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37795228

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Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Stella

Source: authorstream.com

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Capturing the Creative Economy in Developing Countries :  Capturing the Creative Economy in Developing Countries Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg (edna.dos.santos@unctad.org) Chief, Creative Economy & Industries Programme Henri Laurencin (henri.laurencin@unctad.org) Chief, Statistics and Information Retrieval Branch UNCTAD, Geneva, December 2006 Creative Economy:  Creative Economy Is an evolving concept based on creative assets embracing economic, cultural, social and tecnological aspects It has linkages at macro and micro levels with the overall economy, hence an important development dimension It can foster economic growth, job creation, export earnings while promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. It is a feasible policy option to diversify economies and improve trade and development gains in developing countries (UNCTAD) Development Dimensions of the Creative Economy:  Development Dimensions of the Creative Economy Aesthetic and Ethnic Values anthropology / history cultural diversity and heritage Cross-cutting culture labour industry trade technology tourism Society Inclusive public/private sectors all social classes profit and non-profit (NGOs) Multi- Dimensional development, cultural, economic and social policies Omni-present education labour culture, arts and leisure In-temporal past traditions present technologies future vision UNCTAD - E.DOS SANTOS Creative Industries:  Creative Industries A set of knowledge-based economic activities making intensive use of creativity as primary input to produce marketable value-added creative products and services Creative products and services are centred but not restricted to arts and culture Are tangible products or intangible services with creative content, economic value and market objectives They are able to generate income from trade and property rights It is a new dynamic sector in world trade (UNCTAD) The scope of creative industries :  The scope of creative industries Is a vast field dealing with the interplay of various sub-sectors from traditional art crafts to technology-oriented multi-media services Creative Industries Visual Arts Literature and Publishing Design Traditional knowledge Music Performing Arts Audio-Visuals Digital Animation and Multi-media (UNCTAD) Paintings, sculptures and photograpy Books, newspapers and periodicals Architecture, interior objects, fashion and jewellery Art crafts, festivals and cultural activities Concerts, CDs, tapes, digitalized music Theatre, dance, opera, puppetry, circus Broadcasting, cinema, television, radio Software, videogames and advertising How to capture the potential of the creative economy for development ?:  How to capture the potential of the creative economy for development ? Main issues : Economic linkages and externalities Growth prospects and trade flows Supply and value-chain cycle Cross-cutting nature of creative industries Tangible products and intangible services Formal and informal sectors Measuring creative content Dealing with connectivity and multi-media UNCTAD’s Integrated Development Approach Main economic indicators:  UNCTAD’s Integrated Development Approach Main economic indicators - Macro-economic : % GDP, income generation - Trade : imports/exports – products/services/content value / units /content (not a commodity) tariffs and non-tariffs (quantitative/qualitative) - Investment : % FDI, % domestic, incentives by sectors - Industry: % creative, % returns, value-added chain - Technology : ICT tools, IPRs , R&D, technology transfer - Enterprise : SMEs/independent, micro-credit, youth, gender - Tourism : earnings tourists, diasporas, links tourism/culture A new dynamic sector in world trade:  A new dynamic sector in world trade UNCTAD figures indicate that world exports of : Visual arts Cinema industry -US$ 7.3 billion in 1996 - US$ 354 million in 1996 -US$ 14.4 billion in 2004 - US$ 653 million in 2004 Trend: export earnings nearly doubled in eight years Exports is only part of total revenue excluding copyrights, licenses, marketing and distribution Are those figures meaningful ? Can exports of visual arts be much higher than the film industry? How to relate 653 million with 75 billion worth film market ? Digital films, need to start new statistical series ? Developing countries marginal trade players in the world market for creative products:  Developing countries marginal trade players in the world market for creative products In 2004, share of developing countries in world exports of visual arts estimated at 3% Are we comparing comparable creative products ? What art-work is covered under sculptures ? (Code 8963?) Are wooden-made African sculptures visual arts ? Pictures, designs and photographs are publishing materials or visual arts ? (Code 89287 ? ) UN COMTRADE – SITC REV.3 : 8961, 8963, 63549, 6662, 696782, 89911, 8826 ? VISUAL ARTS Dealing with connectivity : music industry:  Dealing with connectivity : music industry In 2005, 16% of world population have access to internet 34% are mobile phone subscribers Music/internet a near-perfect match… Digital sales of music reached US$ 1,1 billion in 2005 ? Digital distribution of music 420 million downloaded (IIFP) What are the codes for legal digital music ? Global music market annual revenues of over US$ 1 billion Sales of CDs + concerts + tours + festivals Copyrights composers + songwriters + interpreters +musicians Royalties for music publishes + marketing/distribution How to capture total value of creative content + services+ IPRs ? Difficulties in measuring creative services :  Difficulties in measuring creative services Not all creative products have creative content (blank CDs) Capturing figures for architecture, design and advertising services identifying and adding up physical and digital distribution? How to get reliable trade flows in broadcasting content in developing countries? Any universal alternative for EBOPS for trade in services ? Film producers in developing countries no longer use 35mm, distribution problems, drop in figures captures shift to DVDs? How to distinguish standard computer services from creative or cultural digital services ? Challenges for mapping creative economies:  Challenges for mapping creative economies Lack of precise and consensual definitions Limitations of current methodologies/statistical codes Differences among data collecting practices Existing models not suitable for developing countries What and how to access different creative sectors Gaps in existing statistical data by int/nat institutions How to define comparability across sectors and countries Lack of financial and human resources for surveys Looking for possible worldwide solutions:  Looking for possible worldwide solutions No all-fits-one approach but shared perceptions on models Harmonize views on main definitions/sectoral classification Identify similarities in countries data collecting practices Customs data only can no longer reflect trade flows Keep pace with technological advances and digital content Review discrepancies between SITC Rev3 and HS 96 Up-date UNESCO Cultural Statistics Framework Creative Economy: the way ahead:  Creative Economy: the way ahead Any new or revised statistical classification framework of economic and cultural activities has to incorporate data related to the creative economy Universality and comparability of creative content/services/products has to be ensured Strengthening collaboration and complementarities among international data collecting institutions Slide15:  Thank you for your attention Reproduction or use of data/information authorized with source acknowledgement UNCTAD (E. dos Santos)

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