Published on March 28, 2008
Africa South of the Sahara: Africa South of the Sahara Physical Location and Climate A New Dawn? : A New Dawn? A Heritage of Resources and History The Challenges of the Present Africa Physical Geography: Africa Physical Geography Africa’s Climate: Africa’s Climate Africa’s Major Geographic Features: A plateau continent that is physiographically unique Comprised of dozens of nations and hundreds of ethnic groups A realm of subsistence farmers Inefficient state boundaries represent colonial legacies Dislocated peoples and refugees Raw materials and resource potential Africa’s Major Geographic Features Africa and Cultural Heritage: Africa and Cultural Heritage Slide7: EARLY KINGDOMS Berlin Conference 1884: 14 States divided up Africa without consideration of cultures Results of superimposed boundaries -- African peoples were divided. -- Unified regions were ripped apart. -- Hostile societies were thrown together. -- Hinterlands were disrupted. -- Migration routes were closed off. When independence returned to Africa after 1950, the realm had already acquired a legacy of political fragmentation. Berlin Conference 1884 Colonial Policies: Great Britain: “Indirect Rule” (Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe) Indigenous power structures were left intact to some degree and local rulers were made representatives of the crown. France: “Assimilationist” (Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, etc.) Enforced a direct rule which propagated the French culture through language, laws, education and dress (acculturation) Colonial Policies Colonial Policies: Portugal: “Exploitation” (Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique) First to enslave and colonize and one of the last to grant independence Maintained rigid control; raw resource oriented Belgium: “Paternalistic” (Rwanda, Zaire, Burundi) Treated Africans as though they where children who needed to be tutored in western ways; did not try to make them Belgium Raw resource oriented; ignored the development of natives Colonial Policies Economic Sectors: Economic Sectors Primary – Mining, fishing, forestry, oil, extraction industries Secondary – Manufacturing and value added processes Tertiary – Distribution and consumption of goods Quaternary – Specialty services such as software, IT and financial The Colonial Legacy: Several hundred languages are spoken. Antagonism between tribes (e.g., Rwanda) Low level of development is linked to colonization Transportation facilities - Movement of goods is from the interior to coastal outlets. Communication within Africa is impeded by desert, dense forest, and lack of navigable rivers in certain regions. Dual economy remains intact; most states rely on a single crop or mineral and are vulnerable to world markets. The Colonial Legacy Medical Geography Issues: Studies spatial aspects of disease and health Africa is an extraordinary laboratory. -- Disease incidence and diffusion -- Widespread nutritional deficiencies Millions suffer from: malaria - river blindness yellow fever - sleeping sickness AIDS - schistosomiasis Medical Geography Issues Medical Definitions: Endemic -- Exists in equilibrium with the population -- Many develop an immunity of sorts -- Saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives Epidemic -- Sudden outbreak at local, regional scale Pandemic -- Worldwide spread Medical Definitions AIDS – The African Threat: AIDS – The African Threat Major Population Centers : Major Population Centers Urban Centers: Urban Centers Historical Roots of Africa SOS: Historical Roots of Africa SOS Kingdoms with shared roots Animistic religions Complex and extensive trade patterns Sophisticated art, music, architecture Colonial Exploitation Extractive industries Supporting infrastructure Social, cultural, economic dominance and “reform” Dismissal of African culture and achievements as “primitive” by western standards Roots of Economic Evils: Roots of Economic Evils Extractive Industries predominate Boom times, lots of loans to governments for infrastructure Lots of corruption and cash exports to Swiss banks Downturn – debt load is crushing “can barely pay the finance charges” No money for development, education, lifestyle improvements No “new work” interconnecting to ROW Roots of Destablized Governments: Roots of Destablized Governments US vs. Soviet Influence peddling Support for rebellion and dissent History of two generations with a sole occupation of fighting Lack of training of administrators during colonial operations No development of education or investment in people Historical corruption and mismanagement Roots of non-Diverse Economy: Roots of non-Diverse Economy No incentive for companies to go beyond extractive exports No non-commercial infrastructure during colonial times No background or educational systems to move beyond primary industries Natural Environments and Resources : Natural Environments and Resources Tropical Climates Changing Climates Ancient Rocks, Plateaus, Rifts, and Volcanoes Plateaus Rift Valleys Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya Natural Environmentsand Resources (cont’d): Natural Environments and Resources (cont’d) Ancient Landscapes Niger River Nile River Congo River Zambezi River Orange River Forests, Savannas, and Deserts Resources Natural Environmentsand Resources (cont’d): Environmental Problems Drought and Desertification Soil Quality Losses Wildlife Tropical Diseases HIV/AIDS Pandemic Natural Environments and Resources (cont’d) Africa, Globalization, and Localization : Africa, Globalization, and Localization Loser in the global economy Provides cheap raw materials to the materially wealthy Western world Generally though large multi-national corporations and banks Debtors and recipients of aid Local rather than global orientations Central Aftica: Central Aftica Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo (Zaire) Equatorial Guinea Gabonese Republic Rwanda Central African Republic: Central African Republic Central African Republic: Central African Republic One of six landlocked countries on the African continent River travel is predominant in and out of the country Poor infrastructure (telephones, sanitation, roads etc.) Urbanizing population – poor making subsistence living attempts Continuous growth of population due to increased survival rates with minimal health care Physical Setting: Physical Setting Plateau with mountainous sectioons of the interior, marginal agricultural land Borders several countries in unstable situations Sudan, Congo, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo etc. Equatorial area with attendant problems of heat, moisture and seasonal rain patterns Breeding ground for disease Location and Terrain: Location and Terrain 7 o North of the Equator Land Area the size of Texas Terrain is “vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest” (CIA World Fact Book) Landlocked Oubangi river primary means of transportation Climate and Weather: Climate and Weather Warm to Hot Equatorial climate with dry winters and wet summer seasons Bangui - Capital of the Country: Bangui - Capital of the Country CAR – The rest of the story: CAR – The rest of the story Social and Cultural Setting: Social and Cultural Setting Some ethnic conflicts still present Subsistence agriculture, market agriculture, some manufacturing and government service Marginal tourist industry based on local flora/fauna but lacks infrastructure Education not universal Migration to cities without support infrastructure with growing urbanization and cultural change Child trafficking and exploitation for servitude, sexual trades and child labor Central African Issues: Central African Issues Ethnicities Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2% Religion indigenous beliefs 35%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15% Medical Aids, Water borne disease, Malaria Population Issues: Population Issues Ever present everywhere Growth Education Living arrangements Sanitation Work Health Data Validity: Data Validity US Census Extrapolation Actual data differs Inconsistent years available Data collection not easy 67% US response rate in a literate society 1975 20% of Population is “Unknown” age over 70 1988 data has actual age to 90 Roots of Economic Evils: Roots of Economic Evils Extractive Industries predominate Boom times, lots of loans to governments for infrastructure Lots of corruption and cash exports to Swiss banks Downturn – debt load is crushing “can barely pay the finance charges” No money for development, education, lifestyle improvements No “new work” interconnecting to ROW Natural Environmentsand Resources (cont’d): Environmental Problems Soil Quality Losses Wildlife Tropical Diseases TseTse flies (Trypanosoma) Malaria River Blindness HIV/AIDS Pandemic Natural Environments and Resources (cont’d) Central Africa (cont’d) : Central Africa (cont’d) Economic Development Dominant Agriculture Forestry, Fishing, and Mining Emerging Manufacturing Transportation is Vital French Links Communauté Financière Africaine (CFA) Ethnic Identity: Ethnic Identity Hutu vs Tutsi Rooted in economics of relationship to the ancient king Hutu – generally farmers and cattle herders Tutsis – generally administrators, teachers Few valid identifiable physical differences ID cards maintained ethnic information until 1994 from colonial times Sense of “better than you” subsidized by political power No rational reason for differentiation of the same peoples People and Cultures: People and Cultures Inheritors of a rich and diverse cultural background Measures of poverty, wealth, education, intelligence and civilization are western yardsticks that may have no meaning to most people in the region Remnants of hunter/gatherer and subsistence living are widespread Gathering storm of human, environmental and economic issues will erupt in the near future Globalization of the continent? African Challenges: African Challenges Can Africa Claim the Twenty-First Century? Four Areas of Action Improved governance and conflict resolution Investment in people Economic diversification Reduced aid dependence, debt, and stronger intraregional partnerships
Extended Families In Africa, the whole village took responsibility for raising children The clan was the largest family group in Africa and
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Regarding the African experience with presidential systems, ... Tabelle1!$AJ$3Subsaharan Africa Presidential to Parliamentary (20 cases) 1950 1951 1952 ...