3rd Danube Summit Budimpesta

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Information about 3rd Danube Summit Budimpesta

Published on November 6, 2007

Author: Davidson

Source: authorstream.com

Innovations in Shipbuilding:  Innovations in Shipbuilding Prof. Dr. Dejan Radojcic University of Belgrade & Danube Project Centre The 3rd Danube Summit, Budapest 18-19. October 2006 Introduction:  Introduction Commitment: Cargo should be shifted from roads to other environmentally sustainable transport modes Question: How to achieve CHEAPER and ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE transport? Answer: Indirect Costs Direct Costs Should be reduced with IWT Objective: Efficient/Cheaper IWT:  Possible if: Contemporary logistics concepts are applied Efficient transhipment (port equipment) Efficient waterborne transport Reduction of Investment Costs (Design for Manufacture) Reduction of Maintenance Costs Reduction of Crew members/costs Reduction of fuel costs - Fuel Efficient Ship Objective: Efficient/Cheaper IWT Can be achieved with Only few of the above-mentioned are really technical issues Fuel Efficient Ship:  Fuel Efficient Ship hence, low emission too Improvements in hull resistance:  Improvements in hull resistance Contemporary cargo inland vessels have lower resistance – in some cases up to 50% – than those of few decades ago, but Speed and main ship parameters should be adapted to particular waterway Experts’ advices should be followed and often model experiments carried out Cargo, twin screw ship – (Type I and from it developed Type IV) L=82 m, B=9.5 m, T=2.5 m, TEU 77, propellers in nozzles with conventional rudders – VEBIS Project Rt reduction Ship weight reduction:  Ship weight reduction Contemporary hulls are made of steel and do NOT differ much from those of few decades ago (durable construction, life usually 50 years), hence have the same weight. HTS would reduce weight (negligible) Possibility for weight reduction, applying new materials (Al, Composites, etc.) is feasible for smaller vessels only. Promising - Sandwich Plate System (SPS), that replaces traditional steel plate with stiffeners. Consists of two plates with welded perimeter bars and with an elastomer injected between to form a solid unit. However, Classification Societies’ Rules should be adapted accordingly. Typical frame cross section of I-coreR panel barge Cross section of a Rhine chemical tanker Rt reduction Improvements in Propulsion and Transmission Efficiencies :  Improvements in Propulsion and Transmission Efficiencies Note: Enhanced maneuverability and extra space capabilities are often more important than efficiency! Main propulsors on IWW vessels are Screw Propellers (which will dominate in the near future too) Promising propeller types: Propellers in nozzles (FPP, CPP, rudder-propeller, slotted nozzles) CRP and Tandem propellers Pod (Diesel-Electric) propulsors Combination of horizontal mechanical and pod propulsors ηD ηs increase VETH FPP in nozzle RR Ulstein CRP Schottel Twin Propeller Improvements in Propulsion and Transmission Efficiencies:  Improvements in Propulsion and Transmission Efficiencies Propeller concepts based on Diesel-Electric propulsion enable better utilisation of cargo space (but have larger transmission losses - INBISHIP Concept) ηD ηs increase Brunvol Electrical tip-driven propeller (with both stator and rotor integrated in the nozzle) INBISHIP Concept (photos from DST) AZIPOD propulsor Improvements in Propulsion and Transmission Efficiencies:  Improvements in Propulsion and Transmission Efficiencies Other Propulsor types (not propeller based) are expensive Vertical (Voith-Schneider) propulsor Waterjets Surface Piercing Propellers - SPP (in exp. phase) . . . ηD ηs increase AIR Vector SPP Schottel Pump-Jet Voith-Schneider Improvements in Propulsion Plants:  Improvements in Propulsion Plants Diesel Engines dominate IWW nowadays New generation of Diesel Engines are lighter but require higher gear ratios (marinized, general-application engines). Diesel engines and fuels are constantly developed with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The quantity of NOx, SOx, HCx, CO2, CO, PM in exhaust gases is regarded as relevant for DE cleanness. Among these, the most relevant single substance is CO2 (directly proportional to fuel consumption; IWT in average produces three times less CO2 per transported t/km than trucks). Nevertheless, optimized quantity of NOx particles does not correspond to optimal fuel consumption. Legislation measures will have to be implemented everywhere (on the Danube too). Engines will soon have to be equipped with expensive Selective Catalyitic Reduction (SCR) filters. Shipping industry is relatively small sector to be leader in the development of new types of propulsion plants. Improvements in Propulsion Plants:  Improvements in Propulsion Plants Other engine types Environmental considerations will guide and force future engine development. Break-through expected in 20 years. In the meantime, emission problems with Diesel Engines will become more pronounced. Gas turbines (high power to weight ratio, reliable, controllable exhaust gasses; but relatively efficient for high powers only, costly, high gear-ratios are necessary) Fuel cells (in experimental phase, R&D focused on road vehicles, goal to have zero emission. In INBAT project FC application was examined; conclusion: still too expensive) Improvement of ship utilization (navigation):  Improvement of ship utilization (navigation) Applying automatization and innovative instruments in the wheelhouse. Among other, necessary are: Training of crew and shore personnel River Information Services (RIS) provide possibilities, amongst other, for voyage planning, tracking and tracing (indirectly contributes to the optimization of fuel consumption through speed reduction to optimal level) ECDIS in combination with AIS provide additional safety and better maneuverability (hence enable navigation with an optimized speed Related projects: ELWIS, DORIS, ALSO Danube, COMPRIS, YURIS, CRORIS… - resulting in EC RIS Directive Innovations in Passenger vessels:  Innovations in Passenger vessels Future passenger vessels will be faster. High speed brings new problems: Shallow water effects, Wash (wave wake), Fuel efficiency and emissions etc. New vessel types: Hovercrafts, SES, ASV, Hydrofoils, … New propulsors: Waterjets, SPP, CRP, … New engine types: Gas turbines, … New materials: Al, GRP, Composites, … High Speed Form Light Weight Some EU funded projects with an aim develop innovative IWW vessel types:  Some EU funded projects with an aim develop innovative IWW vessel types PASCAT (FP5) – Partial Air cushion Supported CATamaran Objective: Generate technical and economic basis for investment in high-speed PASCAT river freight which will compete with road transport. A novel vessel concept - PASCAT – was developed. INBAT (FP5) – INnovative BArge Train Objective: Efficient freight transport on very shallow IWW (barge draught 0.6-1.7 m – Elbe and Odra). New light weight construction materials and innovative structural design, optimized shallow draught propulsion system and hull forms. CREATING (FP6) – Concepts to Reduce Environmental impacts and Attain optimal Transport performance by Inland NaviGation Objective: New inland ship concepts that are economically and environmentally competitive to all-road transport. Investment in better performance of IWW ships pays-off. CREATING – Innovative Elements:  CREATING – Innovative Elements Within CREATING several types of innovative vessels for the European IWW were considered; out of them four will be developed up to the initial design stage. These are (with principal innovative elements): Ro-Ro Vessel for the Danube waterway (large and very shallow draught low resistance hull with propulsors optimized for low power requirement) Wood-Chip supplier (dry bulk carrier) for Finish Lakes around Jyvaskyla (unusual hull form, icebreaking capabilities, pneumatic loading/unloading system, new logistic concept) Banana Carrier for the Rhine (first ever IWW reefer vessel, suited for vertical (crane) and horizontal (fork-lift-truck) pallet loading, rudder-propellers with diesel-electric option) Small Chemical Tanker (small crashworthy IWW tanker, double skin, new equipment) Shippers were involved in the project execution to guarantee feasible, reliable and realistic ship design “Disclamer”:  “Disclamer” Presented was a viewpoint, stressing Fuel Efficient Ship only Dedicated equipment for certain vessel types not treated Several other aspects were disregarded (safety, reliability, …) Application of mentioned technical innovations depend very much on various factors that are often of non technical nature Measure of efficiency is a bit tricky, i.e. should be better defined Optimization function should be determined Fuel efficient ship Cost effective IWT Production effective ship . . . Best overall operating efficiency – Multicriterion optimization subject to various restrictions (vary with time, location etc.) So, why are we waiting with innovations in shipbuilding? :  So, why are we waiting with innovations in shipbuilding? Pay attention to Epilogue Slide18:  Why are we still using a Light Bulb if know that: Bulb is very un-efficient as it emits only 5% of the energy it consumes as a light! Worldwide about 20% of all electricity generated is used for lighting! Replacing just one light bulb with a fluorescent lamp would save 500 pounds of coal and over ½ ton of CO2 emissions (missing info from Chevron’s adv.: Light bulb of cca 100 W and fluorescent 20 W, switched on 24 h during whole year, good quality coal cca 20000 kJ/kg)! WHAT ARE WE WAITING FOR? 131 years elapsed between 1879, when Tomas Edison first demonstrated his incandescent light bulb, and 2010, when semiconductor-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are expected to have made significant inroads into general illumination (market worth $15 billion). Bulb analogy taken from Epilogue Light Bulb Analogy

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