4 Mulches And Practical Turf

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Information about 4 Mulches And Practical Turf

Published on December 20, 2007

Author: sherylwil

Source: slideshare.net

 

Mulching to Reduce Evaporation

Mulching to Reduce Evaporation Terms Mulch Soil Amendment Applied on surface Mixed into soil

Terms

Mulch Soil Amendment

Applied on surface Mixed into soil

Benefits of Mulching

Benefits of Mulching Reduces evaporation by 25-50% Organic mulches promotes soil microorganism activity (which improves soil tilth, reducing Stabilizes soil moisture Prevents soil compaction Control weeds Moderates soil temperature extremes Controls erosion Gives a finished look

Reduces evaporation by 25-50%

Organic mulches promotes soil microorganism activity (which improves soil tilth, reducing

Stabilizes soil moisture

Prevents soil compaction

Control weeds

Moderates soil temperature extremes

Controls erosion

Gives a finished look

Mulch: edging & grading When mulch is added above grade it readily spreads off the bed onto the lawn or sidewalk creating a mowing or trip hazard. grass or sidewalk level mulch layer soil level

When mulch is added above grade it readily spreads off the bed onto the lawn or sidewalk creating a mowing or trip hazard.

Mulch: edging & grading An effective alternative is to drop the soil level in the mulch bed so the top of the mulch is at grade level. However, ensure that the mulched bed doesn’t fill wilt water draining from higher areas . grass or sidewalk level soil level mulch layer

An effective alternative is to drop the soil level in the mulch bed so the top of the mulch is at grade level.

However, ensure that the mulched bed doesn’t fill wilt water draining from higher areas .

Mulch: edging & grading An effective alternative is to round down the soil level along the edge of the bed. This gives a nice finished edge at grade level and creates a raised bed effect for the flowerbed. grass or sidewalk level soil level mulch layer soil and mulch taper down to grade

An effective alternative is to round down the soil level along the edge of the bed. This gives a nice finished edge at grade level and creates a raised bed effect for the flowerbed.

Wood/bark chip mulch

Wood/bark chip mulch Benefits Great for trees, shrubs, perennial flowers, and small fruits Creates favorable environment for earthworms and soil microorganisms.

Benefits

Great for trees, shrubs, perennial flowers, and small fruits

Creates favorable environment for earthworms and soil microorganisms.

Wood/bark chip mulch Benefits On shrub and flowerbeds, cuts irrigation need by as much as 50% Note: Does not reduce irrigation need over tree rooting area because only a small portion of the rooting area is typically mulched.

Benefits

On shrub and flowerbeds, cuts irrigation need by as much as 50%

Note: Does not reduce irrigation need over tree rooting area because only a small portion of the rooting area is typically mulched.

Wood/bark chip mulch Benefits Woody chips placed on the surface does not tie up nitrogen Sawdust and very fine chips, when used as a mulch, can tie-up soil nitrogen and can decrease soil oxygen levels. Do not plow wood/back chips into the soil.

Benefits

Woody chips placed on the surface does not tie up nitrogen

Sawdust and very fine chips, when used as a mulch, can tie-up soil nitrogen and can decrease soil oxygen levels.

Do not plow wood/back chips into the soil.

Wood/bark chip mulch Product selection Primary selection based on desired appearance and cost . Wood chips decompose faster, enriching the soil. Bark chips decompose slower, requiring less frequent replenishment.

Product selection

Primary selection based on desired appearance and cost .

Wood chips decompose faster, enriching the soil.

Bark chips decompose slower, requiring less frequent replenishment.

Wood/bark chip mulch Cedar mulch True cedar ( Cedrus spp.) can be phytotoxic to young plants when sawdust is used a mulch or soil amendment. “Red cedar” chips made from Juniper (Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana ) or Arborvitae (Western Red Cedar, Thuja spp.) are NOT phytotoxic. In Colorado, most “cedar” mulch (unless bagged and shipped in from other parts of the country) would be Juniper or Arborvitae.

Cedar mulch

True cedar ( Cedrus spp.) can be phytotoxic to young plants when sawdust is used a mulch or soil amendment.

“Red cedar” chips made from Juniper (Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana ) or Arborvitae (Western Red Cedar, Thuja spp.) are NOT phytotoxic.

In Colorado, most “cedar” mulch (unless bagged and shipped in from other parts of the country) would be Juniper or Arborvitae.

Wood/bark chip mulch application Depth 3” to 4” standard Best weed control Eliminates compaction forces of foot traffic 1-2” for poorly drained soils On compacted/clayey soils with poor drainage, 3-4” may reduce water evaporation so much that susceptible plants develop root rot on wet years and under frequent irrigation >4” -- may reduce soil oxygen levels

Depth

3” to 4” standard

Best weed control

Eliminates compaction forces of foot traffic

1-2” for poorly drained soils

On compacted/clayey soils with poor drainage, 3-4” may reduce water evaporation so much that susceptible plants develop root rot on wet years and under frequent irrigation

>4” -- may reduce soil oxygen levels

Wood/bark chip mulch application Around trees Great around trees, protecting from “lawn mower blight” Do NOT make “mulch volcanoes” -- Keep mulch back about 6” from trunk Softens trunk bark when wet Decreases natural trunk taper On newly planted trees, do NOT put chips directly over the root ball.

Around trees

Great around trees, protecting from “lawn mower blight”

Do NOT make “mulch volcanoes” -- Keep mulch back about 6” from trunk

Softens trunk bark when wet

Decreases natural trunk taper

On newly planted trees, do NOT put chips directly over the root ball.

Wood/bark chip mulch application Chips blow in windy areas Shredded type chips more wind resistant Generally not suited for windy areas. Chips float Not suited for area with standing water or heavy surface runoff.

Chips blow in windy areas

Shredded type chips more wind resistant

Generally not suited for windy areas.

Chips float

Not suited for area with standing water or heavy surface runoff.

Wood/bark chip mulch application Chips over landscape fabric Standard procedure on commercial installations Greater soil improvement with out fabric Weed seeds that germinate above the fabric are difficult to pull. Chips over newspapers Couple of layers of newspaper blocks out light, preventing weed seed germination .

Chips over landscape fabric

Standard procedure on commercial installations

Greater soil improvement with out fabric

Weed seeds that germinate above the fabric are difficult to pull.

Chips over newspapers

Couple of layers of newspaper blocks out light, preventing weed seed germination .

Wood/bark chip mulch application Converting lawn to mulch area Standard procedure to spray out grass with Round-up (glyphosate) first. Apply mulch after grass has died. Do not put mulch over growing lawn.

Converting lawn to mulch area

Standard procedure to spray out grass with Round-up (glyphosate) first. Apply mulch after grass has died.

Do not put mulch over growing lawn.

Grass clipping mulch

Grass clipping mulch Great choice for vegetable and flower beds that are annually cultivated to prepare a seed bed. Adds a small amount of organic matter to soil

Great choice for vegetable and flower beds that are annually cultivated to prepare a seed bed.

Adds a small amount of organic matter to soil

Grass clipping mulch Apply fresh green clippings only in thin layers, allowing it to dry between applications. Thick layers will mat and stink. Do not use clippings from lawns treated with pesticides for at least 4 weeks after application.

Apply fresh green clippings only in thin layers, allowing it to dry between applications.

Thick layers will mat and stink.

Do not use clippings from lawns treated with pesticides for at least 4 weeks after application.

Newspaper under mulch

Newspaper under mulch A couple of sheets, blocks out light preventing weed seed germination. Do not use more than a couple of layers, the high carbon content can cause a carbon to nitrogen imbalance, creating a nitrogen deficiency.

A couple of sheets, blocks out light preventing weed seed germination.

Do not use more than a couple of layers, the high carbon content can cause a carbon to nitrogen imbalance, creating a nitrogen deficiency.

Newspaper under mulch Blow away quickly. Apply immediately before adding chips or grass top layer. Newspapers are printed on soy-based inks, that are safe. Do not use glossy print materials, as their inks may contain heavy metals.

Blow away quickly. Apply immediately before adding chips or grass top layer.

Newspapers are printed on soy-based inks, that are safe. Do not use glossy print materials, as their inks may contain heavy metals.

Rock mulch with landscape fabric

Rock mulch with landscape fabric Great for non-crop areas Doesn’t blow or float away Doesn’t decompose (lower maintenance) Doesn’t build soil tilth

Great for non-crop areas

Doesn’t blow or float away

Doesn’t decompose (lower maintenance)

Doesn’t build soil tilth

Rock mulch with landscape fabric Pea gravel May increase soil temperature, resulting in increased spring-time plant growth. May reduce evaporation from soil surface

Pea gravel

May increase soil temperature, resulting in increased spring-time plant growth.

May reduce evaporation from soil surface

Rock mulch with landscape fabric Heat sink Raising temperatures (summer “people space” issue) Increasing irrigation requirements

Heat sink

Raising temperatures (summer “people space” issue)

Increasing irrigation requirements

Rock mulch with landscape fabric Will interfere with shrub rejuvenation pruning. Basically replace flowering shrubs when they become overgrown and woody.

Will interfere with shrub rejuvenation pruning. Basically replace flowering shrubs when they become overgrown and woody.

Rock mulch with landscape fabric Not recommended adjacent to lawn areas (safety issue) Not recommended in children’s play areas (safety issue)

Not recommended adjacent to lawn areas (safety issue)

Not recommended in children’s play areas (safety issue)

Rock mulch NEVER use rock over black plastic in plant beds (soil water and oxygen issue)

NEVER use rock over black plastic in plant beds (soil water and oxygen issue)

Creating practical turf and non-turf areas

Creating practical turf and non-turf areas

Select turf based on actual use of the site. Higher quality = High water demand Expectations? Lower quality = Lower water demand

Higher quality =

High water demand

Expectations?

Lower quality =

Lower water demand

Water-wise lawn care Higher quality = High water demand Expectations? Lower quality = Lower water demand Routine irrigation High performance Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue Reduced irrigation Reduced inputs Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue Non-irrigated Buffalograss Blue Grama

Higher quality =

High water demand

Expectations?

Lower quality =

Lower water demand

Routine irrigation

High performance Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue

Reduced irrigation

Reduced inputs Bluegrass varieties and turf-type tall fescue

Non-irrigated

Buffalograss

Blue Grama

Water-wise lawn care High water demand Expectations? Low water demand Increased drought tolerance with 3”- 4” mowing height. Spring fertilization decreases drought tolerance. Any grass is intolerant of traffic when under water stress.

High water demand

Expectations?

Low water demand

Increased drought tolerance with 3”- 4” mowing height.

Spring fertilization decreases drought tolerance.

Any grass is intolerant of traffic when under water stress.

Water-wise lawn care High water demand Expectations? Low water demand During periods of water shortage, reduce expectations.

High water demand

Expectations?

Low water demand

Water-wise gardening is not anti-turf, it is about matching the expectation with the actual use of the site. Grass provides significant environmental and people benefits.

Grass provides significant environmental and people benefits.

Reduces surface runoff An average golf course of 150 acres can absorbs 4 million gallons of water during a 1” rain. Thick turf allows 15 times less runoff than a thin turf. A dense turf can reduce runoff to almost zero. Grass protects surface water quality

Reduces surface runoff

An average golf course of 150 acres can absorbs 4 million gallons of water during a 1” rain.

Thick turf allows 15 times less runoff than a thin turf.

A dense turf can reduce runoff to almost zero.

Reduces surface runoff On a slope with good soil tilth, dense sod can absorbs 7.6”/hour compared to 2.4/hour for a thin sod When compared to a non-grass area (like a garden or field) grassy areas reduce soil erosion caused by runoff by 84 to 668 times Grass protects surface water quality

Reduces surface runoff

On a slope with good soil tilth, dense sod can absorbs 7.6”/hour compared to 2.4/hour for a thin sod

When compared to a non-grass area (like a garden or field) grassy areas reduce soil erosion caused by runoff by 84 to 668 times

To protect surface water quality, direct surface runoff onto grass areas allowing for natural filtering in this biologically active turf soil.

Traps dust and pollen Reduces noise, summer heat, and glare (improving “people space”) Controls soil erosion by wind Grass mitigates pollutions

Traps dust and pollen

Reduces noise, summer heat, and glare (improving “people space”)

Controls soil erosion by wind

Soil microbial activity breaks down pollutants (such as air contaminants, pesticides and pollen) Grass mitigates pollutions

Soil microbial activity breaks down pollutants (such as air contaminants, pesticides and pollen)

It takes 25 square feet of actively growing turf to convert the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , into oxygen, O 2 , needed per person per day. Grass converts CO 2 to O 2

It takes 25 square feet of actively growing turf to convert the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , into oxygen, O 2 , needed per person per day.

Actively growing grass turf supports soil microorganism activity, which improves soil structure.

Cool, dirt-free play space for children and adults Turf is basic to “people space”

Cool, dirt-free play space for children and adults

Element in landscape design Gives unity to the landscape design elements Provides a neutral background setting off flowers and shrubs Turf is basic to “people space”

Element in landscape design

Gives unity to the landscape design elements

Provides a neutral background setting off flowers and shrubs

Property value and marketability Fire Control Other benefits of turf

Property value and marketability

Fire Control

Objective: Match turf with needs of site! Expectations?

Expectations?

Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. Standard for high aesthetic value “people space” Seasonal irrigation required = 34” water

Standard for high aesthetic value “people space”

Seasonal irrigation required = 34” water

Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.

Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.

Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress. Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.

Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.

Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress.

Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.

Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress. Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather. “ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water .

Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.

Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress.

Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.

“ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water .

Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered. Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress. Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather. “ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water.

Water use depends on the expectations, most landscapes are significantly over-watered.

Bluegrass goes dormant under water stress.

Makes a great reduced input lawn, allowing it go dormant in hot/dry weather.

“ Drought-tolerant varieties use 25% less water.

Kentucky bluegrass does NOT requires heavy irrigation. Bottom line It’s not the grass that demands the water, but rather the gardener!

Bottom line

It’s not the grass that demands the water, but rather the gardener!

Turf-type tall fescue requires irrigation Actual irrigation requirement depends on soil conditions, precipitation, and management style. Actual water use of turf-quality tall fescue is 10% less than turf-quality bluegrass. If conditions allow deeper rooting, it will maintain green color longer between irrigation. Will also require longer irrigation period Tall fescue does not tolerate long-term drought, as it can not go dormant.

Actual irrigation requirement depends on soil conditions, precipitation, and management style.

Actual water use of turf-quality tall fescue is 10% less than turf-quality bluegrass.

If conditions allow deeper rooting, it will maintain green color longer between irrigation.

Will also require longer irrigation period

Tall fescue does not tolerate long-term drought, as it can not go dormant.

Turf-type tall fescue requires irrigation Reduced input tall fescue Makes a good reduced input lawn where top quality is not essential for the landscape design.

Reduced input tall fescue

Makes a good reduced input lawn where top quality is not essential for the landscape design.

Buffalograss quality is dependant on the amount of rain and irrigation it receives. Turf-quality Buffalograss requires 50% less irrigation per season than bluegrass. This is partly due to being slower to green up in the spring and faster to go dormant in the fall. For turf-quality Buffalograss, the summer (June-August) irrigation requirement is 1”/ week. (By comparison, bluegrass is 1.3”/week.) Dormant brown from early fall to late spring Bunch grass

Turf-quality Buffalograss requires 50% less irrigation per season than bluegrass. This is partly due to being slower to green up in the spring and faster to go dormant in the fall.

For turf-quality Buffalograss, the summer (June-August) irrigation requirement is 1”/ week. (By comparison, bluegrass is 1.3”/week.)

Dormant brown from early fall to late spring

Bunch grass

Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34”

Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31”

Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17”

Comparative Annual Water Requirements 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35” Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” 26” “ Drought tolerant” KBG cultivars (75% ET ) Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17”

Comparative Annual Water Requirements Turf quality KBG (100% ET) 34” Turf quality Tall Fescue (90% ET) 31” 26” “ Drought tolerant” KBG cultivars (75% ET ) Turf quality Buffalo grass (50% ET) 17” 20” Reduced quality KBG and Tall Fescue watered at 60% ET (grass will thin) 31” Moderate quality KBG and Tall Fescue watered at 80% ET Summer dormant (June-August) KBG (40% ET) 14” 0” 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 30” 35”

Creating practical turf areas and non-turf areas Take home message: Match turf type with use of site.

Take home message:

Match turf type with use of site.

Maintaining with good horticultural practices Healthy plants are more tolerant of insect and disease problems. Healthy plants have fewer insect and disease problems Iron chlorosis, a symptoms of springtime over-watering

Healthy plants are more tolerant of insect and disease problems.

Healthy plants have fewer insect and disease problems

Iron chlorosis, a symptoms of springtime over-watering

Summary: 1. 2. 3. 4.

1.

2.

3.

4.

7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening Planning and design for water conservation, beauty, and utility Improving the soil Creating practical turf and non-turf areas Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods Selecting plants and grouping them according to water need Mulching to reduce evaporation Maintaining with good horticultural practices

Planning and design for water conservation, beauty, and utility

Improving the soil

Creating practical turf and non-turf areas

Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods

Selecting plants and grouping them according to water need

Mulching to reduce evaporation

Maintaining with good horticultural practices

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