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Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Sibilla

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Urban Renaissance and Some topics on Sustainable Cities in JAPAN:  Urban Renaissance and Some topics on Sustainable Cities in JAPAN Takuya KURITA Head of Division National and Regional Planning Bureau Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport JAPAN 1 Slide2:  CONTENTS ○ Urban Renaissance 1. Economic background of Urban Renaissance 2. Establishment of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters and enforcement of the Urban Renaissance Special Measures Law (1) Establishment of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters (2) Urban Renaissance Special Measures Law ① Urban Renaissance Urgent Development Area (URUDA) ② Special Districts for Urban Renaissance (SDUR) ③ Private-sector urban renaissance projects  Conclusion ( Role of the Gov. for Urban Renaissance ) ○ Some topics on Sustainable Cities 2 Slide3:  Urban Renaissance 3 1.Economic background of Urban Renaissance High Economic Growth Period ~ Collapse of the Bubble Economy:  Source:Prepared from Cabinet Office “Authentic Information on National Accounting for Fiscal 2002” (April 2004); Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications “Consumer Price Index” (April 2004); Japan Real Estate Institute “Price Index of Urban Districts” (May 2004). Stable growth Bubble period Prolonged business depression High economic growth period 1.Economic background of Urban Renaissance High Economic Growth Period ~ Collapse of the Bubble Economy 4 2.Establishment of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters and enforcement of the Urban Renaissance Special Measures Law:  2.Establishment of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters and enforcement of the Urban Renaissance Special Measures Law May 2001: Establishment of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters June 2002: Enforcement of the Urban Renaissance Special Measures Law 5 Structure of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters (Cabinet decision on May 8, 2001):  Structure of the Urban Renaissance Headquarters (Cabinet decision on May 8, 2001) 6 Slide7:  Basic principles for urban renaissance (area designation criteria, etc.) Urban Renaissance Headquarters Planning proposal by private sector Speed up of planning procedure Special Districts for Urban Renaissance Support for public facilities Financial support for starting up a project (Urban renaissance fund) Urban renaissance tax incentive Frame work of Urban Renaissance Special Measures Law Urban Renaissance Urgent Development Areas (URUDA)   7 Slide8:  ① Urban Renaissance Urgent Development Areas (URUDA) 63 areas, 6,424 ha in total, have been designated throughout Japan.  8 Slide9:  Sapporo City 2 areas; 163 ha Sendai City 2 areas; 125 ha Chiba City, Kashiwa City 4 areas; 185 ha Metropolis of Tokyo 7 areas; 2,375 ha Saitama City, Kawaguchi City 2 areas; 115 ha Yokohama City 5 areas; 265 ha Kawasaki City 3 areas; 264 ha Sagamihara City, Fujisawa City, Atsugi City 3 areas; 86 ha Kyoto City, Muko City, Nagaokakyo City 4 areas; 254 ha Kobe City, Amagasaki City 4 areas; 367 ha Gifu City 1 area; 30 ha Osaka City, Sakai City, Moriguchi City, Neyagawa City, Toyonaka City, Takatsuki City 12 areas; 1,072 ha Takamatsu City 1 area; 51 ha Fukuoka City 3 areas; 341 ha Kitakyushu City 2 areas; 110 ha Okayama City 1 area; 47 ha Hiroshima City, Fukuyama City 2 areas; 84 ha Areas scheduled for Keihin Waterfront Urban Renaissance about 4,400 ha Total: 63 areas; 6,424 ha 1st designated areas: Tokyo, Osaka, etc. 2nd designated areas: Nagoya, Kyoto, etc. Shizuoka City 1 area; 51 ha Nagoya City 3 areas; 428 Naha City 1 area; 11 ha Map of URUDA 3rd designated areas: Shizuoka, Naha, etc. 4th designated areas: Toyonaka, Fukuoka, etc. 9 Slide10:  ② Special Districts for Urban Renaissance (SDUR) Outline ・Existing restrictions (land use, floor-space ratio, etc. ) excluded from application An urban plan has so far been decided on for 16 districts, about 29.7ha in total. 10 Slide11:  Osaki Station West Entrance E East district Osaki Station West Entrance A district                         Takamatsu Marugamecho shopping area A and Uchimachi district Sannomiya Station 1st district Shinsaibasishuji 1-chome district Umeda 2-chome district Yodoyabashi district Kakudacho district Ichibancho 3-chome South district Meieki 4-chome district 27 Meieki 4-chome district Hinodecho 2-chome district Daigakumachi district North 3 West 4 district Marunouchi 1-1 district District around Yamauchi Pier Map of SDUR 11 Slide12:  Project requirements Private-sector operators intending to undertake an urban renaissance project may prepare a plan and apply for authorization by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. ③ Private-sector urban renaissance projects It must be a private-sector project within an Urban Renaissance Urgent Development Area (URUDA) The project area must be over 1 ha. The project must be effective in promoting development of an already built-up area. The project must greatly contribute to the renaissance of the city, including the area concerned. Number of projects authorized at present: 17 12 Slide13:  (tentative name) Osaki West Entrance Development Program                         Sannnomiya Station 1st District Urban Renaissance Project (tentative name) Sakai 2nd Section Waterfront Development Project (tentative name) Kawasaki Station West Entrance Horikawacho District Development Project Shintenjin Underground Shopping Area Construction Project Sanyo Electric/DainichiDistrict Development Program (tentative name) 7, Meieki 4-Chome District Joint Building Construction Project Chikusa 2-Chome (tentative name) District Joint Development Project Sapporo Breweries Saitama Factory Site (Ribbon City) Development Project (tentative name) Tokyo Station Yaesu Entrance Development Project (tentative name) Tokyo Midtown Project (tentative name) UDX Building Program (Akihabara 3-1 block) Waterfront Subcenter Ariake South Lot LM2/3 Development Project Harumi 1-Chome District Urban Renaissance Project Kachidoki 6-Chome District Category 1 Built-up Area Redevelopment Project Map of private-sector urban renaissance projects Namba Parks 2nd-Stage Project Minami Aoyama 1-Chome Housing Complex Rebuilding Project 13 Slide14:  Conclusion Role of the government for urban renaissance ~ Result from Japan’ s experience ~ 14 Slide15:  Method 15 Slide16:  Establishing a common understanding of the importance of urban renaissance ↑ International inter-city competition Engine of a growing Knowledge Society Focus on urban renaissance led by the private-sector ↑ Fiscal Restriction Utilization of a market economy 16 Slide17:  3. Create the framework of urban renaissance led by the private-sector ① Define target areas (Special districts) ② Clarify interest adjustment procedure (Urban planning procedure) ③ Adopt the limit conception of time ④ Utilization of public-owned land ⑤ Regulation of a system to supply a large amount of money (Securitization of real estate) 17 Slide18:  Some topics on Sustainable Cities 18 Slide19:  6.96 million people 8.18 million people 31.01 million people 47.80 million people 126.93 million people 81.76 million people 64.14 million people Establishment of Kamakura Shogunate Establishment of Muromachi Shogunate Onin War Japanese-Russo War Second World War (10,000 people) Whole Country (Estimate at mid-level) Whole Country ( Estimate at low level) Establishment of Edo Shogunate 12.27 million people (year) Mighty famines of Kyoho, Temmei, Tenpo Era Peak on 2006 (127.74 million people) Approx. 1 out of 5 peoples is an elderly person 2025 121.14 million people Approx. 1 out or 4 peoples is an elderly person 2050 100.59 million people Approx. 1 out of 3 peoples is an elderly person 46.45 million people Approx. 1 out of 3peoples is an elderly person (Source): Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs Posts and Telecommunications, “Report on Population Census”; National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, “Population Projections for Japan (Projections on January 2002)”; Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, “Chronological Analysis on Long-term Transition of Population Distribution in Japan” (1974), drafted by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, National and Regional Planning Bureau on the basis of United Nations”World Population Prospects:The 2002 Revision”. (Note): The data used was documentations of National Land Agency before 1950, “Report on Population Census for 2000, and “Population Projections for Japan” for 2050 and 2100. Total population to be peaked in 2006 and turned to decrease afterward. In 2050 population estimated to reduce to about 100 million. Whole Country (Estimate at high-level) 19 Slide20:  Higher Land Use in Central Areas ⇒ Formation of Compact Cities Walkable cities Energy saving society Improvement of Urban and Suburban environments Suburban areas Surrounding areas Central areas Built – up areas Future Surrounding areas Suburban areas Suburban areas Surrounding areas Central areas Surrounding areas Suburban areas Improvement of Urban and Suburban environments 20 Slide21:  Regardless of population of cities, residents at the center of cities (3km×3km) have been consistently decreasing in number and percentage. Visitors to the center of cities have shown downward trend. Share of retail sales amounts have been consistently declining and sales amounts have also shown downward trend. Population trend at the center of cities by population size (average) Sales amount trend at the center of cities by population size (average) Traffic trend at the center of local cities <City Central Area Problems> population 21 Slide22:  According to a trial calculation by Aomori City, they have totally invested about 35 billion yen for outflow of population from the center to suburbs in past 30 years. If the urban area had not expanded, this should have been unnecessary costs. < Additional investment costs for population outflow to suburbs in Aomori City > It is generally said that gasoline consumption shall be reduced if population density at the center of a city is high. < Relationship between gasoline consumption and population density at major cities in the world > Source : Kenworthy and Newman 22 ~A case of Nagahama city~ well known of its city challenge using its own historical “ Kuro Kabe ”(black wall) building and other heritages :  ~A case of Nagahama city~ well known of its city challenge using its own historical “ Kuro Kabe ”(black wall) building and other heritages ○Characteristics ・Use of historical heritage    ・monumental black wall building (once used for bank, now for glass museum)    ・buildings in rows with white walls and brown lattices   (leveraged for shops and restaurants)   ・comfortable stone pavement ・Regulation of signboards in terms of material, colour, design, etc. ・Collaboration of private entities and Nagahama city office ・initiative of private entities ・subsidies from Nagahama city (for building improvement, 2million yen per each) ○Lessons ・effective use of old buildings and public facilities (discovery of local unique resources) ・private initiative supported by local government   ・progress to comprehensive city development grant →flexible to needs of each city →concentrated distribution of finance resources   by the central gov. ○City information Nagahama city is located roughly in the middle of Japan’s main island, close to Lake Biwa (the largest lake in Japan). population :60,104 persons special products: the cuisine of the duck, glasses, etc “Kuro Kabe” (black wall) (once used for bank, now for glass museum) (200 billion yen,FY2005) 23 “New Town” to “Old Town”:  “New Town” to “Old Town” Ratio of the 65 years and over exceeded 20% in 2000. Satakedai District in Senri NT has shown relatively higher ratio of the 65 years and over. 1.Aging population in NT ( ⇒ Old Town) GMSs (General Merchandise Stores) on the trunk road have expelled shopping facilities in NT Financial constraint - Difficulties to have consensus 2.Facilities to be old ( housing, schools, community centers, etc.) , neighboring shopping facilities to be declined No filtration from the beginning of the city development 24 Reduced planning of Chiba NT:  Reduced planning of Chiba NT Gray zones show reduced areas from the original planning. Planned area decreased from 2912ha to 1933ha. (reduced by 34%) 25 Slide26:  ○ Reduction of heat exhausted ○ Greenery improvement ○ Securing network of water and green ○ Improvement of lifestyle 26 ○Site information  ・located in the west suburbs of Tokyo city (about 1hour drive from the center of Tokyo) ・planned area 180ha ・developed area 158ha (still under development) ・number of visitors 2.5million persons:  ○Site information  ・located in the west suburbs of Tokyo city (about 1hour drive from the center of Tokyo) ・planned area 180ha ・developed area 158ha (still under development) ・number of visitors 2.5million persons Cases of large scale city parks ie. National Showa Memorial Park ○Process to Public park ・1926 used as an airport for the army ・1945 the US-army requisition (used as Tachikawa-base) ・1977 site returned to the government ・1979 cabinet decision of the site used for a public park ・1981 city planning decision ・1983 the 1st provision as a public park(70ha) 27 Slide28:  Thank you. If you have any questions, please send to my E-mail address. [ E-mail address : kurita-t2cv@mlit.go.jp ] END 28

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