Published on March 4, 2014
Your Highway Code to the Internet Keeping you safe online To speak to a Symantec Product Specialist, please call: Australia: +61 3 9674 5500 Hong Kong: +852 30 114 683 New Zealand: +64 9912 7201 Singapore: +65 6622 1368 or email email@example.com
Rules to keep you safe online Using the internet is a bit like using the road. We all use the road in different ways. To drive cars, vans, trucks or buses. To ride motorcycles, bicycles, or horses, or as pedestrians. Some of us do several or even all of these things.
Introduction Similarly, we all use the internet in different ways. For banking, shopping, emailing, chatting, downloading, reading the news, dating … the more that becomes available online, the longer the list becomes. Again, some of us do only one thing on the internet, while others do all of these things. The other similarity between road and internet users is our level of experience and proficiency. The more we use either, the more we think we can do so safely, knowing how to spot hazardous or annoying situations and avoiding them. To a degree this is true, but there is a danger that as our confidence grows, we become complacent, thinking “it will never happen to me”. www.getsafeonline.org The Get Safe Online Highway Code is designed to cover everything we do on the internet and cater for all levels of proficiency, whether you are a beginner or just need a handy reminder of how to do things correctly. Easy to use On the contents page, simply click on the topic you would like to know more about and read our brief introduction to why it’s so important to stay safe when doing that particular thing online. At the bottom of each topic you’ll see a button like the one shown here which you can click on to find information and free, helpful and easy-to-follow advice on the topic. Tell me more Page 3
Contents Section 01 – page 6 Section 03 – page 15 Protecting your computer Smartphones & tablets • Looking after your computer • Firewalls • Updating your operating system & software • Viruses & spyware • Using the internet safely • Wireless networks & hotspots • Backing up your data • Disposing of your computer safely Section 02 – page 11 Protecting yourself • Using your computer in public places • Fraud • Choosing & using passwords • Safe surfing: safeguarding your privacy • Searching the internet • Spam & scam email • Looking after your mobile or tablet • Using your mobile or tablet in public places • Viruses & spyware • Wireless networks & hotspots • Using QR codes • Surfing & shopping safely on mobiles & tablets • Disposing of your mobile or tablet safely Section 04 – page 19 Shopping, banking & payments • Using auction sites • Using penny auctions • Banking • Making online payments • Choosing & using passwords • Shopping online – be safe, be secure Section 05 – page 23 Safeguarding children Section 06 – page 25 Social networking • Blogging • Chatrooms • Instant messaging • Social networking sites Page 04
Section 07 – page 29 Specific things you do online • Buying medicines • Buying & selling vehicles • Buying tickets • Downloading & file sharing • Sending & receiving eCards • Holiday & travel booking • Searching for a job • Online dating • Online gambling • Online gaming • Using price comparison websites • Property rental • Making Skype & internet calls • Transferring money The golden rules of using the internet We believe that there are things that you simply must do to keep yourself safe when doing various things online, so in each section, we’ve highlighted what these are with You MUST. However, there are also three golden rules which we recommend you remember and follow whenever using the internet … rules which even if you do nothing else, will give you a better chance of keeping safe: www.getsafeonline.org 1. Choose, use and protect your passwords carefully 2. Ensure that your antivirus/ antispyware software and firewall are always kept up to date and switched on 3. Be very careful about the amount and level of personal and financial information you reveal, and to whom Page 05
Keeping you safe online Page 06
Highway Code: Section 01 Protecting your computer Taking a few sensible measures will safeguard against your computer being infected with viruses, spyware and other malware that could at best affect its performance and at worst, leave you open to fraud or identity theft. Looking after your computer Firewalls Updating your operating system & software Viruses & spyware Using the internet safely Wireless networks & hotspots Backing up your data Disposing of your computer safely www.getsafeonline.org 01 Page 07
Protecting your computer Looking after your computer You should ensure that your computer, whether a desktop or laptop model, is secured physically to lessen the risk of theft or loss of data or the equipment itself, or damage by whatever means. You MUST • Make sure your computers are protected against data and physical theft, flood, fire and accidental damage. Tell me more Firewalls Your computer needs to be continuously protected against hackers accessing it to gain information, as well as blocking entry to malware. Firewalls also guard against sending outgoing data infected by malware that has previously gained access to your computer. Find out about the different kinds of firewall and how to ensure they remain effective. You MUST • Ensure that your firewall is switched on at all times. Tell me more Updating your operating system & software The software on your computer or mobile device - including its operating system such as Microsoft Windows - is a popular place for online criminals to find vulnerabilities to infect your device with various kinds of malware. The software manufacturers release regular updates which protect against this. You MUST • Download and install software updates as soon as possible after being alerted that they are available. Tell me more Page 08
01 www.getsafeonline.org Viruses & spyware Viruses, spyware and other kinds of malware can enter and infect your computer or mobile device via a number of ways, and can be used for a number of purposes, from stealing personal details to making your device part of a ‘botnet’. You should always protect your device and yourself against them before going online. You MUST • Ensure that updated antivirus/anti spyware software is loaded and switched on at all times. In most cases, an all-in- one internet security package is more than adequate. Tell me more Using the internet safely The internet has changed our lives, but alongside the positive things it has brought to us, there are also a number of risks you face when you go online. These are mainly associated with fraud, identity theft, the type of content you look at, copyright and being upset by or upsetting others. You MUST • Always be vigilant when supplying personal or financial details • Ensure your browser is up to date. Tell me more Page 09
01 Protecting your computer Wireless networks & hotspots When we connect to the internet in the home or office these days, it is normally via a wireless network. We also use hotspots in cafes, hotels and public places. These are very convenient, but sometimes others may be able to see what you are doing on the internet – which may be personal or financial – or make use of your connection. You MUST • Check the security settings on your home or business hub/router to ensure it is switched on • Avoid sending or receiving private information using public WiFi, unless on a secure web page. Tell me more Backing up your data If you do not correctly and regularly back up the data on your computer, you run a high risk of losing it in the event of a technical failure, theft or damage. The data may be irreplaceable, causing massive inconvenience, financial problems or personal upset. 10 Make sure you are aware of the backup methods available to you and how to use them correctly. You MUST • Ensure that all your important data is backed up regularly to a safe place • Ensure that your backed up data will always be retrievable when you need it. Tell me more Disposing of your computer safely When you dispose of an unwanted computer, remember that the data on the hard disk – personal and financial information, passwords, emails, bookmarks, browsing history, photos and much more – can be accessed by others, even if you think you have deleted it. You MUST • Thoroughly remove all data from your computer by using specialist erasing software, or physically destroying the hard disk. Tell me more
Highway Code: Section 02 Protecting yourself Because the internet is used for so much by so many, it is, unfortunately, commonplace to be targeted by fraudsters, identity thieves and other criminals and others who would wish to do you harm. You can protect yourself by taking some simple precautions. Using your computer in public places Fraud Choosing and using passwords Safe surfing: safeguarding your privacy Safe surfing: safeguarding your identity Searching the internet Spam & scam email www.getsafeonline.org 02 Page 11
Protecting yourself Using your computer in public places Using your laptop or mobile device in public places carries certain risks, which you can avoid with a few sensible good practices. Those around you may be enjoying their coffee, but do you know who they are? Using computers in internet cafes also needs to be done with the proper care. Page 12 You MUST • Keep your computer, smartphone or tablet with you at all times to avoid loss or theft • When using public computers, ensure you leave no trace of your activity • Ensure the wireless network you are using is secure. Tell me more
02 www.getsafeonline.org Fraud Online fraud is very commonplace and takes many forms. With an increasing number of people being successfully targeted by internet fraudsters, it is currently estimated to cost £765 for each adult in the UK. You can avoid it by remembering a few simple measures. You MUST • Always be vigilant about unsolicited contact • Remember that if something seems too good to be true …it usually is. Tell me more Choosing and using passwords Passwords are the most common form of proof of identity when carrying out any form of financial activity, using certain websites and accessing your computer or mobile device. Therefore it is essential to choose passwords that are difficult to break or guess, and to keep them strictly to yourself. You MUST • Always use a password and make sure it is one that is difficult for anyone else to guess or crack • Never disclose a password to anybody else, including people who are apparently trustworthy (you never know when your circumstances may change). Tell me more Safe surfing: safeguarding your privacy It’s easy to reveal far too much private information online without giving it a second thought – whether on social networking sites or company websites, or in response to emails. This can lead to fraud, abuse and harassment and other upsetting crimes. You MUST • Always think twice about how much private information you are revealing, to whom and why. Tell me more Page 13
02 Protecting yourself Safe surfing: safeguarding your identity If you do not take simple steps to protect your identity, it could be stolen by criminals and used to defraud you or commit crimes in your name. You MUST • Always safeguard personal information, both online and on paper. Tell me more Your searches are also visible to and recorded by the search engines you use. You MUST • Remember that your searches are not private, despite using ‘private search’ settings • Be as accurate as possible in your searches to try to avoid unwanted or undesirable websites. Tell me more Spam & scam email Amongst the vast number of wellintentioned emails sent and received every day, is a high proportion which can be described as either fraudulent, hoax, obnoxious or simply annoying. Therefore you need to know how to identify and deal with the different types of email you may receive. Searching the internet Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! can be used to find virtually any information on websites, social networks and blogs. When using search engines, however, there is a risk of being taken to unexpected content which could be illegal or inappropriate. Page 14 You MUST • Always be vigilant when receiving or responding to emails • Make sure your spam filter is always switched on to minimise the risks. Tell me more
Highway Code: Section 03 Smartphones & tablets Smartphones and tablets are rapidly replacing conventional computers because of the way they enable you to do everything you do online, in a far more flexible way. The fact that you can use them anywhere – and their compact size – brings its own set of risks which you need to safeguard against. Looking after your mobile or tablet Using your mobile or tablet in public places Viruses & spyware Wireless networks & hotspots Using QR codes Surfing & shopping safely on mobiles & tablets Disposing of your mobile or tablet safely www.getsafeonline.org 03 Page 15
Smartphones & tablets Looking after your mobile or tablet The portability of smartphones and tablets makes them easy to lose, steal or damage, compromising not only the device itself but the information contained on it. This makes it very important to keep your device safe, wherever you go. You MUST • Never leave your smartphone or tablet unattended in public places, offices, hotel rooms or vehicles • Always safeguard the information on your device by using a PIN or password. Tell me more Using your mobile or tablet in public places The beauty of smartphones and tablets is that you can use them anywhere, especially with wireless hotspots and 3G/4G. However, you need to ensure your online activity isn’t being snooped on or watched over, and that your device is physically safe from loss. You MUST • Keep your device with you at all times to avoid loss or theft • Ensure the wireless network you are Page 16 using is secure, and nobody is looking over your shoulder. Tell me more Viruses & spyware Mobiles and tablets are vulnerable to viruses, spyware and other types of malware. These can be picked up from infected apps, downloading and syncing, and can result in anything from reduced battery life to fraud and identity theft, as well as dialling or texting premium rate numbers. You MUST • Download a reputable antivirus/ antispyware app, especially if your device runs on Android or Windows • Purchase and download apps only from recognised and trusted sources. Tell me more
03 www.getsafeonline.org Wireless networks & hotspots When we connect to the internet in the home, office or public place, it is usually via a wireless network or hotspot. This is very convenient, but sometimes others may be able to see what you are doing on the internet – which may involve personal or financial details – or make use of your connection. You MUST • Check the settings on your home or business hub/router to ensure security is switched on • Avoid sending or receiving private information using public WiFi, unless on a secure web page. Tell me more Page 17
03 Smartphones & tablets Using QR codes The use of QR codes as an easy way to direct you to websites from your smartphone or tablet, has become very widespread. The fact that you cannot read or manually enter the website address, however, means that you have no idea what you are visiting, and what you will find when you get there. You MUST • Never enter personal or financial information on a website to which you have been directed from a QR code • Ensure any QR code app you download is from a reputable source. Tell me more apps and making sure that payment pages are secure are all things you have to consider when going online with your mobile device if you want to avoid potential issues. You MUST • Always be careful about what personal or financial details you are revealing, and to whom • Always be certain that web pages you visit for shopping, banking and payments are secure. Tell me more Disposing of your mobile or tablet safely When you no longer want your mobile or tablet and you’re either throwing it away, giving it away or donating it to charity, remember what information it holds, such as personal and financial information, passwords, emails, bookmarks, browsing history, photos and much more. Surfing & shopping safely on mobiles & tablets Safeguarding your privacy and identity, ensuring you don’t visit hoax websites, downloading and using only authentic Page 18 You MUST • Thoroughly remove all data from your device before disposing of it. Tell me more
Highway Code: Section 04 Shopping, banking & payments Most reputable organisations want to make it safe for their customers to visit their websites and carry out online transactions as it protects all parties and increases confidence in the organisation. However, there are many dishonest people operating on the internet and you need to ensure that you are not dealing with them, however authentic they may seem. Using auction sites Using penny auctions Banking Making online payments Choosing and using passwords Shopping online – be safe, be secure www.getsafeonline.org 04 Page 19
Shopping, banking & payments Using auction sites Because buying and selling via auction sites is very different from ‘conventional’ online shopping, there are a number of things to consider to ensure you are doing so without risk of losing money or losing your goods. You MUST • Choose reputable sellers and buyers • When selling, ensure that you have received payment before despatching the goods • Check that the payment website/ page is secure before entering your payment details. Tell me more Using penny auctions When you use penny auctions (otherwise known as ‘bidding fee auctions’) you should be aware that unlike a conventional auction site, you pay the money you have bid whether you win the auction or not. This makes it important to really know what you are doing … and bidding for. Also, as with most things you do online, there are risks of being defrauded. You MUST • Ensure that the site you are using is authentic and secure • Take every precaution to ensure that Page 20 you will receive the goods you have bid for and that they match the advertiser’s description • Exercise responsibility, and do not lose track of the sums of money you are bidding. Tell me more Banking The ability to do your banking from any connected computer or mobile device is the height of convenience. However, to cybercriminals, banking is a key target because of the sums of money and potential security lapses involved. You MUST • Beware of phishing emails claiming to be from your bank, that request you to enter your login details for whatever reason • Use strong passwords and ensure that nobody else has access to them. Tell me more
www.getsafeonline.org 04 Making online payments When paying phone, utility or other bills or donating to charity on the internet, you need to ensure that the way you make those payments is secure. You should also be on your guard against emails directing you to fake websites to collect your payment card details. You MUST • Always ensure you are on the genuine website of the organisation you wish to pay • Ensure the payment page is secure before entering your details. Tell me more Page 21
04 Shopping, banking & payments Choosing and using passwords Passwords are the most common form of proof of identity when carrying out any form of financial activity, using certain websites and if it’s passwordprotected, your computer or mobile device. Therefore it is essential to choose passwords that are difficult to break or guess, and to keep them strictly to yourself. You MUST • Always use a password and make sure it is one that is difficult for anyone else to guess or crack • Never disclose a password to anybody else, including people who are apparently trustworthy (you never know when your circumstances may change). Tell me more Shopping online – be safe, be secure Shopping online is fast and convenient, but it does have potential disadvantages such as payment security breaches, bogus websites and the risk of non-delivery of the goods you’ve paid for. You MUST • Choose reputable shopping sites • Ensure the payment page is secure before entering your details. Tell me more Page 22
Highway Code: Section 05 Safeguarding children Because of the size and scope of the internet – and the number of unknown people using it – going online can present real risks for young people. Yet children frequently know more than adults about the internet, so it is important for adults to understand the risks, take appropriate precautions and work with children to ensure a safe and enjoyable experience. You MUST • Make sure that the children for whom you are responsible are educated about sensible use of the internet and the risks associated with going online • Be aware yourself, of the risks to children and also the necessary precautions such as parental controls Tell me more www.getsafeonline.org 05 Page 23
Highway Code: Section 06 Social networking Because of the massive volume of users of social networking sites that we don’t know in person, the opportunities to commit crimes such as fraud are numerous. The key guidance with any form of social networking is to remember that what goes on the web stays on the web, and you should be careful be careful what you believe, and what you say. Blogging Chatrooms Instant messaging Social netorking sites www.getsafeonline.org 06 Page 25
Social networking Blogging A blog is a kind of web page, so similar guidelines apply regarding being careful about what you write and believing what you read and respond to. You should also be cautious about clicking on links contained in blogs, even if they seem to be authentic. You MUST • Never disclose personal or financial information • Never write anything libellous, inflammatory or accusatory, and remember that what goes online stays online. Tell me more Chatrooms The presence of a large online community of strangers together with uncontrolled contributions mean that you can encounter unexpected subject matter and types of conversation. For the same reason, it is important to not disclose personal or financial information that could be used to defraud you or hurt you in some other way. You MUST • Never disclose personal or financial information Page 26 • Never write anything libellous, inflammatory or accusatory, and remember that what goes online stays online • Be prepared to encounter strong views and language from strangers. Tell me more Instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) is fun and convenient but as you cannot see the person you’re ‘talking’ to, you do run the risk that you are conversing with someone who would commit fraud or harm you in some other way. You must also remember that IM is not a secure means of communication. You MUST • Never disclose personal or financial information • Be sure that people you are messaging are who they say they are. Tell me more
06 www.getsafeonline.org Social networking sites Whilst social networking has revolutionised the way people and organisations communicate, it has also opened up a simple means to defraud many people at the same time. Additionally, opinions voiced on social networking sites – however strongly they are felt – can be hurtful or even libellous. You MUST • Never disclose personal or financial information in posts or profiles • Remember that what you write online stays online • Be careful about clicking on links in a post or on a page – they could be harmful. Tell me more Page 27
Keeping you safe online Page 28
Highway Code: Section 07 Specific things you do online The internet has made many of the things you do faster and more convenient. In many cases, you are interacting with many more people or businesses than you would do offline – around the country and across the world. This can bring a great many benefits, but it also means that you cannot see who you are interacting with, nor what you are buying or selling. Buying medicines Buying & selling vehicles Buying tickets Downloading & file sharing Sending & receiving eCards Holiday & travel booking Searching for a Job www.getsafeonline.org Online dating Online gambling Online gaming Using price comparison websites Property rental Making Skype & internet calls Transferring money 07 Page 29
Specific Things You Do Online Buying medicine You can buy most types of medicines on the internet. It can be tempting to bypass seeking professional medical advice and paying for prescriptions. Not only this, but emails advertising medicines are by far the most common types of spam. But taking medicines obtained from fake or unlicensed sources can be very dangerous, and buying them very expensive. You MUST • Consult your doctor or other medical professional for prescription-only medicines rather than purchasing online without a prescription • Buy only from a General Pharmaceutical Council registered pharmacy. Tell me more Buying & selling vehicles Because you cannot physically see vehicles you are buying online, or people you are buying from or selling to, you need to make sure the vehicle is authentic and legal, and when it is safe to release the money (when buying), or the vehicle (when selling). You MUST • Physically view the vehicle, check paperwork and know what you are looking for when buying • Ensure cleared payment is received in full before parting with the vehicle, and never get persuaded into paying any advance ‘shipping’ fees. Tell me more Buying tickets Because tickets to popular concerts, sporting events or other live shows sell out quickly, it can be tempting to buy them from unofficial sources, including unofficial websites. You can risk not receiving your tickets, refused entry to the event owing to bogus tickets, or payment card fraud unless you obtain tickets from official sources. You MUST • Buy tickets only from the venue box office, promoter, official agent or reputable ticket exchange sites Page 30
07 www.getsafeonline.org • Ensure the website is genuine and secure before entering payment details • Never pay by transferring money, however desperate you are for the tickets. Tell me more Downloading & file sharing Downloading music, video and other content on the internet is fast, convenient and ‘on-demand’, but there is a risk that you could be also be downloading harmful or annoying malware, or content you do not intend to. In some cases you could also be breaching copyright laws. You MUST • Be careful that the sites you download from are legal and reputable • Ensure that if you enter payment details, the page is secure • Make sure that you follow the rules on copyright-protected content, including having to pay for it. Tell me more Page 31
Specific things you do online Sending & receiving eCards Holiday & travel booking You MUST • Not open any eCards from unknown sources • Not download attachments or click on links in an eCard, even if it appears to come from a source you know. You MUST • Ensure that the holiday or travel you are booking is genuine • Pay for your holiday or travel by credit card as it provides additional financial protection. eCards are becoming a popular, inexpensive and sustainable way of sending greetings, but both receiving and sending them can lead to inadvertently downloading malware, viewing inappropriate or unlawful content or revealing your personal or financial details to scammers. Tell me more Page 32 The majority of holiday and travel research and booking now takes place online, but the time between booking and travel – and the relatively large sums of money involved – make the activity a popular target for fraudsters, resulting in not only financial losses but also distress for would-be travellers. Tell me more
07 www.getsafeonline.org Online dating Online dating, a very popular and often successful pastime, can expose you to considerable financial and emotional risk unless you follow some simple precautions and do not let your heart rule your head. Searching for a job Job hunting online – whether on specific recruitment sites, local newspaper websites or employers’ own careers pages – is the most common method of finding new work. You need to be aware of a number of associated risks … regarding privacy, identity theft financial scams and even personal safety when you go to an interview. You MUST • Never disclose private information on online dating sites • Never be tempted to send money – however little – to someone you have befriended online as you could become a victim of romance fraud • Exercise great caution when meeting in person someone you have met online. Tell me more You MUST • Ensure the authenticity of jobsites and think twice about the private information you are divulging when registering or applying • Beware of advertisements for ‘get rich quick’ jobs as they could well be a scam. Tell me more Page 33
Specific things you do online Online gambling Online gambling is fast gaining awareness and popularity, which makes it a target for fraudsters and identity thieves. Apart from the potentially fraudulent aspects, it is important to be aware of the amount you have gambled and knowing when to stop. You MUST • Choose reputable gambling and betting sites • Recognise when you are being lured, legally or illegally, into spending more money, such as playing real online games rather than ‘play for fun’ versions • Exercise responsibility with the sums of money you are gambling. Tell me more Online gaming To many people, it seems unthinkable that something as much fun as online gaming could carry a risk, but unfortunately this is the case, whether it be losing money on in-game property, revealing personal information, downloading viruses or spyware or using pirated copies of games. You MUST • Have updated internet security software installed and switched on • Remember that there is a risk of Page 34
07 www.getsafeonline.org products based on your own priorities. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, so you do need to exercise care. Online price comparison can also be a target for fraudsters. You MUST • Take steps to protect your personal data and privacy • Refer to more than one price comparison site to ensure you are getting the best deal. Tell me more Property rental non-payment when selling virtual property • Never reveal personal or financial information … you do not know who may be using it to their advantage. Tell me more Using price comparison websites The concept behind the scores of price comparison websites now operating is that you can clearly find the best deal on financial services and other The widespread use of the internet for advertising rental properties has led to equally widespread fraud affecting both potential tenants and landlords. As with everything online, it pays to exercise caution when arranging property rentals and before making any payments, in order to avoid financial losses. You MUST • Always view a property and check authenticity of the landlord before paying any money • Always take up references for potential tenants if you are renting out a property. Tell me more Page 35
Specific things you do online Making Skype & internet calls The use of Skype and VoIP (Voice over IP) calls – with or without video – demands increasing vigilance to avoid unauthorised access to your personal details, eavesdropping on your calls and inadvertent acquisition of malware. You need to take some simple precautions to ensure your security. You MUST • Accept contact requests only from people you know and who would need to communicate with you via Skype or internet call • Not click on links contained in Skype messages, nor in emails claiming to be from Skype or other service providers. Tell me more Transferring money The ability to transfer money – including from country to country – makes payment for goods or services fast and easy under certain circumstances. Legitimate money transfer services, however, can also be used for illicit purposes to carry out fraud such as inheritance, romance, overpayment, rental, vehicle or online auction scams. Page 36 You MUST • Never send a money transfer to someone you have not met in person, or who you otherwise trust implicitly from previous transactions • Always ensure that cheques you receive from other people are cleared and the funds available before sending repayments – however long this may take. Tell me more
Thank you Thank you for taking the time to read the Get Safe Online Highway Code. If you have found it useful, please bookmark it for future reference, because you never know when you might want to refer to it for advice. And please pass it on to any family members, friends, neighbours or work colleagues … as you never know when To speak to a Symantec Product Specialist, please call: Australia: +61 3 9674 5500 Hong Kong: +852 30 114 683 New Zealand: +64 9912 7201 Singapore: +65 6622 1368 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
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