4 Nakatani

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Published on January 24, 2008

Author: Siro

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NOZOMI Exploration Operations Challenges ー Japan's Mars Mission ー:  NOZOMI Exploration Operations Challenges ー Japan's Mars Mission ー Ichiro Nakatani Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/JAXA 18 May, 2004 Slide2:  Research Targets of Nozomi Study on the mechanism of the direct interaction between the solar wind and the Martian ionosphere + α whereα included: 1) science of other disciplines 2) establishment of the engineering technology for planetary exploration Slide3:  Overview of the Project Spacecraft Mass wet mass 540 kg (science payload: 35 kg ) propellant 280 kg Launch Vehicle M-V-3 Mission Sequence (originally planned) launch July 3, 1998 Mars Orbit Insertion October 1999 Mission Life in Mars Orbit (originally planned) 1 Martian year (2 Earth years) Orbit (originally planned) periapsis 150 km apoapsis 15 Rm Slide4:  Nozomi Science Payload Magnetic Field (MGF) 3 - axis fluxgate, <0.1nT accuracy Energetic Electron (ESA) 12 eV - 15 keV, 3D up to 8sec Energetic Ions (ISA) 6 eV/q - 16 keV/q, 3D up to 8sec Energetic Ion Mass (IMI) 10 eV/q - 35 keV/q, 3D up to 4sec Sweden High Energy Particles (EIS) 30 - 350 keV for e, 30 - 1000 keV for p Thermal Ion Analyzer (TPA) 0.1 - 100 eV, drift Canada Electron Temperature (PET) el. Temp. 500 - 10,000 K Plasma wave (LFA) ELF/VLF wave detection UV spectra imager (UVS) H, O, CO, CO2 Imaging, D/H ratio EUV spectrometer (XUV) He(583) & He+(304) HF sounder receiver (PWS) topside sounder and plasma wav Visible Camera (MIC) 3 colors, 100m/pix, 1024x1024 France Dust counter (MDC) 10-10 - 10-5g at 1 km/s, 10-18 - 10-13g at 10 km/s Germany Neutral Gas mass (NMS) 1 - 60 Daltons with M / DM > 105 USA Radio Science USO(Df / f : 10-14) USA Slide5:  Final On-orbit Configuration Slide7:  Major Events after Launch 1998. 7. 3 Launch 1998. 9.24 1st lunar swing-by 1998.12.18 2nd lunar swing-by 1998.12.20 1st Earth swing-by Trans-Mars Orbit Insertion ⇒Trouble with one of the valves: Wasted excessive propellant. Trajectory revised (MOI : 1999.10 ⇒ 2003:12 ) 2002. 4.25 Loss of telemetry & thermal control (only beacon mode possible) 4.28 Beacon mode telemetry established by turning on/off the X-band power amplifier 5.14 X-band beacon loss during recovery operation 7.14 recovery of X-band beacon 9.2-12 a series of successful attitude/orbit control 2002.12.20 2nd Earth swing-by 2003. 6.19 3rd Earth swing-by 2003.Jul.- Dec. Recovery operation 2003.12.14 Failure of MOI (Mars fly-by) Slide8:  Major Events after Launch 1998. 7. 3 Launch 1998. 9.24 1st lunar swing-by 1998.12.18 2nd lunar swing-by 1998.12.20 1st Earth swing-by Trans-Mars Orbit Insertion ⇒Trouble with one of the valves: Wasted excessive propellant. Trajectory revised (MOI : 1999.10 ⇒ 2003:12 ) 2002. 4.25 Loss of telemetry & thermal control (only beacon mode possible) 4.28 Beacon mode telemetry established by turning on/off the X-band power amplifier 5.14 X-band beacon loss during recovery operation 7.14 recovery of X-band beacon 9.2-12 a series of successful attitude/orbit control 2002.12.20 2nd Earth swing-by 2003. 6.19 3rd Earth swing-by 2003.Jul.- Dec. Recovery operation 2003.12.14 Failure of MOI (Mars fly-by) Slide10:  Originally Planned Orbit Sequence Valve failure at the earth swing-by July 3,1998 Slide11:  Revised Trajectory to Mars Mars orbit insertion Dec.2003 Slide12:  Major Events after Launch 1998. 7. 3 Launch 1998. 9.24 1st lunar swing-by 1998.12.18 2nd lunar swing-by 1998.12.20 1st Earth swing-by Trans-Mars Orbit Insertion ⇒Trouble with one of the valves: Wasted excessive propellant. Trajectory revised (MOI : 1999.10 ⇒ 2003:12 ) 2002. 4.25 Loss of telemetry & thermal control (only beacon mode possible) 4.28 Beacon mode telemetry established by turning on/off the X-band power amplifier 5.14 X-band beacon loss during recovery operation 7.14 recovery of X-band beacon 9.2-12 a series of successful attitude/orbit control 2002.12.20 2nd Earth swing-by 2003. 6.19 3rd Earth swing-by 2003.Jul.- Dec. Recovery operation 2003.12.14 Failure of MOI (Mars fly-by) Slide13:  Major Events after Launch 1998. 7. 3 Launch 1998. 9.24 1st lunar swing-by 1998.12.18 2nd lunar swing-by 1998.12.20 1st Earth swing-by Trans-Mars Orbit Insertion ⇒Trouble with one of the valves: Wasted excessive propellant. Trajectory revised (MOI : 1999.10 ⇒ 2003:12 ) 2002. 4.25 Loss of telemetry & thermal control (only beacon mode possible) 4.28 Beacon mode telemetry established by turning on/off the X-band power amplifier 5.14 X-band beacon loss during recovery operation 7.14 recovery of X-band beacon 9.2-12 a series of successful attitude/orbit control 2002.12.20 2nd Earth swing-by 2003. 6.19 3rd Earth swing-by 2003.Jul.- Dec. Recovery operation 2003.12.14 Failure of MOI (Mars fly-by) Slide14:  Problem with Power System -On April 25, 2002, a problem was found with part of the communication and attitude control system. -The most likely cause was guessed to be high energy particles from the sun during the strong solar flares starting on April 21, 2002. The direct cause, however, has not been identified. -A short mode failure occurred in one of the circuits which were provided power by CI-PSU. -Attitude control function was recovered after the frozen propellant melted in August. -The telemetry and the main thruster never recovered after the recovery operations in May 2002 and in July - December 2003. Slide15:  Problem with Power System -On April 25, 2002, a problem was found with part of the communication and attitude control system. -The most likely cause was guessed to be high energy particles from the sun during the strong solar flares starting on April 21, 2002. The direct cause, however, has not been identified. -A short mode failure occurred in one of the circuits which were provided power by CI-PSU. -Attitude control function was recovered after the frozen propellant melted in August. -The telemetry and the main thruster never recovered after the recovery operations in May 2002 and in July - December 2003. Slide16:  SOHO LASCO Image Data (02/04/21 01:42 - 06:18) Slide17:  Solar Proton Monitor Count Rate Data Exceed Maximum count rate (65535/8sec) about 6 hrs. Highest count rate Nozomi is ever experienced ! Slide18:  Summary of the Problem -On April 25, 2002, a problem was found with part of the communication and attitude control system. -The most likely cause was guessed to be high energy particles from the sun during the strong sun flares starting on April 21. The direct cause, however, has not been identified. -A short mode failure occurred in one of the circuits which were provided power by CI-PSU. -Attitude control function was recovered after the frozen propellant melted in August. -The telemetry and the main thruster never recovered after the recovery operations in May 2002 and in July - December 2003. Slide19:  Telemetry Ranging Block Diagram around CI-PSU Power Supply Command Slide20:  Beacon Mode Telemetry Status: Only beacon was available with no telemetry information. Autonomous Command Function onboard Nozomi: - Nozomi had "AI mode" where onboard computer could execute command by judging the spacecraft status. -Ground operator could specify any HK item to be judged for executing onboard command. Slide21:  Beacon Mode Telemetry (continued) - Example: Ground operator could arrange the following: 1) Turn off the beacon if the temperature, T of the specified point is higher than 5deg. C.   2) Turn off the beacon if its temperature, T is lower than 8 deg.C. 3) If both of the above questions are responded as "YES" by turning off the beacon, then: 5deg. < T < 8 deg. has been identified - Iteration of the above process could eventually identify any HK item, although it took a significant amount of time. Slide22:  Sun-Earth fixed frame 020421 Sun Earth Malfunctioning of a circuit after April 21 Solar flare Nozomi trajectory relative to the Earth Slide23:  Summary of the Problem -On April 25, 2002, a problem was found with part of the communication and attitude control system. -The most likely cause was guessed to be high energy particles from the sun during the strong sun flares starting on April 21. The direct cause, however, has not been identified. -A short mode failure occurred in one of the circuits which were provided power by CI-PSU. -A recovery operation was conducted trying to burn out the short circuit, but it was unsuccessful. -Two additional Earth swing-by's were successfully conducted. The telemetry and the main thruster never recovered. Slide24:  day side dusk night side Nozomi Mars Fly-by Orbit Nozomi orbit Mar orbit (JST) Slide25:  Summary of the Nozomi Operation - Mal function of one of the valves which resulted in 4 year delay of the MOI exceeding the designed life of the spacecraft. - The problem with one of the power systems was found immediately after the strong solar flare. - The recovery operations to burn out the short circuit did not go well and MOI was not conducted. - Basic technologies for planetary explorations have been established. - Significant science observations have been conducted during a very long cruising phase. Slide26:  Imaging Earth's Plasmasphere by He+(304) Slide27:  All sky map by UV and EUV spectrometer H He

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