3D Bio-Printing; Becoming Economically Feasible

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Information about 3D Bio-Printing; Becoming Economically Feasible
Business & Mgmt

Published on November 22, 2013

Author: Funk98



These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze the increasing economic feasibility of bio-printing. Due to a lack of available kidney and other organ donors for organ transplants, 3D printing has emerged as an important alternative for many people. Bioprinting is done by using a computer model of an individual’s body to generate a data set for an organ that can be printed with a 3D printer and grown in a bio-reactor. The falling cost of materials and 3D printers is improving their economic feasibility.

MT-5009 – Analyzing Hi-Tech Opportunities 3D Printing - Biological Applications By Anand (A0068259) Archit (A0098517) Arun (A0081990) Hemant (A0068251) Yuwei (A0118280) Presentation | Nov 2013

Introducing 3D printing • What is it – Generation of a 3D solid model virtually of any orientation from a digital medium. – Additive printing technique - Improvised form of rapid proto-typing. • Why was is it – Fascination with the idea of replication. – Deserted scenario :The need for replication technology. • When was it – Based on the first Patent published in 1984 under Stereolithography. – Stereolithography: Using UV beam to solidify photopolymers. • Where was it commercialised – 3D systems: First commercial rapid prototyping technology. Presentation | Nov 2013

Evolution of 3D printing • Additive – Generating 3D object through sequential layering of material. Extrusion Wire Granular Powder-bed and inkjet-head 3D printing Laminated Light polymerised Fused-deposition modeling (FDM) Electron-Beam Freeform Fabrication(EBF3) Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Plaster-based 3D printing (PP) Laminated-object manufacturing (LOM) Stereolithography (SLA) Electron-beam melting (EBM) Further development in Inkjet printing Digital-Light Processing (DLP) Selective laser melting (SLM) Selective heat sintering (SHS) Selective laser sintering (SLS) Presentation | Nov 2013

Inkjet Printing Conventional printing Printing Materials paper Non conventional printing Functional material Other than paper E.g. Conductive Ink Thermal Inkjet printing (1956) Drop – on – demand Squeeze tube Bending Piezoelectric Pushing Electrostatic Shear mode Acoustic Printing Technology Binary Deflection Multiple deflection Continuous printing Hertz Ink jet material deposition Microdot Organic light emitting diodes Printed Circuit boards – Conductive Ink Presentation | Nov 2013

Performance Metrics Stereolithography (SLA) Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Multi-Jet Modeling (MJM – 3DP) Attributes to performance • Affordability, • Material Availability • Precision • Geometric scaling • Strength • Time Generation of metric for biomedical application "bioprinting fidelity index" (BFI) The Future of 3D Printing; Presentation | Nov 2013

Impact of 3D printing 3-D printing to be next $1-trillion industry Over hyped technology In reality , the time for Investment in disruptive technology should be right after the spike in patent filing signaling a new wave of product /service/application and not after a hype-spike 10 Reasons to Be Wary of 3-D Printing Stocks (Part 1) Presentation | Nov 2013

Applications of 3D printing 3D Printing Processes Applications Industries Demographics Category Modeling Manufacturing Engineer Class Prototyping Art Consumer Material Tooling Entertainment Practitioner Manufacturing Healthcare Artist Presentation | Nov 2013

Applications of 3D printing Jewellery Tooling Presentation | Nov 2013

Applications of 3D printing Fashion Architecture Presentation | Nov 2013

Applications of 3D printing (Our Focus: Bioprinting) Organs Medical Applications Presentation | Nov 2013

3D-Bioprinting Technology Presentation | Nov 2013

“ The Singapore predicament Number of organs donated for transplants in Singapore remains dismally low, despite a law requiring donations by all after death. Source: ” Presentation | Nov 2013

The coveted “Organs” • 117,521 people in US in need of organ. • Hostilities in Singapore despite HOTA. • Kidneys, hearts, livers, lungs are most coveted. • Organs not usable despite donation. Source: The Boston Globe Presentation | Nov 2013

Fiction meets reality Bio-printing is an automated computer aided layer-by-layer deposition of biological materials for manufacturing of functional human organs.  Artificial bioprinters already been built.  NovoGen MMX® built Organovo and Invenech. Source: Organovo. have by Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinting deconstructed • Intrinsic nature of cells to coalesce1, tissues to selfassemble2 and fluidity of embryonic tissues3. • Organ printing mimics the natural biological process of embryonic cellular fusion. Source: 1Mironov et al., Anat. Rec., 2Wilson, H.V., J. Exp. Zool., 3G. et al. Biophys. J. Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinting process flow Computer model Computer tomography1 Printing Vasculature2 Most challenging Source:,, Postprocessing Layer-by-layer Config.3 Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinting process flow Computer model Printing Postprocessing 3 important components: Bioink, Biopaper, Bioprinter. Bioink (cells of sp. organ), Biopaper (collagens, nutrients) Source: Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinting process flow Computer model Printing Postprocessing Bioreactor  Supply nutrients for further cell growth  Physiological environment for tissue maturation.  Mechanical and bio. testing. Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinting Roadmap Source: Presentation | Nov 2013

Current Progress Ear1: 250 mn cells and collagen from rat tail make human ear in 15 min. Post-processing 3 months. To serve children with hearing loss due to malformed outer ear. Kidneys2: Layer-by-layer building of scaffold and deposition of kidney cells. Assembly to be transplanted into patient. Degradation of scaffold to follow in-vivo. Blood Vessels3: Rigid but non-toxic sugar filaments form core. Cells deposited around filaments. Subsequent blood flow dissolves sugar. Source: 1Cornell University., 2Wake Forest Inst., 3Univ. Of Pennsylvania. Presentation | Nov 2013

Current Progress Skin grafts1: laser scan wound to determine depth and area. One inkjet ejects enzymes and second, cells. Layer is finally sealed by human skin cells. Useful in war and disaster zones. Bones2: Print scaffold with ceramic or Titanium powder. After 1 day in culture of human stem cells, its ready. Repair of complex fractures in accident survivors. Drug testing3: $1.2bn to make a new drug in 12 years. 1 in 5000 has a chance to make it to market. 20-50% drug fail from pre-clinical animal trails to human trials. Source: 1Wake Forest Inst., 2 Washington State University, 3Organovo Presentation | Nov 2013

Market Research & Entrepreneurial Opportunities Presentation | Nov 2013

Biomaterial (Bio-ink, Bio-paper) Market Million USD Source: US market for Biomaterials Presentation | Nov 2013

Biomaterial Cost projections (b) (a) Figure: Graphs showing the price reduction of Biomaterials; (a) Collagen; (b) Polycaprolactone; Table: Cost of cells from 2011 to 2013 Year 2011 225 2012 217 2013 Source: Sigma-Aldrich Cost of cells (500 ml) SGD 216 Presentation | Nov 2013

Biomaterials: Reason for cost reduction • Increase in the number of manufacturers. • Mass production. • Increase in demand. • Invention of new materials with lesser cost. • Local manufacturing and reduced inventory. • Novel material compositions and properties. • Multifunctional materials. Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinters: Cost Minimum Price: $15,000 2008 2013 Source: Minimum Price: $ 500 Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinters: Cost Reason for cost reduction • Well established technology. • Lesser IP’s • Increase in the number of market players. • Economies of scale. • Increase in demand. • Local manufacturing and reduced inventory. • Cheaper and more accessible after market parts and repair. • Multifunctional structures. We believe that the cost of Bioprinters will reduce further in future. Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinters: Performance 1. Accuracy Source: Biomaterials as biopaper by Rana Imani Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinters: Performance 2. Time • Increasing the number of liquid dispensing nozzle is one way to speed up the process to reduce the time. Source: Presentation | Nov 2013

Comparative Analysis and Projections Source: 3D Printing: An Interview with Anthony Vicari Presentation | Nov 2013

Competitors Influence Source:; *Cytograft public materials Presentation | Nov 2013

Demand for Organs Today’s Scenario Year • 115,000 people currently need organ transplants in the US. • 10 people die every day while waiting for their transplant. Source: Presentation | Nov 2013

Cost Analysis Rough estimates on the total cost of Organ Transplants Estimated U.S. Average 2011 Billed Charges Per Transplant Source: U.S Organ and tissue transplant cost estimates and discussion Presentation | Nov 2013

Cost Analysis Case Study on Bioprinting of Kidney • Cost of Kidney Transplant : $ 80,000 USD • Cost for Bioprinting of Kidney : $ 280,000 USD* * Projected cost for bioprinted kidney 2013 • Dialysis treatment costs $55,000-$75,000 per patient per year. • Treatments for diabetes costs around $6,000 per year per patient. • Total cost of $245 billion per year has been spent in the United States for diabetes treatment. Takes around 10 hours to bioprint a Kidney* Source: Fung Technical Report No. 2013.04.17; * Presentation | Nov 2013

Cost Analysis - Pricing Projections Table: Pricing Projections on Bioprinting of Kidney in United States* S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Year 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 Demand for Kidney 113,000 126,500 140,700 156,000 172,600 190,300 209,200 229,200 250,000 Price (USD) 247,500 221,000 199,000 180,000 162,000 147,000 134,000 122,000 112,000 Assumption: To estimate the pricing projections, the revenue of the company is maintained constant. Reasons for Cost Reduction: Cost of Bioprinted Kidney < 120 K • Continuous increase in demand. USD by 2030 • Increase in the number of Competitors. • Continuous decrease in the cost of biomaterials. • Continuous decrease in the price of bioprinters. • Economies of scale. • Local manufacturing and reduced inventory. • Cheaper and more accessible after market parts and repair. * Projections are purely based on the demand for kidney in United States. Presentation | Nov 2013

Entrepreneurial Opportunities • Making of design model, the printer and the bio-material. • Dentists can utilize patients’ unique teeth layout and bone scans to create friendlier implants and prosthetics. • Manufacturing of multipurpose 3D printing heads and nozzles. • Synthetic materials for manufacturing tissues, bones, cartilage and organs. • “Organ lockers,” a system that provides secure storage and transportation for customer’s organs. • Scanning Kiosks. • Manufacturing and distribution of Bio-inks and other biocompatible materials for 3D bio printing. • Packaging of the 3D bioprinted organs. Presentation | Nov 2013

Entrepreneurial Opportunities Commercial Areas Blood Vessels Cartilage Grafts Cardiac Muscle Grafts Nerve Re-growth Presentation | Nov 2013

Industrial Impacts Patients who are cured by 3D bioprinting technology are the big winners. Positively Impacted Industries • Bio-ink, scaffolds and Biocompatible Negatively Impacted Industries • Kidney dialysis industries. materials manufacturers. • Companies that supply blood sugar testing • 3D Bioprinters manufacturers. supplies. • Hospitals & insurance companies (no • Companies that produces and supplies longer need to spend money on transplant insulin, pills and insulin pumps. logistics). • Companies that sell pacemakers, new • Stem-cell harvesting and storage business. heart valves. • Surgical supplies companies. • Organ replacement logistics. • Computer aided design (CAD) software companies. Presentation | Nov 2013

SWOT Analysis S O Strengths • All vital organs can be printed by one 3D bioprinter. • Easy to build own custom machine. • Easy to make body parts with desired size and shape. • Huge market potential. • Provides several entrepreneurial opportunities. Opportunities Improving machine possibilities • larger models. • faster printing. • multi colour prints. • active development of biocompatible materials. • customization of designs based on customer needs. W Weaknesses • Quality of the organs printed. • Production time. • Technolgy is still in prematured state. • Expensive. T Threats • Technology background of the user. • Time taken for printing an organ. • Cost of organ printing. • In wrong hands, may contribute to fake identity, increase in crime and illegal activities. Presentation | Nov 2013

Bioprinting - Forecast Research (today) • Printing medication • Printing new Skin • Printing cartilage & bones • Printing replacement Technology Adoption (3 - 5 Years) • Specific organ tissue replacement for important organs such as heart and kidney. tissues • Printing replacement organs • Printing stem cells • Personalized replacement 3D printed joints (hip, knee) with custom fit. • Life saving 3D printed organ replacement (high cost. Commercialization (5 - 7 Years) • Replacement 3D printed organs commonly available at affordable cost. • Liver Kidney replacement companies achieve maturity. • 3D printed tissue replacement for all body organs available. • Printing medication at home widely available. Presentation | Nov 2013

Pro’s and Con’s Analysis • Takes less time than lab-grown artificial organs, therefore, future demand looks bright. • However, organ printing has certain disadvantages and limitations compared to lab-grown organs. • Lab-grown organs get to take the time for the different cell types to start integrating and function with each other while organ printing does not give quite the same opportunity. • In 10 years, the number of patients that require organs will have doubled. • Is a bio-fabrication line possible? • Many challenges ahead and aspects left to improve before commercialization of organ printing. Presentation | Nov 2013

Pro’s and Con’s Analysis • Vascularization, scaling, the interaction between the different cell types, well-functioning organs that can be integrated into the patient’s body. • From a systems engineering point of view, it will require more than bio-printers to produce complex tissues and organs. • Bioprinters alone will not be enough for producing the artificial organs. Steps such as fusion, assembling, remodeling, maturing are required. • Quality control a crucial matter!!! Presentation | Nov 2013

Thank You Presentation | Nov 2013

Supporting Info: Bio-inks • Prepared by mixing cells with biocompatible materials (Hydrogels). • Suitable hydrogels are chosen based on the Organ to be printed. (Ex. Collagen is widely used for bone printing) Bio-ink materials • Collagen • Alginate • Fibrin • Polycaprolactone • Thorbin Widely used Collagen Fibrin Alginate reason • Excellent Biocompatibility. • Homogenously incorporate cells, growth factors. • Processed under mild conditions. • Easy chemical modification. • Sol-gel transition. Source: C. J. Ferris et al. Biomaterials Science 2013, 1, 224-230. Presentation | Nov 2013

Supporting Info: Bio-papers Supports the Bio-ink during processing steps and post processing steps. Source: Nakamura et al. Biofabrication 2 (2010) 014110 Presentation | Nov 2013

Supporting Information Presentation | Nov 2013

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