23 Feb 06 Mahan

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Information about 23 Feb 06 Mahan

Published on February 26, 2008

Author: Woodwork

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  “An untroubled assurance of peace is no guarantee that war will not come.” Sea Power and Maritime Affairs: The Age of Mahan NS2, Spring 2006 LTCOL S.F. MITCHELL International Affairs - Late 19th Century:  International Affairs - Late 19th Century “Pax Britannica” Era of peace continues - British Empire dominates the seas. Japan - Meiji Restoration Continued increase in foreign trade. Rapid modernization begins. German and Italian unifications - 1870-71. Continued collapse of Ottoman Empire through 1800’s. Balkan Peninsula: Independence of European states. New era of European imperialism: European powers vigorously compete to establish colonies on remaining world territories. Post-Civil War U.S. Navy:  Post-Civil War U.S. Navy 1865-1870 -- Decline of the Navy. Large reductions in naval appropriations: 700 to 52 ships. Isolationism due to the need for: Reconstruction of the South. Continued westward expansion. Primary mission: Protection of maritime trade overseas. Naval Doctrine Commerce raiding and coastal defense still emphasized. Alabama Claims -- 1871-2 International arbitration at Geneva. Based on Union merchant ships captured by Confederate commerce raiders which were built in Great Britain. Great Britain pays United States large award. Evolution of Armaments:  Evolution of Armaments Muzzle loaders to breech loaders. Safety and rate of fire increases. Rifled guns. Increased accuracy and ranges. Mounting of guns. Hydraulic recoil mechanisms. Cartridge shells. Round and charge are combined. Rate of fire increases. Greater penetrating power and range. Self-propelled torpedo: Invented by Englishman Robert Whitehead in 1866. Low Cost Weapons vs “Capital” Ships :  Low Cost Weapons vs “Capital” Ships Capital ships: Large ships with heavy guns - core of a battle fleet. Battleships (Heavily armored). Cruisers (Faster but less heavily armored than battleships). New low cost weapons: Self-propelled torpedoes launched from “torpedo boats”. Mines - Stationary torpedoes to protect coastlines and ports. Countermeasures against low cost weapons: Continued advances in compartmentation. New ship types: “Torpedo boat destroyer” shortened to just “destroyer” used to screen capital ships from torpedo attacks. Minesweepers used to clear minefields. Technological Innovations: Propulsion :  Technological Innovations: Propulsion More efficient steam engines developed. Increases in speed. Longer ranges. Coaling stations required at regular intervals while transiting overseas. Further incentive to acquire overseas colonies. Oil is beginning to be used as fuel Many ships still use sail as alternate means of propulsion. Hybrids with stacks and sails. New Propulsion Ships Coaling:  New Propulsion Ships Coaling Revolving Turret:  Revolving Turret Countermeasures:  Countermeasures Continued advances in compartmentation. New ship types: “Torpedo boat destroyer” shortened to just “destroyer” used to screen capital ships from torpedo attacks. Minesweepers used to clear minefields. Torpedoes:  Torpedoes Torpedo in Action:  Torpedo in Action Torpedo Boat:  Torpedo Boat Rebirth of the U.S. Navy:  Rebirth of the U.S. Navy Naval Institute established by naval officers - 1873. Proceedings - professional journal for naval personnel. Naval funding begins to increase in 1880. ABC ships (cruisers) - construction begins in 1883. Followed by two more much faster (battleships Maine and Texas) in 1885 Steam primary Steel hulls and heavy armor. Rifled breech-loading guns. Rebirth of the U.S. Navy:  Rebirth of the U.S. Navy Office of Naval Intelligence established - 1882. Naval War College established - 1884. More Battleships - construction begins in 1889. Engineering Duty Officers enter the Line -- 1899. Increased importance of technical knowledge is apparent. Naval War College:  Naval War College Commerce raiding and coastal defense Strategies seem obsolete to an influential group of American naval leaders. Commodore Stephen B. Luce Establishes Naval War College in 1885 at Newport, Rhode Island to: “Apply modern scientific methods to the study and raise naval warfare from the empirical stage to the dignity of a science.” Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan is one of the first instructors to serve under Luce, followed him as President. Slide16:  “An untroubled assurance of peace is no guarantee that war will not come.” Mahan’s Beliefs:  Mahan’s Beliefs Progress in human history can be explained through the dialectic clash of forces in inherently in opposition to one another War is the earthly manifestation of dialectical conflict in the universe Limitations on warfighting deny the historical inevitability of war Historians can uncover the “truth” by finding favor with God. “Command of the Sea” hinges on tactically and strategically applying Jomini’s concepts of “concentration” War at sea is rightfully settled between concentrated fleets of battleships. The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783:  The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783 Published in 1890 - Mahan’s first book. Based on series of Naval War College lectures. Strong arguments for the U.S.: Maintaining naval strength during peacetime. Building a fleet of capital ships. Acquiring colonies abroad for secure coaling stations. Ideas strongly appeals to: - Industrialists - Merchants - Nationalists - Imperialists Mahan’s Principle Conditions affecting the Seapower of Nations:  Mahan’s Principle Conditions affecting the Seapower of Nations Geographic Position Physical Conformation Extent of Territory Size of Population Character of the People Character of the Government = UNITED STATES Mahan’s Strategy Summarized:  Mahan’s Strategy Summarized What is a navy’s function? Answer: Command of the seas. How should a navy be deployed? Answer: Battle fleets. Where should the coaling stations needed to support them be established? Answer: Near geographic "choke-points”. What is the value of commerce destruction, and should this be a primary or secondary goal of naval action? Answer: It cannot win wars (CSS Alabama) -- secondary mission. Impact of Mahan:  Impact of Mahan Validates naval and colonial policies of European powers, Russian Empire, and Japan. Increasing naval arms race in Europe until World War I, especially between Germany and Great Britain. Building large fleets of capital ships in late 1800’s. Writings become required reading of naval officers. Further colonization of Africa and Asia. United States Not as quick to accept Mahan’s teachings as other countries. President Theodore Roosevelt will use them as the foundation of his naval policy in the early 1900’s. Slide22:  TECHNOLOGY GEOPOLITICS INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT ECONOMY SHIFT SECURE BORDERS WESTWARD EXPANSION Levels of War:  Levels of War Strategic Operational Tactical Slide24:  Sea  power  is  the  sum  of  a  nation’s capabilities (physical, demographic, geographic, economic and military resources) to implement its interests on the ocean,   by   using   the   ocean   areas   for political, economic, security, and military interests in peace or war in order to attain national objectives with  principal  components  of sea  power  being  naval  power,  ocean science, ocean  industry,  and  ocean  commerce. Key Elements and Roles:  Key Elements and Roles An instrument of foreign policy Congress vs. Navy Inter-service rivalry Technology Leadership Strategy and tactics Naval Doctrine Prospects for future missions The Navy as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy:  The Navy as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy 19th century – commercial expansion and showing the flag 20th century – “Making the world safe for democracy” Mahanian “command of the sea” through battle fleet engagements “Power projection” throughout the world, especially beyond Europe Interaction between Congress and the Navy:  Interaction between Congress and the Navy Funding is the crucial issue in every era Congressional attitudes determine the size of the Navy, as well as its composition Interservice relations:  Interservice relations A certain tension has always existed between the Army and the Navy, compounded by the creation of an independent Air Force At times, has impeded successful implementation of strategy Goal  cooperative effort between services Slide29:  1980s and 1990s  “jointness” Efforts by Congress and DoD 1990s and early 2000s  new era of joint operations Joint commands possess great power and have been called upon to use it with increasing frequency Technology:  Technology Categories: Hull, armor, ordnance, propulsion Other: Surface, subsurface, air, space, communications (+SIGINT) Technology and strategysymbiotic relationship Changes in one induce anticipated and unanticipated changes in the other Leadership:  Leadership Leaders are always key Combat leaders vs. distinguished strategists, etc. Do we need both? How has the Navy selected and groomed its leaders? Representative leaders Qualities of greatness, reasons for successes, instances of failures Strategy and Tactics: The Navy at War:  Strategy and Tactics: The Navy at War Varied definitions of strategy over time Today vs. Mahan? Tactics vs. Strategy Study Naval wars to look at interactions: National policy Alliance systems Naval strategy Leadership Logistics Popular opinion Naval Doctrine and its Evolution:  Naval Doctrine and its Evolution Mahan (1890) Abandon guerre de course and commerce raiding Adopt battle fleets Capital ships Fleets of capital ships Fleet engagements in search of decisive victory Staying power of some Mahanian concepts Mahan vs. Brit Sir Julian S. Corbett

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