Published on February 26, 2014
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P a g e | 2 Question: 1 Which two commands are required to enable multicast on a router, knowing that the receivers only support IGMPv2? (Choose two.) A. ip pim rp‐address B. ip pim ssm C. ip pim sparse‐mode D. ip pim passive Answer: A,C Explanation: Sparse mode logic (pull mode) is the opposite of Dense mode logic (push mode), in Dense mode it is supposed that in every network there is someone who is requesting the multicast traffic so PIM‐DM routers begin by flooding the multicast traffic out of all their interfaces except those from where a prune message is received to eliminate the “leaf” from the multicasting tree (SPT), the Source‐Based Tree (S, G); as opposed to Sparse mode that send the traffic only if someone explicitly requested it. Not like Dense mode, which build a separated source‐based tree (S, G) between the source and the requester of the traffic, Sparse mode mechanism is based on a fixed point in the network named Rendez‐Vous point. All sources will have to register with the RP to which they send their traffic and thereby build a source‐based tree (S, G) between them and the RP (not with the final multicast receiver like in PIM‐DM) and all PIM‐SM routers, “whatever” multicast traffic they are requesting, have to register with the RP and build a shared‐tree (*. G) Reference tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2236 www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/products_tech_note09186a00800b0871.shtml www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk828/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094821.shtml#sparsemode Question: 2 A branch router is configured with an egress QoS policy that was designed for a total number of 10 concurrent VOIP calls. Due to expansion, 15 VOIP calls are now running over the link, but after the 14th call was established, all calls were affected and the voice quality was dramatically degraded. Assuming that there is enough bandwidth on the link for all of this traffic, which part of the QoS configuration should be updated due to the new traffic profile? A. Increase the shaping rate for the priority queue. B. Remove the policer applied on the priority queue. C. Remove the shaper applied on the priority queue. D. Increase the policing rate for the priority queue. Answer: D Question: 3 A new backup connection is being deployed on a remote site router. The stability of the connection has been a concern. In order to provide more information to EIGRP regarding this interface, you wish to incorporate the "reliability" cost metric in the EIGRP calculation with the command metric
P a g e | 3 weights 1 0 1 0 1. W 1 What impact w this mod will dification on the remote site router h have for othe er existing EIGRP neighbo orships from t the same EIGRP domain? g neighbors w will immediate ely begin usin ng the new m metric. A. Existing B. Existing g neighbors w will use the ne ew metric after clearing th he EIGRP neighbors. C. Existing g neighbors w will resync, ma aintaining the e neighbor re elationship. D. All exis sting neighbor relationship ps will go dow wn. D Answer: D : 4 Question: Refer to the exhibit. R1 has an n EBGP session to ISP 1 and d an EBGP session to ISP 2 2. R1 receives s the same pr refixes throug gh both links Which con s. nfiguration sh hould be app plied so that the link betw ween R1 and ISP 2 will b d be preferred for outgoing g traffic (R1 to o ISP 2)? se local preference on R1 f for received r routes A. Increas B. Decrease local prefe erence on R1 for received routes se MED on ISP P 2 for receive ed routes C. Increas D. Decrea ase MED on IS SP 2 for receiv ved routes A Answer: A on: Explanatio Local pref ference is an indication to the AS about t which path has preference to exit the e AS in order t to reach a ce ertain network. A path wit th higher loca al preference e is preferred more. The default value o of preferenc ce is 100. Reference e www.cisco.com/en/US S/tech/tk872/ /technologies s_configuration_example0 09186a0080b b82d1f.shtml? ? _site=smartna avRD referring_ Question: : 5 Refer to the exhibit.
P a g e | 4 nnects its offi ice to two ISP Ps, using separate T1 links. A static route is used fo or A small enterprise con ult route, poin nting to both interfaces with a different administrat tive distance, so that one o of the defau the defau routes is preferred. Re ult ecently the p primary link has been up pgraded to a new 10 Mb/s Ethernet link. After a few weeks, t they experienced a failure. The link d not pass traffic, but th did t he primary static route re emained activ ve. They lost their Interne et connectivit ty, even thou ugh the backu up operating. Which two pos ssible solution ns can be imp plemented to o avoid this s situation in th he link was o future? (C Choose two.) A. Implem ment HSRP link tracking on the branch r router R1. B. Use a track object w with an IP SLA probe for the e static route e on R1. he link state o of the Ethernet link using a a track object t on R1. C. Track th D. Use a r routing protocol between R1 and the up pstream ISP. B,D Answer: B on: Explanatio Interface Tracking ows you to specify another interface on the route for the HS process t er SRP to Interface tracking allo n order to alt ter the HSRP priority for a given group. . If the specif fied interface's line protoc col monitor in goes dow the HSRP priority of this router is reduced, allo wn, owing anothe HSRP rout with highe er ter er priority ca an become ac ctive (if it has s preemption n enabled). To o configure H HSRP interface tracking, us se the standby [group] track interface [priority] com mmand. Whe en multiple tr racked interfa aces are down, d by a cumula ative amount t. If you expli icitly set the decrement v value, then th he the priority is reduced value is decreased by that amount t if that interf face is down, , and decrem ments are cum mulative. If yo ou do not se an explicit decrement v et value, then the value is d decreased by 10 for each interface that goes dow wn, and decrem ments are cumulative. The e following ex xample uses t the following g configuration, with the default decre ement value of 10. Note: When an HS group nu SRP umber is not specified, th t he roup number is group 0. in nterface ether rnet0 ip addr ress 10.1.1.1 2 255.255.255.0 default gr standby ip p 10.1.1.3 standby p priority 110 standby track serial0 standby track serial1 th this configu uration is: The HSRP behavior wit 0 interfaces down = no o decrease (priority is 110) ) 1 interface down = dec crease by 10 ( (priority beco omes100) 2 interfaces down = de ecrease by 10 0 (priority bec comes 90) e Reference
P a g e | 5 www.cisco.com/en/US S/tech/tk648/ /tk362/techn nologies_tech_note09186a a0080094a91 1.shtml#intrac ck ing Question: : 6 ost that is run nning a DHCP P server on a campus LAN network present a securit Why would a rogue ho ty risk? ddresses from m an unknown n subnet to th he users. A. It may allocate IP ad B. All mult ticast traffic c can be sniffed d by using the e DHCP multicast capabilit ties. C. The CPU utilization o of the first ho op router can be overloade ed by exploiti ing DHCP rela ay open ports s. D. A poten ntial man‐in‐t the‐middle at ttack can be u used against t the clients. D Answer: D Question: : 7 Which sta atement is tru ue about TCN propagation? A. The originator of the e TCN immed diately floods this informat tion through the network. ep process. B. The TCN propagation is a two ste C. A TCN i is generated a and sent to th he root bridge. D. The roo ot bridge mus st flood this in nformation th hroughout th he network. C Answer: C Explanatio on: New Topo ology Change Mechanism When an 802.1D bridg detects a topology cha e ms ge ange, it uses a reliable m mechanism to first notify th he root bridge e. This is sho own in this diagram: Once the root bridge i is aware of a change in th he topology o of the networ rk, it sets the TC flag on th he sends out, wh hich are then relayed to all the bridges s in the netwo ork. When a b bridge receive es BPDUs it s a BPDU w with the TC flag bit set, it re educes its brid dging‐table aging time to f forward delay y seconds. Th his ensures a relatively qu uick flush of s stale informat tion. Refer to o Understand ding Spanning g‐Tree Protoc col Topology Changes for more inform mation on this s process. Thi is topology ch hange mecha anism is deep ply remodele in RSTP. Both the det ed B tection of a topology change and its propagation through th s n he e network evolve. Topo ology Change Detection In RSTP, on non‐edge ports that move to th nly e he ng state cause e a topology c change. This m means that a loss of conne ectivity is not t considered a as forwardin a topolog change any more, cont gy y trary to 802.1 (that is, a port that m 1D a moves to blocking no longe er generates s a TC). When n a RSTP bridg ge detects a topology chan nge, these occ cur: It starts th he TC While t timer with a v value equal to o twice the hello‐time for all its non‐ed dge designate ed ports and its root por if necessar It flushes the MAC addresses associated with a these port d rt, ry. all ts.
P a g e | 6 Note: As long as the T TC While time er runs on a p port, the BPD DUs sent out o of that port h have the TC b bit set. BPDU Us are also sen nt on the root port while t the timer is ac ctive. Topology Change Prop pagation es a BPDU wit th the TC bit s set from a nei ighbor, these e occur: When a bridge receive the dresses learn on all its ports, exce the one t ned s ept that receives the topolog s gy It clears t MAC add change. It t starts the TC C While timer r and sends B BPDUs with TC C set on all its s designated ports and roo ot port (RSTP no longer u uses the spec cific TCN BPD DU, unless a legacy bridge needs to be notified). Th his way, the TCN floods v very quickly a across the wh hole network. The TC prop pagation is now a one ste ep ange floods th his informatio on throughou ut the networ rk, process. In fact, the initiator of the topology cha ed D y hanism is mu faster tha the 802.1 uch an 1D as oppose to 802.1D where only the root did. This mech equivalen There is no need to w for the root bridge to be notified and then maintain th nt. n wait n he topology change state for the whole network for <max age plus forward d delay> second ds. ew seconds, or a small mu ultiple of hello‐times, mos st of the entri ies in the CAM M tables of th he In just a fe entire net twork (VLAN) flush. This a approach res sults in poten ntially more t temporary flo ooding, but o on the other hand it clear rs potential st tale informati ion that preve ents rapid connectivity res stitution. Reference e www.cisco.com/en/US S/tech/tk389/ /tk621/techn nologies_whit te_paper0918 86a0080094c cfa.shtml : 8 Question: Which sta atement is tru ue about loop p guard? A. Loop gu uard only ope erates on inte erfaces that a are considered point‐to‐po oint by the spanning tree. B. Loop gu uard only ope erates on roo ot ports. C. Loop gu uard only ope erates on des signated ports s. D. Loop guard only ope erates on edg ge ports. A Answer: A Explanatio on: Understan nding How Lo oop Guard Wo orks Unidirecti ional link failures may cau use a root po ort or alternat te port to be ecome design nated as root if BPDUs ar absent. So re ome software failures ma introduce temporary lo e ay oops in the network. Loo op guard che ecks if a root port or an alternate root t port receive es BPDUs. If the port is rec ceiving BPDU Us, loop guar rd puts the port into an in nconsistent st tate until it s starts receivin ng BPDUs aga ain.Loop guar rd isolates th failure and lets spanni tree conv he ing verge to a sta able topology without the failed link o y e or bridge. Yo ou can enable e loop guard per port with h the set span ntree guard loop comman nd. Note Whe en you are in MST mode you can set all the port on a switc with the set spantree global‐defaults n e, ts ch g loop‐guar command. When you e rd enable loop g guard, it is au utomatically applied to al of the activ ll ve instances or VLANs to which that p port belongs. . When you d disable loop g guard, it is disabled for th he o the listenin ng state. If yo ou specified ports. Disabling loop guard moves all loop‐inconsistent ports to n and es onal, loop gua blocks th ard he enable loop guard on a channel a the first link become unidirectio
P a g e | 7 entire cha annel until the affected po ort is removed from the ch hannel. Figure e 8‐6 shows loop guard in a triangle sw witch configu uration. Figure e 8‐6 Triangle e Switch Conf figuration wit th Loop Guard d Figure 8‐6 6 illustrates th he following c configuration n: Switches A A and B are d distribution sw witches. Switch C is an access sw witch. Loop guard is enabled on ports 3 and 3/2 on Switches A, B, and C. Use loop guard only in 3/1 s topologies where ther are blocke ports. Top re ed pologies that have no bloc cked ports, w which are loo op free, do n need to enable this f not feature. Enab bling loop guard on a roo switch has no effect but ot s provides p protection wh hen a root sw witch become es a nonroot s switch. Follow the ese guideline es when using g loop guard: Do not en nable loop gua ard on PortFa ast‐enabled o or dynamic VL LAN ports. Do not en nable PortFast t on loop gua ard‐enabled p ports. Do not en nable loop gua ard if root guard is enabled. Do not en nable loop gua ard on ports t that are conn nected to a sh hared link. Note: We e recommend d that you enable loop gua ard on root p ports and alte ernate root p ports on access switches. rd interacts w with other fea atures as follo ows: Loop guar Loop guar rd does not affect the func ctionality of U UplinkFast or BackboneFas st. Root guar rd forces a po ort to always be designate ed as the root t port. Loop g guard is effec ctive only if th he port is a r root port or an alternate port. Do not t enable loop p guard and r root guard on n a port at th he same time e. PortFast transitions a po ort into a forw warding state e immediately y when a link is established. Because a a PortFast‐en nabled port w will not be a r root port or alternate por rt, loop guard d and PortFast cannot be e configured on the same port. Assigni ing dynamic V VLAN membe ership for the e port require es that the p port is PortFa ast enabled. Do not configure a loop g guard‐enable port with dynamic VLA ed AN membership. If your network has a a type‐inconsistent port or r a PVID‐inconsistent port, all BPDUs are dropped until the mis sconfiguration is corrected The port t n d. transitions ou of the inco ut onsistent stat te after the message age e expires. Loo op guard igno ores the mess sage age expi iration on typ pe‐inconsisten nt ports and PVID‐inconsistent ports. If the port is already block ked by loop g guard, miscon nfigured BPDU Us that are received on the port make loop guard recov n ver, but the port is mo oved into th he typeincon nsistent state or PVID‐inco onsistent stat te. In high‐av vailability swit tch configura ations, if a po ort is put int the blocke state by loop guard, it remains b to ed blocked even after a swit tchover to th he redundan supervisor engine. The newly activa nt ated supervis engine re sor ecovers the p port only afte er receiving a BPDU on that port. Loo op guard uses s the ports known to spanning tree. Loop guard ca an take adva antage of logical ports provided by the Port Aggrega ation Protoco ol (PAgP). How wever, to form a channel l, all the phys sical ports gro ouped in the channel mus st have comp patible configurations. PAg gP enforces uniform configurations o root guard or loop gua on all the physical po to form a of d ard orts channel.
P a g e | 8 These caveats apply to loop guard: –Spanning tree always chooses the first operational port in the channel to send the BPDUs. If that link becomes unidirectional, loop guard blocks the channel, even if other links in the channel are functioning properly. –If a set of ports that are already blocked by loop guard are grouped together to form a channel, spanning tree loses all the state information for those ports and the new channel port may obtain the forwarding state with a designated role. –If a channel is blocked by loop guard and the channel breaks, spanning tree loses all the state information. The individual physical ports may obtain the forwarding state with the designated role, even if one or more of the links that formed the channel are unidirectional. You can enable UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) to help isolate the link failure. A loop may occur until UDLD detects the failure, but loop guard will not be able to detect it. Loop guard has no effect on a disabled spanning tree instance or a VLAN. Reference: www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst4000/8.2glx/configuration/guide/stp_enha.html# wp1048163 Question: 9 Which two are effects of connecting a network segment that is running 802.1D to a network segment that is running 802.1w? (Choose two.) A. The entire network switches to 802.1D and generates BPDUs to determine root bridge status. B. A migration delay of three seconds occurs when the port that is connected to the 802.1D bridge comes up. C. The entire network reconverges and a unique root bridge for the 802.1D segment, and a root bridge for the 802.1w segment, is chosen. D. The first hop 802.1w switch that is connected to the 802.1D runs entirely in 802.1D compatibility mode and converts the BPDUs to either 802.1D or 802.1w BPDUs to the 802.1D or 802.1w segments of the network. E. Classic 802.1D timers, such as forward delay and max‐age, will only be used as a backup, and will not be necessary if point‐to‐point links and edge ports are properly identified and set by the administrator. Answer: B,E Explanation: Each port maintains a variable that defines the protocol to run on the corresponding segment. A migration delay timer of three seconds also starts when the port comes up. When this timer runs, the current STP or RSTP mode associated to the port is locked. As soon as the migration delay expires, the port adapts to the mode that corresponds to the next BPDU it receives. If the port changes its mode of operation as a result of a BPDU received, the migration delay restarts. 802.1D works by the concept that the protocol had to wait for the network to converge before it transitioned a port into the forwarding state. With Rapid Spanning Tree it does not have to rely on any timers, the only variables that that it relies on is edge ports and link types. Any uplink port that has an alternate port to the root can be directly placed into the forwarding state (This is the Rapid convergence that you speak of "restored quickly when RSTP is already in use?"). This is what happened when you disconnected the primary look; the port that was ALT, moved to FWD immediately, but the switch also still needs to create a BDU with the TC bit set to notify the rest of the network that a topology has occurred and all non‐edge designated ports will transition to BLK, LRN, and then FWD to ensure there are no loops in the rest of the network. This is why if you have a
P a g e | 9 host on a switchport, and you know for a fact that it is only one host, enable portfast to configure the port as an edgeport so that it does not have to transition to all the STP states. Reference www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cfa.shtml Question: 10 Which command is used to enable EtherChannel hashing for Layer 3 IP and Layer 4 port‐based CEF? A. mpls ip cef B. port‐channel ip cef C. mpls ip port‐channel cef D. port‐channel load balance E. mpls ip load‐balance F. ip cef EtherChannel channel‐id XOR L4 G. ip cef connection exchange Answer: D Question: 11 When you are troubleshooting duplex mismatches, which two errors are typically seen on the fullduplex end? (Choose two.) A. runts B. FCS errors C. interface resets D. late collisions Answer: A,B Question: 12 Which two options are contained in a VTP subset advertisement? (Choose two.) A. followers field B. MD5 digest C. VLAN information D. sequence number Answer: C,D Explanation: Subset Advertisements When you add, delete, or change a VLAN in a Catalyst, the server Catalyst where the changes are made increments the configuration revision and issues a summary advertisement. One or several subset advertisements follow the summary advertisement. A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN information. If there are several VLANs, more than one subset advertisement can be required in order to advertise all the VLANs. Subset Advertisement Packet Format
P a g e | 1 10 This formatted example shows that t each VLAN information f field contains s information for a differen nt VLAN. It is s ordered so t that lowered‐valued ISL VLAN IDs occur first: Most of th he fields in th his packet are e easy to unde erstand. Thes se are two cla arifications: Code — T format f this is 0x for subse advertisem The for x02 et ment. Sequen number — This is th nce he sequence of the packet in the s stream of pa ackets that f follow a sum mmary adver rtisement. Th he 1. sequence starts with 1 sts Advertisement Reques needs a VTP a advertisemen nt request in t these situatio ons: A switch n The switch has been re eset. The VTP d domain name e has been changed. The switch has receive ed a VTP sum mmary advertisement with h a higher con nfiguration re evision than its on receipt of a an advertisem ment request t, a VTP devic ce sends a sum mmary adver rtisement. On ne own. Upo or more subset advertisements follow the summ mary advertise ement. This is s an example:
P a g e | 1 11 he format for this is 0x03 fo or an advertis sement reque est. Code—Th Start‐Valu ue—This is us in cases in which there are severa subset adv sed al vertisements. If the first (n) subset ad dvertisement has been rec ceived and th he subsequen nt one (n+1) has not been n received, th he Catalyst o only requests advertisements from the (n+1)th one. Reference e www.cisco.com/en/US S/tech/tk389/ /tk689/techn nologies_tech_note09186a a0080094c52.shtml Question: : 13 Which two statements s are true abo out traffic sha aping? (Choos se two.) A. Out‐of‐ ‐profile packe ets are queue ed. B. It cause es TCP retransmits. C. Marking/remarking is not suppor rted. D. It does not respond to BECN and ForeSight Messages. E. It uses a a single/two‐ ‐bucket mech hanism for me etering. Answer: A A,C Question: : 14 Which thr ree options are features of f VTP version 3? (Choose t three.) supports 8K V VLANs. A. VTPv3 s B. VTPv3 s supports priv vate VLAN ma apping. C. VTPv3 a allows for domain discove ery. D. VTPv3 uses a primar ry server concept to avoid d configuration revision issues. is not compat tible with VTP Pv1 or VTPv2. E. VTPv3 i F. VTPv3 h has a hidden password option. Answer: B B,D,F Explanatio on: Key Benef fits of VTP Ve ersion 3 Muc ch work has g gone into imp proving the u usability of VT TP version 3 in three maj jor areas: The new v version of VT TP offers bett ter administra ative control over which d device is allow wed to updat te other dev vices' view of the VLAN topology. Th chance of unintended and disruptive changes is o he f significant tly reduced, a and availabili ity is increase ed. The reduc ced risk of un nintended cha anges will eas se the chang ge process an nd help speed d deploymen nt. Functionality for the VL LAN environm ment has bee en significant tly expanded. Two enhanc cements are m most beneficial for today's s networks:
P a g e | 12 – In addition to supporting the earlier ISL VLAN range from 1 to 1001, the new version supports the whole IEEE 802.1Q VLAN range up to 4095. – In addition to supporting the concept of normal VLANs, VTP version 3 can transfer information regarding Private VLAN (PVLAN) structures. The third area of major improvement is support for databases other than VLAN (for example, MST). Brief Background on VTP Version 1 and VTP Version 2 VTP version 1 was developed when only 1k VLANs where available for configuration. A tight internal coupling of the VLAN implementation, the VLAN pruning feature, and the VTP function itself offered an efficient means of implementation. It has proved in the field to reliably support Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI networks via VTP. The use of consistent VLAN naming was a requirement for successful use of VMPS (Vlan Membership Policy Server). VTP ensures the consistency of VLAN names across the VTP domain. Most VMPS implementations are likely to be migrated to a newer, more flexible and feature‐rich method. To add support for Token Ring, VTP version 1 was enhanced and called VTP version 2. Certain other minor changes and enhancements were also added at this time. The functional base in VTP version 3 is left unchanged from VTP version 2, so backward compatibility is built in. It is possible, on a per link basis, to automatically discover and support VTP version 2 devices. VTP version 3 adds a number of enhancements to VTP version 1 and VTP version 2: Support for a structured and secure VLAN environment (Private VLAN, or PVLAN) Support for up to 4k VLANs Feature enhancement beyond support for a single database or VTP instance Protection from unintended database overrides during insertion of new switches Option of clear text or hidden password protection Configuration option on a per port base instead of only a global scheme Optimized resource handling and more efficient transfer of information These new requirements made a new code foundation necessary. The design goal was to make VTP version 3 a versatile vehicle. This was not only for the task of transferring a VLAN DB but also for transferring other databases‐for example, the MST database. Reference www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/switches/ps5718/ps708/solution_guide_c78_508010.html Question: 15 Which three options are considered in the spanning‐tree decision process? (Choose three.) A. lowest root bridge ID B. lowest path cost to root bridge C. lowest sender bridge ID D. highest port ID E. highest root bridge ID F. highest path cost to root bridge Answer: A,B,C Explanation: Configuration bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) are sent between switches for each port. Switches use s four step process to save a copy of the best BPDU seen on every port. When a port receives a better BPDU, it stops sending them. If the BPDUs stop arriving for 20 seconds (default), it begins sending them again. Step 1 Lowest Root Bridge ID (BID) Step 2 Lowest Path Cost to Root Bridge
P a g e | 1 13 Step 3 Low west Sender BID Step 4 Low west Port ID Reference e Cisco Gen neral Network king Theory Q Quick Referen nce Sheets : 16 Question: In 802.1s, , how is the V VLAN to instan nce mapping represented in the BPDU? ? AN to instanc ce mapping is s a normal 16‐byte field in the MST BPD DU. A. The VLA B. The VLA AN to instanc ce mapping is s a normal 12‐ ‐byte field in the MST BPD DU. C. The VLA AN to instanc ce mapping is s a 16‐byte MD5 signature field in the M MST BPDU. D. The VLA AN to instanc ce mapping is s a 12‐byte MD5 signature field in the M MST BPDU. Answer: C C on: Explanatio MST Conf figuration an MST Regio Each swit running MST in the network has a single MS nd on tch s ST configurat tion that consists of these e three attribu utes: 1. An alph hanumeric configuration n name (32 byte es) 2. A config guration revis sion number (two bytes) 3. A 4096 6‐element tab ble that assoc ciates each of f the potentia al 4096 VLAN Ns supported on the chass sis to a given n instance. In order to be part of a a common MST region, a g group of swit tches must sh hare the same e configuratio on s. It is up to the network a administrator r to properly propagate the configuration throughou ut attributes the region n. Currently, this step is o only possible by the means s of the comm mand line int terface (CLI) o or through S Simple Netwo Managem ork ment Protoco (SNMP). Ot ol ther methods can be envi s isioned, as th he IEEE specification does not explicit tly mention h how to accom mplish that st tep. Note: If f for any reaso on ches differ o one or m on more configur ration attribu ute, the swit tches are part of differen nt two switc regions. F For more information refer r to the Regio on Boundary s section of this document. Region Bo oundary In order to ensure consistent VLAN‐ ‐to‐instance m mapping, it is s necessary fo or the protoco ol to be able t to oundaries of t the regions. F For that purpo ose, the characteristics of the region are exactly identify the bo Us. ct pping is not propagated in the BPDU U, included in the BPDU The exac VLANs‐to‐instance map the s are ame region a a neighbo as or. because t switches only need to know whether they a in the sa Therefore only a dige of the VLANs‐toinstance mapping table is sen along wit the revisio e, est g nt, th on number a and the name e. Once a switch receives a BPDU, the switch extra acts the diges st (a numeric cal value der rived from th VLAN‐to‐i he instance map pping table t through a m mathematical function) an nd compares s this digest w with its own c computed dig gest. If the dig gests differ, the port on w which the BPD DU was receiv ved is at the boundary of a region. In g generic terms s, a port is at the boundar ry of a region if the design nated bridge on its segme ent is in a diff ferent region or if it receiv ves legacy 802.1d BPDUs. In this diagram, the port on B1 is at the boundar of region A whereas the ports on B2 and B3 are t ry A, o region B: internal to MST Insta ances
P a g e | 1 14 According g to the IEEE 802.1s specif fication, an M MST bridge must be able to o handle at le east these tw wo instances: One Internal Spanning Tree (IST) ore Multiple Spanning Tre ee Instance(s) (MSTIs) One or mo The terminology continues to evolv ve, as 802.1s s is actually in n a pre‐stand dard phase. It t is likely thes se ill ease of 802.1 The Cisco implementat 1s. tion supports 16 instance s es: names wi change in the final rele one IST (instance 0) and 15 MS STIs. show v status Ci vtp isco switches "show vtp status" Field s p Descriptio ons has a MD5 digest field that is a 16‐b byte checksum m of the VTP config guration as sh hown below Router# s show vtp statu us VTP Version: 3 (capable) Configura ation Revision n: 1 Maximum m VLANs supp ported locally: 1005 Number o of existing VLA ANs: 37 VTP Operating Mode: S Server VTP Doma ain Name: [sm martports] VTP Pruni ing Mode: Dis sabled VTP V2 M Mode: Enabled d VTP Traps s Generation: Disabled MD5 dige est : 0x26 0xEE 0x0D 0x84 0 0x73 0x0E 0x1B 0x69 Configura ation last mod dified by 172.20.52.19 at 7 7‐25‐08 14:33 3:43 Local updater ID is 172 18.104.22.168 on interface Gi5 5/2 (first layer3 interface f fou) VTP versio on running: 2 2 Reference e www.cisco.com/en/US S/tech/tk389/ /tk621/techn nologies_whit te_paper0918 86a0080094c cfc.shtml www.cisco.com/en/US S/docs/ios‐xm ml/ios/lanswit tch/command d/lsw‐cr‐book k.pdf Question: : 17 Which thr ree combinat tions are valid d LACP configurations that t will set up a channel? (Ch hoose three.) A. On/On to B. On/Aut C. Passive e/Active D. Desirab ble/Auto E. Active/ /Active F. Desirab ble/Desirable Answer: A A,C,E : 18 Question: Refer to the exhibit. atement is correct about th he prefix 160 0.0.0.0/8? Which sta
P a g e | 15 A. The prefix has encountered a routing loop. B. The prefix is an aggregate with an as‐set. C. The prefix has been aggregated twice, once in AS 100 and once in AS 200. D. None of these statements is true. Answer: B Question: 19 Which two options does Cisco PfR use to control the entrance link selection with inbound optimization? (Choose two.) A. Prepend extra AS hops to the BGP prefix. B. Advertise more specific BGP prefixes (longer mask). C. Add (prepend) one or more communities to the prefix that is advertised by BGP. D. Have BGP dampen the prefix. Answer: A,C Explanation: PfR Entrance Link Selection Control Techniques The PfR BGP inbound optimization feature introduced the ability to influence inbound traffic. A network advertises reachabi ity of its inside prefixes to the Internet using eBGP advertisements to its ISPs. If the same prefix is advertised to more than one ISP, then the network is multihoming. PfR BGP inbound optimization works best with multihomed networks, but it can also be used with a network that has multiple connections to the same ISP. To implement BGP inbound optimization, PfR manipulates eBGP advertisements to influence the best entrance selection for traffic bound for inside prefixes. The benefit of implementing the best entrance selection is limited to a network that has more than one ISP connection. To enforce an entrance link selection, PfR offers the following methods: BGP Autonomous System Number Prepend When an entrance link goes out‐of‐policy (OOP) due to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS Releases 15.2(1) T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, extra autonomous system hops are prepended one at a time (up to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP advertisement over the other entrances. In Cisco IOS Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out‐of policy (OOP) due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, six extra autonomous system hops are prepended immediately to the inside prefix BGP advertisement over the other entrances. The extra autonomous system hops on the other entrances increase the probability that the best entrance will be used for the inside prefix. When the entrance link is OOP due to unreachable or loss reasons, six extra autonomous system hops are added immediately to allow the software to quickly move the traffic away from the old entrance link. This is the default method PfR uses to control an inside prefix, and no user configuration is required. BGP Autonomous System Number Community Prepend When an entrance link goes out‐of‐policy (OOP) due to delay, or in images prior to Cisco IOS Releases 15.2 (1)T1 and 15.1(2)S, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, a BGP prepend community is attached one at a time (up to a maximum of six) to the inside prefix BGP advertisement from the network to another autonomous system such as an ISP. In Cisco IOS Releases 15.2(1)T1, 15.1(2)S, and later releases, when an entrance link goes out‐of‐policy (OOP) due to unreachable or loss reasons, and PfR selects a best entrance for an inside prefix, six BGP prepend communities are attached to the inside prefix BGP advertisement. The BGP prepend community will increase the number of autonomous system hops in the advertisement of the inside prefix from the ISP to its peers. Autonomous system prepend BGP community is the preferred method to be used for PfR BGP inbound optimization because there is no risk of the local ISP filtering the extra autonomous system hops. There are some issues, for
P a g e | 1 16 example, not all ISPs support the BGP prepend community ISP policies may ignore or modify th d y, s he autonomo ous system h hops, and a tr ransit ISP may filter the autonomous s system path. If you use th his method o of inbound op ptimization an nd a change is made to an autonomous s system, you u must issue a an outbound d reconfigurat tion using the e "clear ip bgp p" command. . Reference e www.cisco.com/en/US S/docs/ios‐xm ml/ios/pfr/con nfiguration/15‐2s/pfr‐bgp‐ ‐ inbound.h html#GUIDF8 8A59E24‐1D59 9‐4924‐827D‐B23B43D9A8 8E0 www.cisco.com/en/US S/products/ps s8787/products_ios_proto ocol_option_home.html : 20 Question: Refer to the exhibit. What is th he potential issue with this s configuratio on? A. There is no potentia al issue; OSPF F will work fine in any cond dition. g may occur since there is n no area 1 adjacency betwe een the ABRs s. B. Sub‐optimal routing C. This is a a wrong OSPF F configuratio on because all routers mus st be in area 0 0 only. D. This is a a wrong OSPF F configuratio on because /3 30 requires 0.0.0.3 wild ca ard. Answer: B B
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