4 Water Cycle

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Information about 4 Water Cycle
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Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Margherita

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Presented by: David Armstrong Brian Lee Janny Park Adriano Yu Rain:  Rain Rain is also known as precipitation. Precipitation is the process after condensation. Part C is precipitation—Wow!:  Part C is precipitation—Wow! Slide5:  Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to earth. The Collection Process:  The Collection Process When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts all over again. Rain on your windshield decreases visibility.:  Rain on your windshield decreases visibility. Rain can dampen any day.:  Rain can dampen any day. The clouds get darker as it gets heavier with water.:  The clouds get darker as it gets heavier with water. Slide11:  Without rain the world will be in a ton of trouble. Imagine if once the water went up in the sky it never returned to earth. We would be without drinkable water within 32 years. Slide12:  When you get a chance fill up a glass of water and stare at it…try and figure out how old it is. Chances are that it is just as old as the earth. What is Transpiration and Evaporation?:  What is Transpiration and Evaporation? Evaporation- conversion of water into water vapor. This is the first part of the water cycle. Transpiration- evaporation from leaves of water extracted from soil by roots and transported throughout the plant. This is the last part of the water cycle. What it looks like…:  What it looks like… Evaporation:  Evaporation The process called “evaporation” is water loss from exposed surfaces, such as water bodies, soil surfaces, and intercepted water on plant and litter surfaces. (ex.) If there is a puddle of water on a sunny day, a period of time later, the water will be evaporated into the sky and will be gone. Evaporation continued…:  Evaporation continued… If the surrounding air is dryer (lower water vapor pressure) than the surface that contains water, the water will evaporate and will continue to do so until the water is gone. Evaporation continued…:  Evaporation continued… In other words, evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers, lakes, or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. Examples of evaporation…:  Examples of evaporation… Transpiration:  Transpiration Transpiration is the loss of water through the leaves (sometimes stems) of plants. The source of water is the plant-available water in the soil. The actual loss is through little structures (specialized holes guarded by leaves) called stomata. Transpiration continued…:  Transpiration continued… People perspire and plants transpire. Transpiration gives evaporation a bit or a hand in getting the water vapor back up into the air. THE LAST PART OF THE CYCLE THE FIRST PART OF THE CYCLE:  THE LAST PART OF THE CYCLE THE FIRST PART OF THE CYCLE Another look…:  Another look… What is condensation?:  What is condensation? Condensation is when water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, droplet water, which forms clouds and fog. Evaporation versus Condensation:  Evaporation versus Condensation The speeds of water molecules determine condensation and evaporation rates. Evaporation and condensation both occur at all temperatures. The temperature of the air, the water vapor in the air, and the surface of liquid water determine whether condensation or evaporation dominates. Evaporation versus Condensation (continued):  Evaporation versus Condensation (continued) Suppose we have a parcel of air in which condensation and evaporation are equal. For every molecule that evaporates from the liquid water, a water vapor molecule condenses into the liquid state. If you cool the air parcel, condensation dominates. Evaporation is still taking place, but it is overwhelmed by condensation. This can lead to fogs, clouds or dew. Evaporation versus Condensation (continued):  Evaporation versus Condensation (continued) The reason condensation becomes dominant in the cooler air is that more of the molecules are moving at slower speeds. Many more of the water molecules become slow enough to change into liquid. If, on the other hand, you warm the air parcel, evaporation dominates as the molecules speed up. Sample experiment-:  Sample experiment- We can see this at home. Pour a glass of cold water on a hot day and watch what happens. Water forms on the outside of the glass. That water didn’t somehow leak through the glass. It came from the air. Water vapor in the warm air, turns back into liquid when it touches the cold glass. Experiment (continued):  Experiment (continued) Cool the glass and the average speed of the water molecules in it slows down. When the temperature falls below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius), more and more water molecules are going slow enough to lock together into ice crystals. Experiment (continued):  Experiment (continued) Heat the glass and the average speed of the water molecules in it speeds up. More and more of them evaporate into the air as water vapor. Experiment (continued):  Experiment (continued) If you cool the air above the glass, the average speed of its molecules slows down and more and more of them are going slow enough to condense into the glass of water. Precipitation becomes:  Precipitation becomes Surface Runoff Infiltration and Percolation What is Surface Runoff?:  What is Surface Runoff? Most of the precipitation falling on terrestrial ecosystems become surface runoff flowing into streams and lakes. Eventually… carry water back to the oceans, where it is evaporated to continue the cycle. More on Surface Runoff…:  More on Surface Runoff… Surface runoff also causes soil erosion, which moves soil and weathered rock fragments from one place to another. Water is considered as the primary sculptor of the earth’s landscape. What is Infiltration?:  What is Infiltration? Infiltration simply means the process of precipitation soaking into the soil and porous rocks. What is Percolation?:  What is Percolation? Percolation is groundwater moving downward. Percolation is generally much slower compared to Surface Runoff. What is an aquifer?:  What is an aquifer? During the percolation, a network of water channels allows water to flow through the porous rock… such water-laden rock is called an aquifer. More on Percolation…:  More on Percolation… The underground water flows slowly downhill through rock pores and seeps out into streams and lakes or comes out in springs… and eventually, this water evaporates or reaches the sea to continue the cycle. How long does this take?:  How long does this take? The average circulation rate of underground water in the water cycle is very slow (300-4,600 years) compared with that of water in lakes (13 years), streams (13 days), and the atmosphere (9 days). The turnover time for water in the ocean is about 37,00 years, and 16,000 years for ice glaciers Bibliography:  Bibliography www.kindertime/edu/diagrams/water.com www.pawaterworks.com www.waterandus.com www.neverendingcycle.com www.letitrainagain.com www.emanuelstewart/watercycle.com

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