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3 Hinduism

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Published on December 3, 2007

Author: lusi

Source: authorstream.com

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Mind:  Mind Who am I? What am I? What is it to be human? What makes me a person? What makes me me? The Divided Self :  The Divided Self I think of myself as unified, as being one self. Yet I often feel conflict within myself. How is this possible? The Divided Self :  The Divided Self I must consist of different components. I want to do a I should do a I don’t want to do a Hinduism:  Hinduism Hinduism is the primary religion of India. It regards the Upanishads (-900- -200) as sacred. Henotheism:  Henotheism There are many gods, But all are forms of one being, Brahman. Rg Veda:  Rg Veda “They have styled Him Indra (the Chief of the Gods), Mitra (the Friend), Varuna (the Venerable), Agni (Fire), also the celestial, great-winged Garutma; for although one, poets speak of Him diversely; they say Agni, Yama (Death), and Matarisvan (Lord of breath).” All these gods exist, but as diverse appearances of one God, “the divine architect, the impeller of all, the multiform.” Bhagavad Gita:  Bhagavad Gita “Even those who are devotees of other gods, And worship them permeated with faith, It is only me, son of Kunti, that even they Worship, (tho’) not in the enjoined fashion. For I of all acts of worship Am both the recipient and the Lord. . . .” “I see the gods in Thy body, O God. . . .” Concepts of Brahman:  Concepts of Brahman Nirguna brahman: God without attributes; neti . . . neti (not this) Saguna brahman: God with attributes Attributes of God:  Attributes of God Abstract: Sat: being Chit: awareness Ananda: bliss Concrete Creator (Brahma) Preserver (Vishnu) Destroyer (Shiva) Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma:  Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma Shiva:  Shiva Six orthodox schools (darshanas):  Six orthodox schools (darshanas) Vedanta (end of Veda, or sacred knowledge) Samkhya (nature) Yoga (discipline) Purva Mimamsa (exegesis, interpretation) Vaisesika (realism) Nyaya (logic) Vedanta:  Vedanta Brahman: the Absolute, ground of all being, reality as it is in itself Atman: the soul. Advaita:  Advaita Nondualism: soul (atman) = Brahman Monism: Everything is ultimately one Everything is Brahman Brahman is the child and the elephant, you and me We are one with everything Everything is holy Advaita:  Advaita Idealism: The world as it appears is not real Distinctions are illusory The world is maya (play, illusion) Theism:  Theism Dualism: soul (atman) ≠ Brahman Not everything is identical with everything else Realism: Some aspects of the world are independent of us At least some distinctions are real Samkhya:  Samkhya “Analysis of nature” Dualism: reality consists of two irreducible elements: nature (prakrti) and the conscious being (purusa). Strands (gunas) of nature:  Strands (gunas) of nature sattva (light, clarity, intelligence) rajas (passion, dynamism) tamas (darkness, inertia, stupidity) Conscious being:  Conscious being the body and senses the sensational or emotional mind (manas) the ego-sense (ahamkdra) the rational mind, or intelligence (buddhi) Katha Upanishad:  Katha Upanishad Know thou the soul as riding in a chariot, The body as the chariot. Know thou the intellect as the chariot-driver, And the mind as the reins. The senses, they say, are the horses; The objects of sense, what they range over. The self combined with senses and mind Wise men call "the enjoyer." Hindu Self:  Hindu Self Plato & Hinduism:  Plato & Hinduism Plato's chariot has no passenger. Plato's horses are desire and emotion, not the senses. Plato’s picture is closer to the Hindu account of the strands (intelligence, passion, inertia) than to the distinction between soul, intellect, mind, and senses. Mind, Body, and Soul:  Mind, Body, and Soul • The soul is separable from body, mind, and intellect Separability of the soul:  Separability of the soul Consequences: • Enlightenment: You can detach yourself from each manifestation of nature • Reincarnation: The soul may occupy a different body and mind. The self is a hierarchy :  The self is a hierarchy Great Self Intellect Mind Objects of sense Senses To master yourself:  To master yourself Higher items must control lower items firmly: Objects of sense —> senses: be objective, see the world as it is. Pay attention! Mind —> objects of sense: be active, focus! Intellect —> mind: reason —> thoughts and emotions Soul —> intellect: Brahman is ultimate reality; follow path of renunciation Path of desire:  Path of desire Pleasure But the self is too small Success: wealth, fame, power Exclusive, competitive, precarious Insatiable Self is too small Rewards are ephemeral Path of renunciation:  Path of renunciation Duty: Service to Community Transitory Imperfect Tragic Liberation (moksha) Four ways:  Four ways Strands: Intelligence —> passion Intelligence —> inertia Yoga, discipline Four kinds of yoga:  Four kinds of yoga Jnana yoga: knowledge Bhakti yoga: love (devotion) Karma yoga: work Raja yoga: meditation Raja Yoga:  Raja Yoga Ethical restraints Ethical observances Asanas (postures) Breath control Withdrawal of the senses Meditation Meditation, 1:  Meditation, 1 Concentration: “binding the mind to a single spot” Meditation, 2:  Meditation, 2 “Meditation”: “cessation of the fluctuations of mind and (self-)awareness” Meditation, 3:  Meditation, 3 Mystic trance: “illumination only of the object as object, empty, as it were, of what it essentially is” Goals of Meditation:  Goals of Meditation Aloneness (kaivalya): “reversal of the course of the strands, now empty of meaning and value” Liberation (mukti) Ethics in the Gita:  Ethics in the Gita Divine command theory: God’s command is what makes right action right “Perform thou action that is (religiously) required”) Western examples (14th - 16th centuries): William of Ockham (Occam), Luther, Calvin What is religiously required?:  What is religiously required? Liberation: “Be thou free from the three Strands” Ignore consequences: “On action alone be thy interest, Never on its fruits” The Euthyphro Problem:  The Euthyphro Problem Euthyphro: What is right is what the gods love Socrates: Is it right because the gods love it, or Do the gods love it because it is right? Ethics and Religion:  Ethics and Religion If the gods love it because it is right, There is an independent standard of right and wrong We can describe it independently of religion A divine command is just a guide It does not define what is right Divine Command Theory:  Divine Command Theory If it is right because the gods love it, There is no independent standard Ethics cannot be separated from religion We cannot morally evaluate the divine Five ethical restraints:  Five ethical restraints Noninjury (ahimsa): Do not harm Property: Do not steal Chastity: Do not fornicate Truthfulness: Do not lie Lack of avarice: Do not covet Five observances:  Five observances Cleanliness Contentment Self-control Studiousness Contemplation of the divine Stages of life:  Stages of life Student Habits, skills, information Householder Pleasure, success, duty Retirement Understanding, philosophy Renunciation

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