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Business-Finance

Published on April 13, 2008

Author: Natalya

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply, Monetary and Fiscal Policy 15,16 Introduction:  Introduction Over the long run, real GDP grows about 3% per year on average. In the short run, GDP fluctuates around its trend. recessions: periods of falling real incomes and rising unemployment depressions: severe recessions (very rare) Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations:  Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations The shaded bars are recessions U.S. real GDP, billions of 2000 dollars FACT 1: Economic fluctuations are irregular and unpredictable. Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations:  Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations FACT 2: Most macroeconomic quantities fluctuate together. Investment spending, billions of 2000 dollars Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations:  Three Facts About Economic Fluctuations FACT 3: As output falls, unemployment rises. Unemployment rate, percent of labor force The Wealth Effect (P and C ):  The Wealth Effect (P and C ) Suppose P rises. The dollars people hold buy fewer g&s, so real wealth is lower. People feel poorer, so they spend less. Thus, an increase in P causes a fall in C …which means a smaller quantity of g&s demanded. The Interest-Rate Effect (P and I ):  The Interest-Rate Effect (P and I ) Suppose P rises. Buying g&s requires more dollars. People save less than before. Thus, an increase in P causes a decrease in I …which means a smaller quantity of g&s demanded. The Exchange-Rate Effect (P and NX ):  The Exchange-Rate Effect (P and NX ) An increase in P causes a decrease in NX …which means a smaller quantity of g&s demanded. 7 The Slope of the AD Curve: Summary:  The Slope of the AD Curve: Summary An increase in P reduces the quantity of g&s demanded because: AD P1 Y1 the wealth effect (C falls) the interest-rate effect (I falls) the exchange-rate effect (NX falls)

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