21.5--The Movement Takes a New Turn

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Information about 21.5--The Movement Takes a New Turn

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: kbeacom

Source: slideshare.net

The Movement Takes a New Turn Chapter 21.5 pp. 722-727

James Baldwin Author & Civil Rights Activist • “The Negro’s past, of…death and humiliation; fear by day and night; fear as deep as the marrow of the bone; doubt that he was worthy of life, since everyone denied it…” • “The Negro himself no longer believes in the good faith of white Americans—if, indeed, he ever could have.”

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Born in Omaha in 1925 as Malcolm Little • Father was a Baptist minister that supported “Back-to-Africa” campaign • Father died when he was young • Uncle was lynched • Mother put in mental hospital • Grew up in ghettoes of Detroit, Boston, NYC • In jail by age 20, served 7 years

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Joined Nation of Islam or Black Muslims while in jail • Preached black separation & self-help • Viewed white society as oppressive

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation of Islam, taught that Allah would bring about a “Black Nation” • One of the keys to knowledge was knowing one’s enemy; namely white society • Black Muslims did not seek change through political means • Instead, they tried to live righteous lives & become economically self-sufficient

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Malcolm X was released from prison in 1952, changed his name, & quickly rose to power • Spent next 12 years as minister of the Nation of Islam & spreading ideas of Black Nationalism – Separate identity – Racial unity of African Americans • Delivered fiery speeches

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Malcolm X disagreed w/ tactics & goals of early civil rights movement • The “Farce on Washington” • “All of this non-violent, begging the white man kind of dying…all of this sitting-in, sliding-in, wading-in, eating-in, diving-in, and all the rest” • “No sane black man really wants integration!...No sane black man really believes that the white man ever will give the black man anything more than token integration.” – *See full quote on p. 723

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • In 1964, over disputes w/ Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam • Est. Muslim Mosque, Inc. • Made a pilgrimage to Mecca (holy city of Islam) in Saudi Arabia

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Pilgrimage had profound effect • He then wanted to work w/ other civil rights leaders, even whites on some issues • His change of heart led to new enemies though

Malcolm X & Black Nationalism • Shot to death at a rally in NYC in February 1965 • 3 members of the Nation of Islam were charged w/ murder • Message lived on • Influenced young members of SNCC

The Black Power Movement • Stokely Carmichael • Follower of Malcolm X • Became involved in SNCC at Howard University • Freedom Riders • Had beaten & jailed, grew tired of nonviolent protest • SNCC became more radical

Movement Splits • Greenwood, MS in 1966 • King’s followers sang “We Shall Overcome” • Carmichael’s supporters sang “We Shall Overrun” • “This is the 27th time I have been arrested, and I ain’t going to jail no more!...The only way we gonna stop them white men from whippin’ us is to take over. We been saying freedom for six years— and we ain’t got nothin’. What we gonna start saying now is ‘black power!’

Black Power • New slogan resonated w/ many African Americans • Encouraged immediate action • A call to “unite, to recognize their heritage, to build a sense of community…to begin to define their own goals, to lead their own organizations and support those organizations.”

Black Panthers • Est. in fall of 1966 • Militant political party • Founded by Bobby Seale & Huey Newton • Demanded action from federal government • Wanted African Americans to lead their own communities

Black Panthers • Often confrontation w/ • “Black is beautiful” white authorities became a new slogan • Newton repeated • SNCC & Black Panthers phrase from Communist moved away from leader of China, Mao NAACP & SCLC Zedong, “power flows from the barrel of a gun” • Violence w/ police

Riots in the Streets • De jure segregation= • Residents of racial separation neighborhoods viewed created by law police officers as oppressors, not • De facto segregation= upholders of justice separation created by • “like an occupying social conditions, like poverty soldier in a bitterly hostile country” • De facto segregation was a fact of life in most • Riots started to flare up American cities, North along east coast (NYC) & South in 1964

Riots in the Streets • Watts, LA neighborhood, August of 1965 • Beating of young African American male by white police officer sparked 6 days of riots • National guard needed to restore order • 3K+ arrests, 1K+ injured, 34 dead, $40 million+ in damages

Riots in the Streets • Rioting spread to other cities in following years • “Burn, baby, burn” • Kerner Commission reported that riots were explosion of anger that had been smoldering for decades • “Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white— separate & unequal”

Tragedy Strikes in 1968 • Achieving peaceful social change through political activism seemed hopeless • MLK had shifted focus to tackling economic problems • Poor People’s Campaign • “We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now. I’ve been to the mountain top. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life…But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. An d I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the promised land.” • --April 3, 1968, in Memphis---

Tragedy Strikes in 1968 • The next day King was shot while standing on the balcony of his motel • His assassination sparked violent reactions • Riots occurred in 120+ cities • 50K+ troops were needed to stop the violence • Further eroded hope in nonviolent change

Tragedy Strikes in 1968 • RFK, presidential candidate for Democratic Party • Civil rights leader • Anti-Vietnam War • Hoped to continue brother’s legacy • LBJ had announced he would not seek another term • RFK had reached out to minorities & the poor

Tragedy Strikes in 1968 • RFK won key CA primary on June 4th • That night, after midnight, gave a short speech in LA hotel • Shot by an assassin, died the next day

Legacy of the Movement • LBJ administration brought about major changes • Segregation was illegal • African Americans began to vote by the thousands • Number of African Americans elected to high office rose dramatically • *Shirley Chisholm of NY became first black woman elected to Congress

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