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Published on January 30, 2008

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Life Sciences

Agenda Return of HW & feedback Introduction to Module B The Scientific Method Comprehension Timed practice Vocabulary David Porter Unit 4 Grammar The Passive Voice

Return of HW & feedback

Introduction to Module B

The Scientific Method Comprehension

Timed practice

Vocabulary

David Porter Unit 4

Grammar

The Passive Voice

NRW (Huckabee) Feedback

Some Pointers Whatever , … Whatever the case may be , … Missing articles E.g. the , a , an Explain fully (don’t let readers connect points for themselves) E.g. The teaching pace is no longer adjusted to suit the needs of the average but becomes more flexible to suit the needs of the individual.

Whatever , …

Whatever the case may be , …

Missing articles

E.g. the , a , an

Explain fully (don’t let readers connect points for themselves)

E.g. The teaching pace is no longer adjusted to suit the needs of the average but becomes more flexible

Some Pointers Ensure a clear division between summary & response In my opinion After reading the article Don’t write your opinion as facts In my opinion I feel that / I believe / I think Use hedging words E.g. “ may ”, “ if ” What’s more What is more

Ensure a clear division between summary & response

In my opinion

After reading the article

Don’t write your opinion as facts

In my opinion

I feel that / I believe / I think

Use hedging words

E.g. “ may ”, “ if ”

What’s more

What is more

Most Importantly What’s the purpose of the article heading/title gives the clue Examples are examples. They are not points. Look for salient points.

What’s the purpose of the article

heading/title gives the clue

Examples are examples. They are not points. Look for salient points.

Introduction to Module B

The Scientific Method

1. Give the meaning of the words Collectively and over time As a cohort across generations Non-arbitrary Not randomly but purposefully, educated guess Group of phenomena A collection of happenings/observations Contradict Oppose, challenge, go against Intricately associated Closely involved with

Collectively and over time

As a cohort across generations

Non-arbitrary

Not randomly but purposefully, educated guess

Group of phenomena

A collection of happenings/observations

Contradict

Oppose, challenge, go against

Intricately associated

Closely involved with

2. Explain the rationale behind the “scientific method” in your own words. It is a means of making sure scientific hypotheses and discoveries are made in a systematic and standardised manner which are free from idiosyncratic or arbitrary judgments of individual scientists.

It is a means of making sure scientific hypotheses and discoveries are made in a systematic and standardised manner which are free from idiosyncratic or arbitrary judgments of individual scientists.

3. What are four steps of scientific theory? Using our eyes or senses to make observations or deductions on what we see before us in nature, Formulating or thinking of a hypothesis or a scientific hunch based on observable data, Confirming that the hunch is correct by applying it to predictions of other occurrences or by research such as experimentation; and Seeing if the experiments may be replicated in other applications.

Using our eyes or senses to make observations or deductions on what we see before us in nature,

Formulating or thinking of a hypothesis or a scientific hunch based on observable data,

Confirming that the hunch is correct by applying it to predictions of other occurrences or by research such as experimentation; and

Seeing if the experiments may be replicated in other applications.

4. What does the writer mean by the phrase “experimental science”? He means that this knowledge is derived from having conducted various means, i.e. experiments and other controlled situations. Chemistry, biology, medicine, biochemistry, engineering

He means that this knowledge is derived from having conducted various means, i.e. experiments and other controlled situations.

Chemistry, biology, medicine, biochemistry, engineering

5. Why is it that “experiment is supreme”? The ability to test a hypothesis out by experiment is said to be “supreme” or of paramount importance because if it cannot be tested thus, the hypothesis, in general, cannot be confirmed as being true.

The ability to test a hypothesis out by experiment is said to be “supreme” or of paramount importance because if it cannot be tested thus, the hypothesis, in general, cannot be confirmed as being true.

6. Is an error a bad thing? No, an error is not necessarily a bad thing as an error can also disprove a hypothesis. However, if an error is due to a design flaw in logic or by excluding data erroneously then it would be a bad thing as that might pose a set- back to a discovery being made. Errors nevertheless have to be minimised and there are standard operating procedures for doing so.

No, an error is not necessarily a bad thing as an error can also disprove a hypothesis.

However, if an error is due to a design flaw in logic or by excluding data erroneously then it would be a bad thing as that might pose a set- back to a discovery being made.

Errors nevertheless have to be minimised and there are standard operating procedures for doing so.

7. What are the 3 common mistakes? The three commonest mistakes are to accept a hypothesis without proof, to be biased in data selection in order to prove or disprove a hypothesis; and to exclude or dismiss as a design or experimental quirk any hitherto unexpected finding rather than investigating it properly.

The three commonest mistakes are

to accept a hypothesis without proof,

to be biased in data selection in order to prove or disprove a hypothesis; and

to exclude or dismiss as a design or experimental quirk any hitherto unexpected finding rather than investigating it properly.

8. What is the difference between a hypothesis, a model and a law? A hypothesis is an educated hunch or guess that there are definite reasons or explanation for a certain observable fact. A model is used when a hypothesis can be used to explain some other events but not all events related to the topic being investigated. However, a law is used when a hypothesis or a group of hypotheses are pretty well proven and stable and can be tested repeatedly and reliably. In short, the three terms appear to be in some sort of continuum of what makes scientific truth.

A hypothesis is an educated hunch or guess that there are definite reasons or explanation for a certain observable fact.

A model is used when a hypothesis can be used to explain some other events but not all events related to the topic being investigated.

However, a law is used when a hypothesis or a group of hypotheses are pretty well proven and stable and can be tested repeatedly and reliably.

In short, the three terms appear to be in some sort of continuum of what makes scientific truth.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary David Porter Unit 4 In groups, complete the exercise that has been assigned to you. Vocabulary Sheet 4 p.22 Work out the meanings of the words in the list.

David Porter Unit 4

In groups, complete the exercise that has been assigned to you.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 p.22

Work out the meanings of the words in the list.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 p.22 Phenomenon/phenomena An occurrence, circumstance, or fact that is perceptible by the senses. Physics An observable event. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Phenomenon/phenomena

An occurrence, circumstance, or fact that is perceptible by the senses.

Physics An observable event.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Hypothesis/hypotheses A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation. Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Hypothesis/hypotheses

A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.

Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Theory A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena. An assumption based on limited information or knowledge. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Theory

A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena.

An assumption based on limited information or knowledge.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Theorem An idea that has been demonstrated as true or is assumed to be so demonstrable. Mathematics A proposition that has been or is to be proved on the basis of explicit assumptions. Pythagoras' theorem Source: thefreedictionary.com

Theorem

An idea that has been demonstrated as true or is assumed to be so demonstrable.

Mathematics A proposition that has been or is to be proved on the basis of explicit assumptions.

Pythagoras' theorem

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Superimpose To lay or place (something) on or over something else. To add as a distinct feature, element, or quality. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Superimpose

To lay or place (something) on or over something else.

To add as a distinct feature, element, or quality.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Eliminate To get rid of; remove. To leave out or omit from consideration; reject. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Eliminate

To get rid of; remove.

To leave out or omit from consideration; reject.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Exterminate To get rid of by destroying completely. Eradicate To get rid of as if by tearing up by the roots. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Exterminate

To get rid of by destroying completely.

Eradicate

To get rid of as if by tearing up by the roots.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Embodies the principle To represent in bodily or material form the basic truth. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Embodies the principle

To represent in bodily or material form the basic truth.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 High proportion A part considered in relation to the whole. High ratio. Source: thefreedictionary.com

High proportion

A part considered in relation to the whole.

High ratio.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Induce To infer by inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning - reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. Source: thefreedictionary.com

Induce

To infer by inductive reasoning.

Inductive reasoning - reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.

Vocabulary Sheet 4 Deduce To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning. To infer from a general principle; reason deductively. Deductive reasoning - reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). Source: thefreedictionary.com

Deduce

To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning.

To infer from a general principle; reason deductively.

Deductive reasoning - reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect).

Grammar

The Passive Voice

Someone locks the office every morning. The office is locked every morning. Someone has invited Sarah to the party. Sarah has been invited to the party. We use the passive when we are not interested in who or what does something The factory was painted during the war. Sarah has been invited to the party. I made a mistake. A mistake was made . We also use the passive when we do not want to say who or what does something Compare

We form passive verbs with the different tenses of be (e.g. is, was, is being, have been) + past participle.

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