Published on March 6, 2014
LEADERSHIP STYLES UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: DR. NAVAL ARORA PRESENTED BY: SHVETA TRIPATHI
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP A Leadership Style refers to a leader’s behavior. Leadership styles are the patterns of behavior, which a leader adopts in influencing the behavior of his followers (subordinates) in the organizational context.
LEADERSHIP STYLE TYPES: I. Based on the amount of authority retained by the leader II. Based on Task versus People Emphasis III. Based on the assumptions about people by the leader IV. Likert’s four styles V. Entrepreneurial leadership styles
I) STYLES BASED ON AUTHORITY RETAINED 1) Autocratic Leadership 2) Participative Leadership 3) Free rein Leadership
1) AUTOCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN LEADER The autocratic leader gives orders, personal praise and criticism, determines policies and future plans without consulting the group, but simply tells the group what immediate steps they must take. Negative Positive (benevolent autocrat) Manipulative autocrat A B C D
2) PARTICIPATIVE OR DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP Participative leadership style favors decision making by the group and sharing of power. A democratic leader is one who gives instructions only after consulting the group. It decentralizes managerial authority. B E A D C
3) FREE REIN OR LAISSEZ FAIRE A free rein leader does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself. He depends largely on the group to establish its own goals and work out the problems. Example: Chairman of the Board A B E C D
II) STYLES BASED ON TASK VERSUS PEOPLE EMPHASIS TASK ORIENTED LEADER Organizing and defining roles of the group Explaining what, when, where and how tasks are to be performed Constant Follow-up RELANTIONSHIP ORIENTED LEADER Establishing channels of communication Extending psychological support to the group Developing Mutual Trust Developing empathy
Continue.. High Task and Low Relationship (AUTOCRATIC STYLE) High Task and High Relationship (PARTICIPATIVE STYLE) High Relationship and Low Task (SUPPORTING STYLE) Low Relationship and Low Task (FREE-REIN STYLE HIGH PEOPLE EMPHASIS HIGH RELATIONSHIP AND LOW TASK (SUPPORTING STYLE) HIGH TASK AND HIGH RELATIONSHIP (PARTICIPATIVE STYLE) LOW TASK AND LOW RELATIONSHIP (FREE-REIN STYLE) HIGH TASK AND LOW RELATIONSHIP (AUTOCRATIC STYLE) LOW HIGH TASK EMPHASIS
III) STYLES BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT PEOPLE It is based on McGregor’s famous theory X and Y assumptions about people. Theory X leaders are autocratic. They distrust people and believe in close supervision and tightcontrol over subordinates. Theory Y leaders are participative, they trust subordinates and allow them to participate in decision-making.
IV) LIKERT’S FOUR STYLES Exploitative authoritarian: Downward communication, decisions are generally made at the top of the organization. Benevolent authoritarian: The leader uses rewards to encourage performance, upward communication is permitted to the extent the boss wants. Consultative: Communication is two-way, upward, but cautious and limited, subordinates are involved in decision making. Participative : Subordinates and superiors are psychologically close, and group decision-making is popular.
V) ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP STYLE An entrepreneur is a person who finds and operates an innovative business. Relationship orientation combined with a very directapproach of giving instructions to employees. A charismatic personality that inspires others to follow him. A strong dislike for bureaucratic rules and regulations Anxiety to consolidate business gains as quickly as possible.
LEADERSHIP GRID STYLES The best classic method and way to achieve effective leadership is to integrate the task and relationship orientations. The Leadership Grid is a framework for specifying the extent of a leader’s concern for production and people.
Continue… CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION: Rated on the horizontal axis, includes such matters as results, performance, profits and mission. CONCERN FOR PEOPLE: Rated on vertical axis, is reflected in such matters as showing support for team members, getting results based on trust and respect, and worrying about employees’ job security. Each concern is rated on a 1-9 scale.
Authority Compliance (9,1) – The authority –compliance style is characterized by a maximum concern for production combined with a minimum concern for people. He concentrates on maximizing production by exercising power and authority.
Country Club Management (1,9) – It shows a minimum concern for production and a maximum concern for people. Primary attention is placed on good feelings among team members and coworkers, even at the expense of achieving results.
Impoverished Management (1,1) – This style shows a minimum concern for both production and people. Such a leader does only the minimum required to remain a member of the firm.
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) –Leaders under this style do their job but avoid making waves and conform to the status quo.
Team Management (9,9) – It integrates concern for production and people. It is goal-directed team approach that seeks to gain optimum results through participation, involvement, and commitment.
CONCLUSION Effective leadership requires the right behaviors, skill and attitudes. Participative leaders share decision making with group members. Autocratic leaders retain most of the authority for themselves. The Leadership Grid classifies leaders according to their concern for both production and people. To be effective, a leader must be able to adapt his or her own style according to the circumstances.
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