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Education

Published on March 6, 2008

Author: smith

Source: authorstream.com

Eating Behavior Assessment & Nutrient Needs:  Eating Behavior Assessment & Nutrient Needs Presented by: Janie Eubanks Session Number: 7 Session Date: March 11, 1999 What Determines Food Choices?:  What Determines Food Choices? weight control health food costs family background advertisements emotion nutrition knowledge peers customs/ethnicity physical activity level busy schedule convenience/time Fast Foods:  Fast Foods Popular among all Americans, especially teenagers Can be incorporated into a healthy diet Develop skills to make wise fast food choices Fast Food Characteristics:  Fast Food Characteristics High in fats High in sugars High levels of salt Low in fiber Plentiful amounts of protein Fast Food Summary:  Fast Food Summary Ample amounts of protein, B vitamins, & zinc Smaller amounts of iron Meat/bread groups represented Milk group available Fruit/veggies usually lacking Fast Food Suggestions:  Fast Food Suggestions Order smaller portion sizes Avoid fried foods Request mayo, tartar sauce, “special” sauces, & salad dressings to be omitted Order milk versus a shake Order unsweetened juice, water, unsweetened tea or diet soda versus regular soda Skip sweet desserts NUTRIENTS 6 Classes:  NUTRIENTS 6 Classes Carbohydrates Protein Fat These 3 provide energy (calories) and are used for various body functions. Vitamins Minerals Water These 3 provide no energy, but are essential to life. Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates Provide 4 kcals/gram Provide fuel for most cells in body Richest sources - grains, fruits, veggies, & dairy foods Complex versus simple Fat:  Fat Rich source of energy, 9 calories per gram Needed to transport fat soluble vitamins Cushions & protects internal organs Forms part of all cell membranes Fat Recommendations:  Fat Recommendations Fat is needed but not in excessive amounts Excesses lead to obesity, heart disease Saturated fats believed to be related to heart disease Dietary guidelines recommend fat to provide no more than 30% of total calorie intake, limit saturated fats. Protein:  Protein Provides 4 calories per gram Major structural component of body’s cells & tissues Forms part of hormones, enzymes, antibodies Needed for growth & repair of body tissues Riches sources - meat & dairy Beans, grains, veggies provide some Vitamins & Minerals:  Vitamins & Minerals Vitamins needed in small amounts controls reactions in the body & regulates body processes each vitamin has specific function Minerals major structural component of human body (skeleton) forms part of enzymes used in many functions some needed in larger amounts versus smaller amounts, but all equally important Water:  Water Most vital of all nutrients Can survive without others much longer than water Part of chemical reactions Lubricate joints Cushions organs Temperature regulation Nutrients Often Lacking in Teen Diets:  Nutrients Often Lacking in Teen Diets Calcium Iron Zinc Vitamin A Vitamin C Folate CALCIUM:  CALCIUM If deficient: Possibly porous or brittle bones later in life -- osteoporosis Good sources: Milk products, yogurt, cheese, cottage cheese Dark green leafy veggies Sardines and salmon with bones IRON:  IRON If deficient: Iron deficiency anemia w/ symptoms such as tiredness, weakness Especially common in girls Good sources: Liver, red meats Enriched, fortified or whole grain breads/cereals Dried beans/peas Leafy green veggies Dried fruit Egg yolk ZINC:  ZINC If deficient: Growth retardation Poor male sexual development Often a problem in vegetarians Good sources: Meat, liver Eggs Sea food Whole grain cereals Poultry VITAMIN A:  VITAMIN A If deficient: Visual problems May increase susceptibility to some cancers, skin, lung and bladder Most processed snack foods/fast foods are low in Vit A Good sources: Liver Carrots, sweet pot Dark green leafy veggies Peaches, apricots, cantaloupe Egg yolk VITAMIN C:  VITAMIN C If deficient: Scurvy, swollen, bleeding gums, loose teeth Tiny hemorrhages in skin Decreased appetite and growth Lack of fresh fruits/veggies Good sources: Citrus fruits, strawberries, cantaloupe Dark green leafy veggies, broccoli, cabbage, green peppers Potatoes FOLATE:  FOLATE If deficient: Anemia with symptoms similar to iron deficiency NTD Good sources: Dark green leafy veggies Legumes Whole grain cereals Oranges Food Guide Pyramid:  Food Guide Pyramid Developed by the USDA & Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) Framework for healthy eating for all ages that can be followed a lifetime Flexible - range of servings Promotes moderation and variety in your diet Food Guide Pyramid Food Groups:  Food Guide Pyramid Food Groups Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta Group, 6-11 servings (teens 9-11) Fruit Group, 2-4 servings (teens 3-4) Vegetable Group, 3-5 servings (teens 3-4) Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Group, 2-3 servings (teens 2-3) Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Group, 2-3 servings (teens 3-4) Fat, Oils & Sweet, use sparingly Basis of Food Groups:  Basis of Food Groups Foods within each group have similar nutrient contents Different food groups have different nutrient strengths and weaknesses Combined food groupscan supply all the nutrients needed Varying Amounts of Nutrient Density:  Varying Amounts of Nutrient Density A soda and a bowl of watermelon Each provide about 150 calories Watermelon offers a little protein, some vitamins, minerals & fiber along with the energy Soda provides empty calories Watermelon or any fruit is more nutrient dense than a soda Breads, Cereals & Other Grains Food Group:  Breads, Cereals & Other Grains Food Group Characteristics: provides complex carbs, riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, protein, magnesium & fiber Foods highest in Nutrient Density: whole grains (wheat, oats, barley, rye), enriched breads, rolls, tortillas, cereals, bagels, rice, pastas (macaroni/spaghetti) Breads, Cereal & Other Grains Food Group:  Breads, Cereal & Other Grains Food Group Moderate in Nutrient Density (2nd Choices): pancakes, muffins, cornbread, crackers, cookies, biscuits, presweetened cereals, taco shells, waffles Lowest in Nutrient Density (limit these): croissants, fried rice, doughnuts, pastries, cakes, pies Breads, Cereals & Other Grains Serving Sizes:  Breads, Cereals & Other Grains Serving Sizes 1 slice of bread 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, or pasta 1 oz ready to eat cereal 1/2 bun, bagel or English muffin 1 small roll, biscuit, muffin 3-4 small crackers or 2 large crackers Vegetables Food Group:  Vegetables Food Group Characteristics: provides Vitamin A, Vitamin C, folate, potassium, magnesium, fiber. low in fat and cholesterol Highest in Nutrient Density: bean sprouts, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, corn, carrots, cauliflower, green beans/peas, leafy green veggies, potatoes, tomatoes, winter squash Vegetables Food Group:  Vegetables Food Group Moderate in Nutrient Density (2nd choices): candied sweet potatoes Lowest in Nutrient Density (limit these): french fries, tempura veggies, scalloped potatoes, potato salad Vegetable Serving Sizes:  Vegetable Serving Sizes 1/2 cup cooked or raw vegetables 1 cup leafy raw vegetables 1/2 cup cooked legumes 3/4 cup veg. juice Fruits Food Group:  Fruits Food Group Characteristics: provides Vitamin A, Vitamin C, potassium & fiber low in sodium, fat & cholesterol Foods Highest in Nutrient Density: apricots, cantaloupe, grapefruit, oranges, OJ, peaches, strawberries, apples, bananas, pears, unsweetened juices Fruits Food Group:  Fruits Food Group Foods Moderate in Nutrient Density: canned or frozen (in syrup) sweetened juices Foods Lowest in Nutrient Density: dried fruit coconut, avocados Fruit Serving Sizes :  Fruit Serving Sizes 1 medium apple, banana, or orange 1/2 grapefruit, 1 melon wedge 3/4 cup juice 1/2 cup diced, cooked or canned fruit 1/4 cup dried fruit 1/2 cup berries Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, & Nuts Food Group:  Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, & Nuts Food Group Characteristics: provides protein, phosphorus, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Zinc, Magnesium, Iron, Niacin, & Thiamin Highest in Nutrient Density: poultry (light meat, no skin), fish, shellfish, legumes, egg whites Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Food Group:  Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Food Group Moderate in Nutrient Density: lean meat (fat trimmed beef, lamb, pork), poultry (dark meat, no skin), ham, refried beans, whole eggs, Lowest in Nutrient Density: hot dogs, luncheon meat, ground beef, peanut butter, nuts, sausage, bacon, fried fish or poultry, duck Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Serving Sizes:  Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts Serving Sizes 2-3 oz lean, cooked meat, poultry or fish 1 egg 1/2 cup cooked legumes 4 oz tofu 2 tbsp nuts, seeds, peanut butter as 1 oz meat (about 1/3 serving) Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Food Group:  Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Food Group Characteristics: provides calcium, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B12, and when fortified, Vitamin D & A Highest in Nutrient Density: nonfat & 1% low-fat milk (& nonfat products such as buttermilk, cottage cheese, cheese, yogurt) Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Food Group:  Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Food Group Moderate in Nutrient Density: 2% low-fat (& low-fat products such as yogurt, cheese, cottage cheese, chocolate milk, sherbet, ice milk Lowest in Nutrient Density: whole milk (& whole milk products such as cheese, yogurt); custard, milkshakes, ice cream Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Serving Sizes:  Milk, Yogurt & Cheese Serving Sizes 1 cup of milk or yogurt 2 oz processed cheese food 1 1/2 oz cheddar cheese 1/2 cup ice cream or yogurt Fats, Oils & Sweets Food Group:  Fats, Oils & Sweets Food Group Characteristics: provides sugar, fat, & food energy no servings are suggested because these foods provide few nutrients. use sparingly. Fats, Oils & Sweets Food Group:  Fats, Oils & Sweets Food Group Foods high in fat: margarine, salad dressings, oils, mayonnaise, sour cream, cream cheese, butter, gravy, potato chips, chocolate bars Foods high in sugar: cakes, pies, cookies, doughnuts, sweet rolls, candy, soft drinks, fruit drinks, jelly, syrup, gelatin, desserts, sugar and honey Reading Food Labels:  Reading Food Labels Step 1 10% of calcium, fiber, protein, iron, vitamins A & C Step 2 greater than 10% fat or more than 200 calories per serving What is your score?? Summary:  Summary Think about what you eat - YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT! Eat a variety of foods, use moderation. Follow the Food Guide Pyramid. Read food labels. Independent Practice:  Independent Practice Food Guide Pyramid Checklist Fast Food Fantasy Looking Ahead:  Looking Ahead Food Diaries Fad diets Weight loss smarts Nutrition resources

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