G : IMPACT OF 4G Affordable communication services One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device Æ the cell phone Streaming HD video Too connected? Increase in social networking, invasion of privacy security concerns Increase in regulation likely (ie. no driving and using a cell phone) THE NEWS ABOUT 4G : THE NEWS ABOUT 4G First Step Towards Full Range of WiMax / 4G Applications This successful implementation of the OFDM waveform is the first step in Military Technologies plan to implement the complete IEEE 802.16 family of wireless data applications The New WiFi Gels With 4G More robust standard for high-speed broadband wireless delivery to laptops and desktops will augment the burgeoning WiFi market beginning in late 2004. News about 4G : News about 4G Sprint 4G offers a faster wireless experience than any other U.S. national wireless carrier, and Sprint is the only national carrier offering wireless 4G service today in 27 markets. Sprint 4G delivers download speeds up to 10 times faster than 3G1, giving HTC EVO 4G the fastest data speeds of any U.S. wireless device available today iPhone 4G : iPhone 4G Hot on the heels of the iPad release, iPhone 4G handsets have been rumoured for release this summer Beyond 4G research : Beyond 4G research A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several basestations.   5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards (expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and 2013.New 3GPP standard releases beyond 4G and LTE Advanced are in progress, but not considered as new mobile generations. Slide 37: WEBOGRAPHY 1.www.four-g.net 2.Advanced wireless networks- savo Glisic 3.www.wikipedia.com

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