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Information about
Education

Published on April 18, 2008

Author: Candelora

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  21st Century College English: Book 2 Unit 2: Part B Slide2:  Background Information Text Understanding Structure Analysis Key words and phrases Intensive Study Difficult Sentences Reading and Translation Comprehension Check Listening Practice Text B I. Background Information:  I. Background Information Individualism Individualism is one of the dominant American values. The individualistic theory of human nature holds that the interests of a person are best served by allowing him maximum freedom and responsibility for choosing his objectives and the means for obtaining them, and acting accordingly. Each person is the best judge of his own interests, and it is most important for individuals to be allowed full opportunity to achieve material success through their efforts. II. Text Understanding:  II. Text Understanding Through the comparison between East and West teaching methods text B mainly elaborates different educational system reflected in the different cultural background of its society. Each educational system has its advantages and disadvantages. In Western society individualism and independent thinking is highly valued, which is reflected in the procession of education of its educational system. Slide5:  Their students are relatively independent and creative, but they have learnt less; whereas in Eastern society such as Japan and China, its culture values the belief in group goals and cooperation rather than individualism, that is why our classroom is oriented by a teacher, a teacher is a source of knowledge without too much discussion. Under such system students values discipline and have self-control power, learn much more math and science but its advantage is that it gives much psychological pressure to student. In text B, according to Canadian teacher’s experience in a Japanese class he analyzed two different cultural differences, evaluating advantages and disadvantages of different cultures. III. Structure Analysis:  III. Structure Analysis Part One paras.1-2 Cultural difference---By description of what she saw it introduces cultural difference. Part Two paras.3-5 Analysis of the difference (cause of cultural difference) Part Three paras.6-7Advantages and disadvantages of two different cultures. Key words:  Key words conscious a. (1) knowing and understanding of: conscious of sth. / that… I was conscious of her presence. Are you conscious of how people will regard such behavior? (2) awake He is hurt but still conscious. Slide8:  reflect vt, 1. (1) reflect sb/sth (in sth): make a visible image trees reflected in a window (2) reflect sth (from sth): (of a surface) throw back The heat reflected from the white sand formed a mirage. 2. show the nature of or express The literature of a period reflects its values and tastes. 3. reflect (on/upon sth): think deeply about I need time to reflect (on your offer). Slide9:  emphasize, -ise vt. indicate that sth is particularly important He emphasized the need for hard work. initiative n. (1) the first movement or action which starts sth happening (2) the ability to make decisions and take actions without asking for the help or advice of others He is a man of great initiative. He always does everything on his own initiative. Slide10:  recite v. say (sth. learned) aloud from memory 背诵; 朗诵 Examples: Though he is only five, the child can recite many poems written by famous poets in the Tang Dynasty. The mayor recited to the Queen a long and tedious speech of welcome. cooperation n. the act of working together for a shared purpose; help or willingness to work together 合作;配合 Examples: With the cooperation of all the employees, we can fulfill the task on time. Cooperation between Scotland Yard and the FBI couldn‘t be better(再好不过) Slide11:  self-control n. control over one's feelings; power to hold back the expression of strong feelings   自制(力) Examples: He lost his self-control and cried aloud. It took him incredible self-control not to scream at her. disadvantages n. an unfavorable condition or quality that makes a person or thing less successful or effective than others 不利条件,不利地位 Examples: the advantages and disadvantages of living in cities One of the disadvantages of his applying for this job is that he has no experience. Slide12:  Text B: Intensive Study Methods of Education: East and West 1 A teacher from Canada recently visited an elementary school in Japan. In one class, she watched sixty young children as they learned to draw a cat. The class teacher drew a big circle on the blackboard, and sixty children copied it on their papers. The teacher drew a smaller circle on top of the first and then put two triangles on top of it; the children continued their cats in exactly the same way. The lesson continued until there were sixty-one identical cats in the classroom. Slide13:  2 The Canadian teacher was startled by the lesson. The teaching methods — and their effects — were very different from those in her own country. An art lesson in a Canadian school would lead to a room full of unique pictures, not a series of identical cats. Why? What causes this difference in educational methods? 3 In any classroom in any country, the instructor teaches more than just art or history or language. Part of what's going on — consciously or not — is the teaching of culture: the attitudes, values and beliefs of the society. Every education system is inevitably a mirror that reflects the culture of the society it is a part of. Text B: Intensive Study Slide14:  4 In many Western societies, such as the United States or Canada, which are made up of many different nationalities, religious groups and cultural orientations, individualism and independent thinking are highly valued. And these values are reflected by the education systems in these countries. Teachers emphasize the qualities that make each student special. Students are seldom expected to memorize information; instead, they are encouraged to think for themselves, find answers on their own and come up with individual solutions. At an early age, students learn to form their own ideas and opinions, and to express their ideas in class discussion. Text B: Intensive Study Slide15:  5 In Japan, by contrast, the vast majority of people share the same language, history, and culture. Perhaps for this reason, the education system there reflects a belief in group goals and traditions rather than individualism. Japanese schoolchildren often work together and help one another on assignments. In the classroom, the teacher is the main source of knowledge: He or she lectures, and the students listen. There is not much discussion; instead, the students recite rules or information that they have memorized. Text B: Intensive Study Slide16:  6 The advantage of the education system in Japan is that students there learn the social skill of cooperation. Another advantage is that they learn much more math and science than most American students. They also study more hours each day and more days each year than their North American counterparts do. The system is demanding, but it prepares children for a society that values discipline and self-control. There are, however, disadvantages. For one thing, many students say that after an exam, they forget much of the information they memorized. For another, the extremely demanding system puts enormous psychological pressure on students, and is considered a primary factor in the high suicide rate among Japanese school-age children. Text B: Intensive Study Slide17:  7 The advantage of the education system in North America, on the other hand, is that students learn to think for themselves. They learn to take the initiative — to make decisions and take action without someone telling them what to do. The system prepares them for a society that values creative ideas and individual responsibility. There are drawbacks, however. Among other things, American high school graduates haven't studied as many basic rules and facts as students in other countries have. And many social critics attribute the high crime rate in the US at least partially to a lack of discipline in the schools. (605 words) Text B: Intensive Study Slide18:  1. What took place in the class that the Canadian teacher visited? Para. 1 2. Why was the Canadian teacher startled? Para. 2 3. What advantage does the author see in the North American system of education? Para. 7 4. In the author’s view, are the long hours that Japanese children spent in school an advantage or disadvantage? Para. 6 Slide19:  Does the author discuss any Western educational systems other than the American and Canadian ones? Para. 3-7 Does the author propose any explanation of the causes that led to the differences between Western and Japanese educational values? Para. 4-5 Slide20:  The lesson continued until there were sixty-one identical cats in the classroom. Paraphrase ? — The lesson went on until the sixty children finished drawing sixty cats that were exactly the same as the one drawn by the teacher. Slide21:  …, the instructor teaches more than just art or history or language. Paraphrase ? — the teacher teaches not only art or history or language, but also other things. Slide22:  Part of what’s going on — consciously or not — is the teaching of culture: … Translate ? 课堂活动的一部分—有意识或无意识地—是在传授文化 Slide23:  Every education system is inevitably a mirror that the culture of the society it is a part of. Paraphrase ? — The education system of any society certainly reflects the culture of that society, and it is a component part of that society. More to learn Slide24:  Every education system is inevitably a mirror that the culture of the society it is a part of. The expression “every education system is … a mirror” is a metaphor, a kind of comparison between two similar things without using ‘like’ or ‘as’. e.g. Professor Lee is a walking dictionary. The school is a citadel of a football kingdom. Slide25:  (a) source of knowledge — a person or thing that supplies knowledge Slide26:  For one thing …, for another … “For one thing” is used to introduce a reason and is usually followed by “for another”, meaning “one reason is … and another is …” e.g. The house was poorly built; for one thing the roof leaked, for another it doesn’t let in enough light. Slide27:  And many social critics attribute the high crime rate in the US at least partially to a lack of discipline in the schools. Paraphrase ? — And many social critics consider that the high crime rate in the US is at least partly due to children’s lack of discipline in the schools. Slide28:  come up with sth: find or produce (an answer, solution) She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. Slide29:  take the initiative be the first person to act and therefore able to control the situation 采取主动;首先采取行动 Examples:  Everyone was sitting in silence, so I took the initiative by speaking first at the meeting.   They have attempted to take the initiative in dealing with the problem. More to learn Slide30:  take action begin to act  采取行动,开始工作 To take action is to do something in order to prevent something bad from happening or continuing esp. because it is your duty or responsibility to do so. Examples: This illegal trade will continue unless we take action to stop it. Mr. Cooper called on the government to take action against the strikers. Slide31:  prepares them for get (sb.) ready for sth.  使对…有所准备 Examples: Prepare yourself for a surprise when you go into the room. Parents hope to prepare their children for a competitive society by giving them early and good education. Slide32:  drawbacks n. a difficulty or disadvantage; sth. that can cause trouble 欠缺;不利条件 Examples: The major drawback of the system is that the funds are administered centrally. Reading and Translation:  Reading and Translation Interest Is the Best Tutor To foster the children’s personality is equally important .on no account should we parents force our children to do what they do not want to do. Parents of today, in their ardent desire to see their children amount to something , tend to impose what they believe is the right course on their children. They decide the does and don’ts for the children regardless of their feelings. Many gifted children end up getting nowhere simply because of parental manipulation. Slide34:  For a time I had wanted my son to become an artist, I had asked him to learn how to paint, but this was not my son’s liking. He loved mathematics with a passion that bordered on religion, and he went into raptures whenever he solved a difficult problem. Respecting his choice I sent him to Olympic mathematics school and took him to all sorts of activities related to mathematics. He attended many competitions at national and municipal levels. After graduation he went on to Mathematics Department of university in China. “Interest is the best tutor,” as the saying goes. His childhood’s interest sets the stage for his promising future. Slide35:  Comprehension Check 1. What was it that startled the Canadian teacher in the class she visited? A) The large number of students. B) The method of drawing cats. C) The method of teaching. 1. What was it that startled the Canadian teacher in the class she visited? A) The large number of students. B) The method of drawing cats. C) The method of teaching. 《读写教程 II》: Ex. XVIII, p. 63 Slide36:  Comprehension Check 2. What does the author mean by the statement “in any classroom in any country, the instructor teaches more than just art or history or language”? A) Instructors everywhere teach many different subjects. B) Teachers inevitably imbue students with the values of their culture. C) Instructors are part of what’s going on, consciously or not. 2. What does the author mean by the statement “in any classroom in any country, the instructor teaches more than just art or history or language”? A) Instructors everywhere teach many different subjects. B) Teachers inevitably imbue students with the values of their culture. C) Instructors are part of what’s going on, consciously or not. Slide37:  Comprehension Check 3. According to the author, what factors contribute to the high value placed on individualism in North America? A) The variety of nationalities, religious groups and cultural orientations there. B) The values reflected by the education system there. C) The students expressing their own ideas in class discussion. 3. According to the author, what factors contribute to the high value placed on individualism in North America? A) The variety of nationalities, religious groups and cultural orientations there. B) The values reflected by the education system there. C) The students expressing their own ideas in class discussion. Slide38:  Comprehension Check 4. In the author’s view, what are some of the advantages of the Japanese system of education? A) Japanese people share the same language, culture and history. B) The teacher lectures and the students listen; and there is not much discussion. C) The students learn to cooperate, and they learn a lot of math and science. 4. In the author’s view, what are some of the advantages of the Japanese system of education? A) Japanese people share the same language, culture and history. B) The teacher lectures and the students listen; and there is not much discussion. C) The students learn to cooperate, and they learn a lot of math and science. Slide39:  Comprehension Check 5. What is the most serious problem with the Japanese system, according to the author? A) It prepares children for a society that values discipline and self-control. B) The students forget things after exams. C) The demands of the system contribute to the high suicide rate among students. 5. What is the most serious problem with the Japanese system, according to the author? A) It prepares children for a society that values discipline and self-control. B) The students forget things after exams. C) The demands of the system contribute to the high suicide rate among students. Slide40:  Comprehension Check 6. How does the author view the fact that in the North American system students “learn to take the initiative”? A) She considers it an advantage over the Japanese system. B) She considers it a disadvantage. C) She considers it appropriate for North American society. 6. How does the author view the fact that in the North American system students “learn to take the initiative”? A) She considers it an advantage over the Japanese system. B) She considers it a disadvantage. C) She considers it appropriate for North American society. Slide41:  Comprehension Check 7. What is the most serious problem with the North American system, according to the author? A) American students haven’t studied as many basic rules and facts as other students. B) The lack of discipline may contribute to the high crime rate. C) Students learn to take action without someone telling them what to do. 7. What is the most serious problem with the North American system, according to the author? A) American students haven’t studied as many basic rules and facts as other students. B) The lack of discipline may contribute to the high crime rate. C) Students learn to take action without someone telling them what to do. Slide42:  Comprehension Check 8. According to the author, which system of education is better? A) The Japanese System. B) The North American system. C) Neither system. 8. According to the author, which system of education is better? A) The Japanese System. B) The North American system. C) Neither system. Slide43:  Listening Practice Listening and Speaking Conversations Part 5.3, pp. 29~31 Short Conversations You will hear 10 short conversations. After each conversation you will hear a question. Listen carefully and choose the best answer from the four choices given. Slide44:  Listening Practice: Conversations 1. A) Generally speaking, the woman liked Canford better. B) Wessex and Canford are the names of two universities. C) The campus at Canford has nicer buildings. D) Both universities have its advantages. Slide45:  2. A) Newspapers. B) A strong press. C) An official scandal. D) The honesty of government officials. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide46:  3. A) A TV series. B) A novel. C) A love affair. D) A film. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide47:  4. A) In Britain all children from 5 to 15 have to attend school. B) The British government spends a lot providing free education. C) The age at which children can legally leave school may be raised in Britain. D) Children in Britain must legally stay in school for fifteen years. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide48:  5. A) An attractive salary. B) His proficiency in maths. C) His teacher’s opinion. D) His feeling for design. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide49:  6. A) The Times and the Guardian. B) The Daily Mail and the Daily Express. C) The Evening Standard and the Guardian. D) The Daily Mail and the Evening Standard. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide50:  7. A) They can work hard to earn enough money for it. B) They can’t afford a holiday. C) They deserve a holiday. D) They should decide when to go to Sweden. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide51:  8. A) The woman thinks the man should sell cars. B) The woman doesn’t think the man walks enough. C) The woman thinks the man walks too much. D) The woman doesn’t know how to drive. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide52:  9. A) She’s never sure how to answer questions. B) She’s too busy to answer his questions. C) If she’s not too busy, she may help him. D) She’s always ready to help a neighbor. Listening Practice: Conversations Slide53:  10. A) The party is going to be put off. B) He is sorry that the woman can’t come to the party. C) The man’s cousin is going to the party, too. D) The woman should bring her cousin to the party. Listening Practice: Conversations Check-up Slide54:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 1. A) Generally speaking, the woman liked Canford better. B) Wessex and Canford are the names of two universities. C) The campus at Canford has nicer buildings. D) Both universities have its advantages. 1. A) Generally speaking, the woman liked Canford better. B) Wessex and Canford are the names of two universities. C) The campus at Canford has nicer buildings. D) Both universities have its advantages. Slide55:  1. M: Now you’ve studied at two universities, haven’t you? How do you like them? W: Well, the Canford campus is nicer than the Wessex campus. Canford’s got some very fine buildings. M: I see. And what about the student accomodations? W: Oh, the accommodations at Wessex are much better than the ones at Canford. They’re cheaper and better- heated. Q: Which of the following statements is NOT true? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide56:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 2. A) Newspapers. B) A strong press. C) An official scandal. D) The honesty of government officials. 2. A) Newspapers. B) A strong press. C) An official scandal. D) The honesty of government officials. Slide57:  2. W: Did you read the paper today? M: Yes. The whole thing is really turning into a scandal. W: It makes you wonder, doesn’t it? I remember when we used to take it for granted that officials were honest. M: At least we still have a strong press. Q: What are they mainly talking about? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide58:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 3. A) A TV series. B) A novel. C) A love affair. D) A film. 3. A) A TV series. B) A novel. C) A love affair. D) A film. Slide59:  3. M: Here we are. What do you think about “Love in the Sahara”? W: I don’t know. It’s supposed to be fairly good, isn’t it? M: Well, it’s got good reviews here. And it was directed by Filippini. W: Well, it should be all right. Who’s in it? Q: What are they talking about? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide60:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 4. A) In Britain all children from 5 to 15 have to attend school. B) The British government spends a lot providing free education. C) The age at which children can legally leave school may be raised in Britain. D) Children in Britain must legally stay in school for fifteen years. 4. A) In Britain all children from 5 to 15 have to attend school. B) The British government spends a lot providing free education. C) The age at which children can legally leave school may be raised in Britain. D) Children in Britain must legally stay in school for fifteen years. Slide61:  4. M: And you know of course that in Britain all children have to go to school from age five to age fifteen. It’s the law. W: Yes. And I believe they’re raising that to age sixteen very soon, aren’t they? M: Well, we hope so. But it’s all a matter of finance. You see, education here is not only compulsory but free for everyone. It costs the government millions of pounds a year to educate the young. Q: Which of the following statements is NOT true? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide62:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 5. A) An attractive salary. B) His proficiency in maths. C) His teacher’s opinion. D) His feeling for design. 5. A) An attractive salary. B) His proficiency in maths. C) His teacher’s opinion. D) His feeling for design. Slide63:  5. W: What did you say you were going to take up as a career? M: Architecture. W: What made you decide on that? M: Well, I was good at maths and art at school and I think I had a certain feeling for design. My teachers said I had an ability for architecture. Q: Which is not mentioned as factors that lead to the man’s decision? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide64:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 6. A) The Times and the Guardian. B) The Daily Mail and the Daily Express. C) The Evening Standard and the Guardian. D) The Daily Mail and the Evening Standard. 6. A) The Times and the Guardian. B) The Daily Mail and the Daily Express. C) The Evening Standard and the Guardian. D) The Daily Mail and the Evening Standard. Slide65:  6. W: Do you know, Peter, I’ve been in England for nearly six months and I still don’t know which British paper to buy. Which one do you recommend? M: Depends on what you want. The Times and the Guardian are more serious papers. If you want something with more gossip and entertainment, get the Daily Mail or the Daily Express. W: Do you buy an evening paper as well? M: Sometimes. I skim through the headlines of the Evening Standard. It’s a good paper for ads if you’re looking for a job. Q: Which papers would you read to find out about movie stars’ private lives? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide66:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 7. A) They can work hard to earn enough money for it. B) They can’t afford a holiday. C) They deserve a holiday. D) They should decide when to go to Sweden. 7. A) They can work hard to earn enough money for it. B) They can’t afford a holiday. C) They deserve a holiday. D) They should decide when to go to Sweden. Slide67:  7. W: Bob, can we really afford a holiday? We’re still paying for this house and the furniture is on hire- purchase and … M: Now listen, Peggy. You work hard and I work hard. We’re not talking about whether we can have a holiday. We’re talking about where and when. W: Well, if you’re sure … Shall we go to Sweden? M: Sweden’s cold. I’d rather not go to Sweden. Q: What’s Bob’s view of their holiday? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide68:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 8. A) The woman thinks the man should sell cars. B) The woman doesn’t think the man walks enough. C) The woman thinks the man walks too much. D) The woman doesn’t know how to drive. 8. A) The woman thinks the man should sell cars. B) The woman doesn’t think the man walks enough. C) The woman thinks the man walks too much. D) The woman doesn’t know how to drive. Slide69:  8. W: You’ll have to cut down on your expenses! That car of yours, for a start. M: No, I need a car. W: You really ought to use your legs a bit more. That’s why you have them, you know. Q: What conclusion can we draw? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide70:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 9. A) She’s never sure how to answer questions. B) She’s too busy to answer his questions. C) If she’s not too busy, she may help him. D) She’s always ready to help a neighbor. 9. A) She’s never sure how to answer questions. B) She’s too busy to answer his questions. C) If she’s not too busy, she may help him. D) She’s always ready to help a neighbor. Slide71:  9. W: Mrs. Henderson speaking. M: This is Brian Murphy, Mrs. Henderson. I’m your new neighbor. W: Oh, good evening, Mr. Murphy. Welcome to Oak Lane. Can we give you any help? M: Well, I do have some questions, if you have time. W: I’m never too busy to help a neighbor, Mr. Murphy. Q: What does the woman’s response mean? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide72:  Listening Practice: Script and Checkup 10. A) The party is going to be put off. B) He is sorry that the woman can’t come to the party. C) The man’s cousin is going to the party, too. D) The woman should bring her cousin to the party. 10. A) The party is going to be put off. B) He is sorry that the woman can’t come to the party. C) The man’s cousin is going to the party, too. D) The woman should bring her cousin to the party. Slide73:  10. M: Lisa, I was wondering if you could come to my birthday party this Saturday evening? W: I’d love to, but my cousin is arriving from Chicago that day. M: That’s no problem. The more the merrier. Q: What does the man imply? Listening Practice: Script and Checkup Slide74:  Assignment 1. Review Text A. 2. Analyze the structure of Text A

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