3D games

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Information about 3D games

Published on September 26, 2008

Author: aSGuest218

Source: authorstream.com

BACK ⇚ to the FUTURE : BACK ⇚ to the FUTURE Image Based Rendering in 3d Games Daniel Horn and Billy Chen In the past… Welcome to early 199x : In the past… Welcome to early 199x No consumer graphics hardware acceleration 3d Texture mapping too expensive Demand for immersive 3d environments Early Solutions : Early Solutions Image based rendering Wing Commander (1990) Wolf3d(1992), Doom (1993) Early Solutions : Early Solutions Image based rendering Wing Commander (1990) Wolf3d(1992), Doom (1993) Wing Commander: Light Fields : Wing Commander: Light Fields The actual datafiles contain a light field Wing Commander: Light Fields : Wing Commander: Light Fields Simplified rendering algorithm All pixels come from the same sub-image per object Select Subimage Rotate / Scale Select Subimage Rotate / Scale Wing Commander: Light Fields : Wing Commander: Light Fields (Demo) Select Subimage Rotate / Scale Select Subimage Rotate / Scale Comparative Triangle-based app : Comparative Triangle-based app Xwing (1993): Flat shaded untextured tri’s Tie Fighter (1994) Gouraud Shading Versus Wing Commander (1990): Sprites Glory Days of 3d Games (1996-Now) : Glory Days of 3d Games (1996-Now) Quake WC Prophecy Vega Strike Doom 3 So, What Changed Recently? : So, What Changed Recently? More Video RAM 512 Megs Onboard Ram PCI Express Access to Main Memory Fragment Shaders Can program access patterns to 4d lightfields Builtin Texture Compression Fast, random access, fixed rate Why Go Back? This is now, now : Why Go Back? This is now, now More options Can become compatible with triangle rendering Captures living creatures well Captures highly detailed geometry well Better antialiasing for long range viewing Mipmaps = LOD Proof Of Concept : Proof Of Concept Getting a ship lightfield into Vega Strike Step 1 Acqusition Step 2 Parameterization/Packing Step 3 Integration of Light Shop into Vega Strike Acquiring a spherical light field : Acquiring a spherical light field   Quasi-uniform sampling : Quasi-uniform sampling uniform sampling on sphere for camera positions yields uniform sampling of ray space sampling uniformly in  and  results in non-uniform sampling on sphere surface Several techniques use platonic solids to form quasi-uniform sampling on surface of the sphere [Camahort98, Yershova04] Quasi-uniform sampling : Quasi-uniform sampling enforce uniform spacing in a ring 31 rings (4 degree increment in ) variable number of samples in  Sampling density : Sampling density h d R  d = fhsin / (R – hcos) Let p = pixel widththen: d  p fhsin  p(R – cos)  p(R-h) / hf p = 0.53mm f = 125mm h = 178mm R = 1000mm  1.12 degrees 90 hours! f Acquired images : Acquired images 2418 images, 256 x 256 2 x 2 image tiles coaxial light field: illumination fixed to camera background light field captured for matte extraction Introducing Light Shop : Introducing Light Shop A system for manipulating and rendering light fields 3 components Modeling interface Ray-shading program Renderer Provides a uniformed framework for light field manipulation: deforming, focusing, refracting, shadowing, etc. Applications: photography, compositing, interactive games Already supports two-plane parameterization, add spherical parameterization Rendering spherical light fields : Rendering spherical light fields [Chen05] [Shum99] (, , s, t) How Vega Strike Draws 3d Models : How Vega Strike Draws 3d Models Models are stored as many meshes Each mesh has but 1 texture When a model X at location L is drawn L is pushed onto each of X’s meshes’ draw queues To Render Meshes are sorted by texture For each mesh M Call MakeActive() on M’s texture For each location L in M’s draw queue Load L Matrix to OpenGL Draw M Integration with Vega Strike : Integration with Vega Strike Subclass Texture with Texture4D Ship model is a single axis-aligned quad On Texture4D::MakeActive Bind 3d texture data Bind Vertex Program to place quad vertices at edges of light field bounding box Bind Light Shop Fragment Program to render light fields How Fragment Program Functions : How Fragment Program Functions Fragment Program operates per pixel use screen coordinates and OpenGL Projection and ModelView matrices to determine a query-ray Use query-ray and parameterization obtain lightfield color DEMO : DEMO Future: Integration with OpenGL : Future: Integration with OpenGL Ideally light fields and geometry Should both be shaded in the same way Should be able to interact Should complement each other Creatures and objects with high detail Light Fields Man Made Objects Geometry Relighting Lightfields (A) : Relighting Lightfields (A) Capture many light fields per object One per lighting condition Given OpenGL lights, pick interpolation of captured light fields to accurately depict lighting condition LightShop Demo Relighting Lightfields (B) : Relighting Lightfields (B) Capture Diffuse Light Field Very diffuse ambient light Capture Normals Proxy geometric object Range Scanning Use OpenGL Shading Shade pixels based on OpenGL lights and normals Shadows : Shadows Light fields capture self-shadowing Want to apply shadows from occluders Other objects blocking light sources Use proxy geometry to Query shadow map or Shoot rays to light Currently we use a plane as proxy Lightfields as textures : Lightfields as textures We have heightmaps, bumpmaps Why not use lightfields as a texture for geometry Directly competes with parallax occlusion mapping…. But much faster—at the cost of video RAM Just use 4d coordinates to lookup a value An parallax occlusion map “cache” Animated Lightfields : Animated Lightfields Graphics cards have fast DivX decompression Harness this to stream over light fields Light fields should have really good mpeg compression characteristics Can use for animated characters Actual walking, talking humans in 3d games Famous actors could walk and pose to have their characters inserted into games

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