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Published on January 28, 2008

Author: Massimo

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Introduction to Project Management session 2:  Introduction to Project Management session 2 What, Where, When, Whom and How – part 2 :  What, Where, When, Whom and How – part 2 An Introduction to Project Management Session no 2 Programme:  Programme Recap and review of session 1 Homework review Quad Charts revisited Stakeholders revisited Risk Analysis – concepts Summary and close Project management and QUAD charts – a review:  Project management and QUAD charts – a review Project Life Cycle:  Project Life Cycle Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) DO PLAN REVIEW Conception Phase (The Idea) Definition Phase (The Plan) Initiation Phase (The Team) Implementation Phase (The Work) The Quad Chart - Guided Tour:  The Quad Chart - Guided Tour WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? NAME/TITLE Planning is an iterative process:  Planning is an iterative process TITLE PURPOSE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES) CUSTOMER OR AUDIENCE (DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS) DESIRED END RESULT (CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS) MEASURES OF SUCCESS (STANDARDS / CRITERIA) Stakeholders vs Audience:  Stakeholders vs Audience The “definition” of stakeholder that we have been using so far is that a stakeholder is “anybody who is affected/impacted by what you are trying to do”. It is usually taken to infer that it primarily includes those people who are affected by the project; and therefore have an interest in it. Stakeholders – ‘UCCASSDO’:  Stakeholders – ‘UCCASSDO’ User Customer or Client Consumer Audience Supporter Supplier Driver Other It may be useful at this stage to use the term Audience rather than stakeholder:  It may be useful at this stage to use the term Audience rather than stakeholder Using ‘Audience’ might allow us to involve more people. It allows us to look at people/parties who are affected by/impacted by our project AND those who may not be affected by it……but may be interested in it. And it might be necessary to consider them Audience might include:  Audience might include A range of regulatory bodies, The Local Council and/or councillors MPs Environment Agency Professional bodies Health & Safety Executive So we have a slightly revised Quad Chart :  So we have a slightly revised Quad Chart TITLE PURPOSE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES) AUDIENCE (DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS) DESIRED END RESULT (CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS) MEASURES OF SUCCESS (STANDARDS / CRITERIA) WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? MEASURABLE / UNMEASURABLE QUALITATIVE / QUANTITATIVE Desired outcomes or critical outcomes for project success?:  Desired outcomes or critical outcomes for project success? It’s also useful at this stage to refine our QUAD chart a little more by thinking about Critical Success Factors rather than desired outcomes. Desired outcomes are less specific. Critical outcomes are those that are essential for the project to be successful Quad Chart :  Quad Chart TITLE PURPOSE (AIMS/OBJECTIVES) AUDIENCE (DRIVERS / SUPPORTERS / OBSERVERS) (DESIRED END RESULT) CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS MEASURES OF SUCCESS (STANDARDS / CRITERIA) WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? MEASURABLE / UNMEASURABLE QUALITATIVE / QUANTITATIVE What about ‘thing’s that aren’t critical?:  What about ‘thing’s that aren’t critical? Maybe they are secondary benefits or underlying things - values, passion, ethics? Quad Chart (with 7 boxes):  Quad Chart (with 7 boxes) SECONDARY BENEFITS (UNMEASURABLE) Slide17:  It’s often the underlying values, passion and ethics that are ‘what the project is all about’ or that ‘buys people in’ to it. Particularly important to consider it. Homework Review – How was it for you?:  Homework Review – How was it for you? Too easy………? That’s why we need to review our QUAD charts And consider the audience as well as the stakeholders… The next stage:  The next stage Reviewing our QUAD chart Converting desired outcomes into critical success factors Broadening out the stakeholders into an audience Checking that our list of assumptions is still valid and correct QUAD charts refined:  QUAD charts refined Using a real life example of a project for schools in Hull LEA or we can use one or more of your projects? We will look at what has been written by the new project manager in each of the four QUAD chart boxes EXAMPLE QUAD chart Purpose (Aims & Objectives):  EXAMPLE QUAD chart Purpose (Aims & Objectives) To develop a strategy for best practice in the use of ICT & E-learning in Hull Schools To increase & expand the use of ICT in teaching for Hull schools Develop an ICT based CPD route for Hull teachers  To assist in the raising of attainment through the effective use of ICT and E-learning, including improving student’s attitudes towards learning To improve school’s retention of teaching staff Audience (Stakeholders, Customers, Users, Consumers) :  Audience (Stakeholders, Customers, Users, Consumers) Hull LEA Hull teachers TCS scheme University of Hull CASS Dept University of Hull Computer Science Dept Parents of pupils Training providers Measures of Success (Standards/ Criteria) :  Measures of Success (Standards/ Criteria) Actual changes in classroom practice Actual achievements in ICT capability Strategy in place within the LEA CPD route for all teachers written into the strategy Eventual improvement in the retention of teachers’ figures Eventual reflection of improved teaching/learning experience through GCSE/SAT results (long term) The financial benefits associated with the longer term measures of success The publication of project/research findings Desired End Result (Critical Success Factors) - CSFs:  Desired End Result (Critical Success Factors) - CSFs To be able to demonstrate ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes/practice towards the use of ICT in classrooms To have developed a strategy for local and regional implementation To have received feedback reinforcing the satisfaction of objectives To be able to disseminate findings The SMART acronym:  The SMART acronym Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timebound The CRAP acronym:  The CRAP acronym Correct (and Clear) Relevant (and Refined) Accurate Precise (and Pragmatic) TASK 1: Evaluating Critical Success Factors & Measures:  TASK 1: Evaluating Critical Success Factors & Measures Critical Success Factors - are they actually measurable? Are they SMART? Are CRAP? Are measures quantitative (using figures) or qualitative? In what way can they be measured? (+ how?) Do we have things that are really secondary benefits rather than CSFs? Example using one of the CSFs or we can use one of yours:  Example using one of the CSFs or we can use one of yours “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”. Is there a measure? Measure – there is none Solution – construct a survey of attitudes before and after the implementation of a strategy. Example using one of the CSFs:  Example using one of the CSFs “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”. Where should the apostrophe be? Hmm – let’s see the next slide Example using one of the CSFs:  Example using one of the CSFs “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers attitudes towards the use of ICT in the classroom”. Where is the missing apostrophe? Are we talking about one teacher – teacher’s ? Are we talking about all teachers – teachers’ ? It is attitudes not attitude, therefore it’s teachers’. Example:  Example “to be able to demonstrate a ‘real’ change in teachers’ practice in the use of ICT in the classroom” . Measure – actual changes in classroom practice. Solution – establish an ‘as is’ picture of current practices and compare them with practices at a given point in time in future. (and this might be a whole project within itself). Key question you should ask:  Key question you should ask A Key question “Is the project a failure without this?”. If the answer is No then it is not a critical success factor. That’s slightly different from asking “is this necessary for the project to be successful?” Group Work Exercise:  Group Work Exercise CSFs - are they actually measurable? Are they SMART? Are they CRAP? Do the CSFs relate to the rest of the QUAD chart? Do we have things that are really secondary benefits rather than CSFs? Are measures quantitative (using figures) or qualitative? In what way can they be measured? (+ how?) Stakeholders revisited:  Stakeholders revisited Establishing and Identifying who your stakeholders & audience are. We’ll use audience for this part of the process. Remember UCCASSDO acronym UCASSADO acronym:  UCASSADO acronym User Customer or Client Consumer Audience Supporter Supplier Driver Other Motivation – why bother identifying who our audience is?:  Motivation – why bother identifying who our audience is? Ensures that you don’t miss people that have roles in the project (i.e. those people that need to be informed or involved). Ensures you take account of their views if you need to. Which is not quite the same as ensuring you take account of their views if you want to. Need and want :  Need and want We (and the various members of the audience and stakeholders) might want our project to do many things. These things are almost certainly not the same as what we need our project to do. Re-visit the Quad chart - is it as specific and precise as it could be… You might not be able to satisfy everyone. Tools and techniques Categorising your audience:  Tools and techniques Categorising your audience Internal - within the department or organisation. Upper management Project team Groups who might be included e.g. Finance Groups or individuals with specific knowledge or interest Tools and techniques Categorising your audience:  Tools and techniques Categorising your audience External – outside of the department or organisation Clients or customers Regulatory agencies Suppliers and subcontractors The public Specific ones to your project Categorising your audience:  Categorising your audience Drivers – those who have a say in defining the result your project is to achieve. Supporters – those who help you perform your project. This includes doers and those that authorise resources. (people in Finance?). Observers – those that are interested in the activities and results of the project, but do not actually have a say in the objectives or how it is done. Project champion:  Project champion Person in a high position in the organisation who strongly supports the project. Very important to have one if at all possible. Likely to be, but not always, your line manager Finding a project champion:  Finding a project champion They must have: Sufficient power and authority to resolve conflicts over resources, schedules and technical issues, Keen interest in the results your project will produce A willingness to have their name cited as a strong supporter of your project When to involve them:  When to involve them Drivers – highest involvement at the conception definition and evaluation stages. Supporters – moderate involvement at the conception stage. Higher involvement during the rest of the project. Unless supporters are involved in trying to generate income for the project in which case they need high involvement during early stages. Observers – minimal involvement during the whole the project? Possibly; it depends on your project. When to involve your audience:  When to involve your audience How to involve your audience?:  How to involve your audience? The prime skill required here of the effective project manager is that of excellent communication skills. One-to-one meetings Group meetings - Formal and informal written correspondence Email, telephone correspondence Marketing publicity Group work Categorise Your Audience:  Group work Categorise Your Audience Categorise audience as internal or external Categorise audience as a driver, supporter or observer Include additional individuals / groups that might have been missed Is there a clear project champion? Tool & Technique STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS A more detailed version :  Tool & Technique STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS A more detailed version   The identification of a project's key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests and the ways in which these interests affect the project and its viability. Classifying stakeholders:  Classifying stakeholders Stakeholders = persons, groups, or institutions with an interest or interests in a project. A stakeholder may not necessarily be involved/included in the decision making process. (i.e. we are now including audience as part of the stakeholders) Primary stakeholders = those who are ultimately affected either positively (aka winners or beneficiaries) or negatively (losers). Secondary stakeholders = the intermediaries Why carry out a stakeholder analysis? :  Why carry out a stakeholder analysis? Draws out the interests of stakeholders in relation to the problems which the project is seeking to address.  Identifies conflicts of interest and potential conflict. VERY important! – Need & Want !  Identifies viability and impact other than in pure financial terms (includes social not just economic factors). VERY important; but often ignored.  Helps provide an overall picture  Helps identify relationships between different stakeholders - helps possible coalition. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO:  STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO 1 Draw up a stakeholder table identifying who the stakeholders are. 2 Assess each stakeholder's importance and their relative power/influence.  E.g high importance but low influence, or low importance but high influence.  Can rank/rate each stakeholder's importance from 0 (zero importance) to 10 (vital). Could rank from A to Z STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO :  STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS - HOW TO 3 Identify risks and assumptions which will affect the project's success. What do we assume each stakeholder's response is if the project is successful? Are these assumptions realistic? Are there negative responses? What impact will negative responses have? Example - Stakeholder Analysis table There are 4 different versions on the website:  Example - Stakeholder Analysis table There are 4 different versions on the website BUT:  BUT The importance, influence and interest of a stakeholder can vary over the duration of the project. How do you prioritise yet take account of this? Depends on the length of your project. For long projects you may need to do a stakeholder analysis for each of the project’s different stages. Or you could average it out? Group work - Stakeholder Analysis :  Group work - Stakeholder Analysis Identify the stakeholders Identify each stakeholder’s interest in the project’s success (overall, or start, middle, end). Identify each stakeholder’s importance in/to the project’s success (overall, or start, middle, end). Identify each stakeholder’s influence on the project’s success (overall, or start, middle, end). Rank their priority (overall, or start, middle, end) see next slide for information about ranking. Ranking a stakeholder’s priority:  Ranking a stakeholder’s priority You can use High, medium, low Very high, high, medium, low, very low. 0-100 0-10 A-Z It’s the process that’s important not what scale or rating you use. Risk & Risk Management:  Risk & Risk Management Risk – All projects are a balance between 3 main things:  Risk – All projects are a balance between 3 main things The resource(s) you have and their cost. The project’s (product’s) specification – what it is supposed to do. Time – the project’s schedule. Remember the project manager’s adage :  Remember the project manager’s adage You can have any two of three things in a project: You can get it done on time You can get it done within budgeted cost You can get it done properly/well  If you are willing to wait, you can get the job done right, within cost.  If you are willing to spend the money, you can get the job done on time. Or you can get the job done on time and within budget; only it might not do what it was supposed to do. The Constraint Triangle:  The Constraint Triangle RESOURCE (COST) SCHEDULE (TIME) PRODUCT (SPECIFICATION) Constraint Triangle – can give a useful overall picture as part of the decision making process. Ask the question “What’s most important?”:  Constraint Triangle – can give a useful overall picture as part of the decision making process. Ask the question “What’s most important?” RESOURCE (COST) SCHEDULE (TIME) PRODUCT (SPECIFICATION) Cost? Time? Meeting the spec? All equally impt? Some examples of different priorities:  Some examples of different priorities Depending upon the type of project some types of risk may be more or less acceptable Example ‘daily newspaper project’:  Example ‘daily newspaper project’ THE most important factor is to get the newspaper printed and in the shops in time. If it’s too late and the project overruns in time by even a few hours then the whole project is a failure. Time is the priority Example ‘healthcare project’:  Example ‘healthcare project’ If it overruns by a few weeks then that may be far less important than it actually being a successful project which produces a measurable improvement in patient care. Meeting the specification is the priority Example ‘new product project’:  Example ‘new product project’ If it overruns on time then we may be late to market and suffer competitive disadvantage – but the project may not be a total failure. Time is the priority If it overruns on resource costs then the project may still be a success as we have a new product. Example ‘a new-improved product’:  Example ‘a new-improved product’ If it overuns on cost then the project is deemed to be a total failure as costs exceed our anticipated future profit from the new improvement. Cost is the priority What is most important for your project? :  What is most important for your project? Would you still have a successful outcome if you overrun on: Cost Time People resources Material resources Or fail to meet your exact specification? Exercise:  Exercise Place a coin on the constraint triangle where you feel happy Is this for the whole project? Or: The start? The middle? The end? Secondary benefits:  Secondary benefits Consider at this stage if your secondary benefits are perhaps more important than you had up to now thought them to be. What is risk?:  What is risk? Risk is the possibility that you may not achieve: Product/project specification – it doesn’t do what it was supposed to do Schedule target - the project is late Resource target – the project costs too much or uses too much staff time Project risk increases:  Project risk increases The longer your project runs The longer the time span between completion of the project schedule and actually starting work The less experience you, your team, your organisation has of carrying out similar projects The newer the technology or work approach being used Tool & Technique Risk Management:  Tool & Technique Risk Management The process of identifying possible risks Assessing their potential impact Developing plans for minimising their negative effects Reviewing them throughout the project But first - Risk Management Strategies That Won’t Work:  But first - Risk Management Strategies That Won’t Work Slide73:  The ostrich approach: Ignoring risks or pretending they don’t exist Slide74:  The prayer approach: Looking to a higher being to solve all your problems or make them disappear Slide75:  Denial: Recognising what risks may cause problems, but refusing to accept that they will occur on your project Risk Management:  Risk Management The process of identifying possible risks Assessing their potential impact Developing plans for minimising their negative effects Reviewing them throughout the project Risk management is effective anticipation in action “But what are the chances of it going wrong? :  “But what are the chances of it going wrong? Murphy's law is a popular adage that broadly states that things will go wrong in any given situation, if you give them a chance. “If there's more than one possible outcome of a job or task, and one of those outcomes will result in disaster or an undesirable consequence, then somebody will do it that way." It is most often cited as "Whatever can go wrong, will go wrong" (or, alternately, "Whatever can go wrong will go wrong, and at the worst possible time," or, "Anything that can go wrong, will," or even, "If anything can go wrong, it will, and usually at the most inopportune moment"). The saying is sometimes referred to as Sod’s Law or Finagle’s Law which can also be rendered as "Anything that can go wrong, will—at the worst possible moment". (source http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murphy's_law Sept 2007) Categorising Risk:  Categorising Risk Slide79:  So, that’s why we have risk assessment ! Slide80:  External Environment Things outside of the projects direct control that may result in its failure, but can be identified and monitored via a watching brief, e.g.:. fire, flood, famine, pestilence and war! Internal Environment: Those that can occur as part of the project itself - something can usually be done about these Internal / External Risks Exercise:  Exercise For your project identify/categorise risk by internal and external Influence and Control What is under your control & influence for your project?:  Influence and Control What is under your control & influence for your project? What can you control ? (and ergo do something about) What can you influence but not control? What is outside your control? Tool and Technique – The Influence and Control list:  Tool and Technique – The Influence and Control list Simply identify (perhaps brainstorm to do this?) and list under 3 categories. Things you can control ? Things you can influence but not control? Things which you can neither influence nor control. Exercise:  Exercise Produce an Influence and Control list for your project Constraint Risks:  Constraint Risks Product risk A risk that prevents you from meeting the product/project specification Schedule risk A risk that prevents project element from being completed on time Resource risk A risk that prevents enough or appropriate resources from being available to complete a project element Risk Likelihood / Impact:  Risk Likelihood / Impact How likely is the risk? Low, Medium, High Or Extremely Unlikely (will happen once in a blue moon), Unlikely, Medium, Likely. Extremely Likely (it’s going to happen) Or numerically rank from 0-10 or 0-100 What to do with risk:  What to do with risk Try to reduce the chances of the ‘thing’ happening. Try to reduce the impact/affect if the ‘thing’ happens. For example the Motorbike rider:  For example the Motorbike rider Reduces the chances of potential accident happening. By: riding defensively, wearing bright reflective clothing, keeping a headlight on. Reduces the impact/affect of actual accident. By: wearing body armour, helmet which meets British standard, gloves, boots, leathers/clothing with CE approved armour. The motorbike rider:  The motorbike rider No activity is risk free. The only way s/he could reduce all risks is to stop riding the bike and use and alternative form of transport (e.g. car, bicycle, roller blades, walk). Each of these will also involve some element of risk. In your project you cannot remove all risk – only minimise the chances and its affects Risk - known & unknown risk:  Risk - known & unknown risk Sometimes you may not know enough about the risk. A known unknown – information you don’t have but someone else does. Deal with this by finding out from others… An unknown unknown – information that you don’t have because it doesn’t yet exist. Deal with unknown unknowns by developing contingency plans to be followed if/when you find out the information. Tool & Technique Risk Assessment Risk Analysis Grid:  Tool & Technique Risk Assessment Risk Analysis Grid Tool & Technique A version of the Boston Chart:  Tool & Technique A version of the Boston Chart High Risk Low Return High Risk High Return Low Risk High Return Low Risk Low Return The modified Boston Chart:  The modified Boston Chart High Risk, Low Return – Avoid like the plague Low Risk, High Return – Everyone’s a winner High Risk, High Return - May be worth doing – depending on how high the risk and how high the return. Needs careful consideration Low Risk, Low Return – why bother, a waste of time (unless you are new to managing projects and want to gain experience and practice) Familiarity & Risk:  Familiarity & Risk Risk is higher if we are dealing with the unfamiliar. The task itself may be unfamiliar. The setting may be unfamiliar. We can help identify what is and what is not familiar using a risk identity grid. Either for the whole project or for major parts of it. Tool & Technique The Project Familiarity Grid:  Tool & Technique The Project Familiarity Grid But be wary….:  But be wary…. It may be the case that we are familiar with the task and setting (the project) overall, but there may be one part of it with which we are not familiar. Be wary of assuming too much. It might be the case that this one part which we are unfamiliar with will mean catastrophe for the project if it goes wrong in some way. Group exercise:  Group exercise Produce a risk assessment grid – simple version or advanced version either for the whole project or for major parts of it Do you still want to undertake the project? What often happens is that we have already committed to do it BEFORE we’ve evaluated its risk, benefit or our familiarity with it!!:  Do you still want to undertake the project? What often happens is that we have already committed to do it BEFORE we’ve evaluated its risk, benefit or our familiarity with it!! Do you need to change the project?:  Do you need to change the project? Downsize it to reduce risk – two or three smaller successful projects are much better than one large project which fails. Perhaps you can you change a particularly risky area and still achieve the project’s aims? PESTLE Analysis:  PESTLE Analysis Primarily a technique used for predicting the affects of external influences on an organisation. Frequently used for organisational change management. It’s useful for medium-large scale projects. Not really necessary for small scale projects The PESTLE(S) acronym:  The PESTLE(S) acronym Political Economic Social Technological Legal Environmental (Safety) PESTLE Analysis ‘how to’ 5 steps:  PESTLE Analysis ‘how to’ 5 steps 1 List external PESTLE factors for the project - may need to brainstorm and have expert knowledge for this. 2 Identify the implications of each PESTLE factor for the project. 3 Decide the importance of the implications of the external factors – rank or rate them. Normally this involves assessing their: impact over time, impact by type (positive or negative affects) and impact by dynamics (ie is the significance and/or importance of the implication increasing, decreasing or remaining unchanged). PESTLE Analysis ‘how to’5 steps:  PESTLE Analysis ‘how to’5 steps 4 Rate the importance of the implication to the project (e.g. using: critical, very impt, impt, significant, insignificant). This may be further refined by ranking the likelihood of it happening (e.g. using: will happen, extremely likely, very likely, likely, unlikely, remote chance of happening, will not happen). 5 Scenario building. Or ‘what if..’ Used to develop scenarios of different alternative futures for the organisation. Example PESTLE Analysis grid:  Example PESTLE Analysis grid Internal = I can control/affect it. External = I cannot control it Complete one box in LHS for each ‘thing’ which may change. Aim for 5-10 things for each of the 6 PESTLE factors. What Have We Done Today?:  What Have We Done Today? Reviewed and better understood project planning using Quad Chart Analysis Critical Success Factors, Measures & Stakeholders Assessed risks in a project Likelihood vs Impact Internal / External Boston Chart of Risk Project Familiarity Grid Homework Self study:  Homework Self study 1 Review your QUAD chart, ask for other people’s opinions and feedback. Keep a copy of the original and then produce a modified version which is more accurate. You may need to produce quite a few versions before you get it right. 2 Review your set of assumptions, modify, check, improve. 3 Produce a Stakeholder Analysis grid broken using the more advanced stakeholder analysis grid. Consider audience as internal, external and driver, supporter, observer. Consider conflicts – need and want. There’s more on the next slide… Homework self study:  Homework self study 4 Produce a Risk Analysis chart using the simple risk analysis grid for the stakeholders 5 List any new assumptions you have made and modify your list. 6 Ask colleagues for feedback on the above to help improve their accuracy, save on disc and print out. Bring paper copy to the next session. Next Session:  Next Session Work Break Down Structures: How to organise and schedule work into manageable chunks. Critical Path Analysis: How to identify dependencies Gantt Charts: How to monitor a project’s progress http://www.hull.ac.uk/workbasedlearning/

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