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Microorganisms

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Information about Microorganisms

Published on November 6, 2012

Author: anuvadeegan

Source: slideshare.net

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Microorganismsand Deadly Diseases By Karishma Deegan

Contents pageIt’s a small world: different types of microbes.Virus: living or non-living.Bacteria: friend or foe.Powerful protozoa.Fungi : fabulous, but not always.Microbes and disease, making the link.Research and development: eradicating diseases. Quiz.

Micro-organisms & Deadly diseasesMicro-organisms or microbes – are tiny organismsliving in the environment all around us ( air water soiland living things) that cannot be seen with the nakedeye hence the word micro (microscopic ) as can beseen only under a microscope. Although most micro-organisms are essential for our survival a smallpercent enter our bodies to cause infectious diseases.Environment and economic conditions play a role inthe spread of diseases. 1

Environment Change and Spread of DiseasesIn the environment microbes interact with humans andanimals in an unique way if the environment is disturbed bydrought, tsunami etc the balance between the microbes andother species gets disturbed this leads to the microbes tomultiply rapidly and thus cause diseases. Because microbescan grow fast they can adapt to different environmentalchanges quickly. This can be stopped if man is more carefuland looks after and protects his environment . 2

It’s a small world: different types of microbes.• There are three major groups of microbes: viruses, bacteria and protozoa. Within each group are numerous species that differ in shape, size, and structure, as well as food intake and reproductive processes. Some larger organisms, such as flukes and worms, and fungi, can also cause infectious diseases 3

Virus : living or non living• Virus : They are the smallest microbe that do not have a cell and therefore cannot live on their own. They live inside the host cell of living things and often cause the host cell to die, virus are thus the most dangerous microbes to human beings. Some examples of diseases caused by viruses include flu, hepatitis B, and AIDS (caused by a virus called HIV) HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus Poxviridae- Small Pox Virus 4

Acquired immune deficiency syndromeHuman immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS.It attacks the white blood cells in the our body and causes it to die. The white blood cells are the cells that fight diseases and gives us immunity by causing those cells to die AIDS completely weakens the human and they eventually die there is no cure for AIDS yet. 5

Bacteria: Friend or foe• Bacteria - They live almost everywhere: in the soil and water, in plants and animals. They can adapt to extremely harsh environments, such as hot springs and tundra. If conditions turn unfavorable, some bacteria can remain dormant until things improve. They take the form of spheres, rods, or spirals, bacteria consist of a single cell• There are thousand species of Bacteria C.Tetani - only some of them cause diseases for CausesTetanus example Tetanus , TB, Dysentery etc . Some bacteria are indeed helpful like bacteria that makes yogurt helps with digestion. Anti-Biotics help to cure diseases that are caused by bacteria. 6

Powerful ProtozoaProtozoa – they are also single celledmicro organisms like bacteria. Thereare many species of protozoa andthey are in various shapes and sizes.Most protozoa do not cause diseases Malaria-infecting a red blood cell.but some are harmful such as theprotozoa that causes Malaria. Malariainfects 300 million people each year 2million children and adults die everyyear and 2 children die of malariaevery minute. 7

Fungi- Fabulous but not always. Fungus : They are like plants but unlike plants they cannot make their own food and thus either live in dead plants and animals or live in cells of living things. Fungus are like mushrooms, yeast, and mould. Fungus canAthletes foot cause diseases but can also be helpful to man for example a kind of fungus is used to make the PENICILLIN drug that Alexander Fleming discovered by accident in1928 - a powerful antibiotic that kills a particular kind of bacteria in our body. Yeast helps to make dough rise. Fungus can also causes diseases like athletes foot that grow in between our toes. 8

Epidemic or pandemic?Epidemics occur when an infectious disease spreads beyond alocal population, lasting longer and reaching people in a widergeographical area. When that disease reaches worldwideproportions, its considered a pandemic. Several factorsdetermine whether an outbreak will explode into an epidemicor pandemic: the ease with which a microbe moves fromperson to person, and the behavior of individuals andsocieties. The Aztecs were devastated by small pox which they had never encount- ered before the Spanish crusaders came to South America in the 16th century. 9

MICROBES AND DISEASE: MAKING THE LINK Leevanhoek-Pasteur-Koch• A 17th century Dutch Leeuwenhoeks merchant named Antoni van illustration of Planaria, a Leeuwenhoek was the first type of flatworm—one of person to see a living the organisms he found microbe. It was 200 years in water. before researchers realized that some of these microbes could cause disease. Louis Pasteur, who was studying Robert Koch (left) the microbes that cause wine and Louis Pasteur to ferment, reasoned that (right) both microbes might also be promoted the idea responsible for illnesses. By that microbes cause the 1880s, the German disease, debunking scientist Robert Koch the old theory that identified the bacteria that disease arose by cause anthrax, cholera, and spontaneous tuberculosis. generation. 10

Research and development- Eradicating DiseasesFor thousands of years, people haverecognized the symptoms of infectiousdiseases, and every culture has foundways of healing the ill. In the1600s, however, a revolutionary piece ofequipment was invented—themicroscope. By revealing the previouslyunseen world of microbes, the microscopeopened the way to new approaches tounderstanding disease. Due to a lot or Jonas Salk administers a polioresearch treatment and vaccination has vaccine, which he developed in thebeen found for a lot of deadly diseases like 1950s.Polio, Small pox Tetanus, Cholera etc. LaboratoryResearch is going on in many countries of workers MUSTthe world to rid the people of diseases for wear protectivewhich solutions have not yet been found clothing tofor example AIDS. An electron microscopecan magnify an object 200,000 to 400,000 preventtimes its actual size, making visible the infection withtiniest viruses and the inner details of microbes underother organisms, such as bacteria. study. 11

Quiz• 1) What type of microbe causes tetanus?a) Bacteriab) Fungusc) Virus 2) How does disease spread?a) By sitting next to each other.b) By sneezing and coughing.c) By taking your vaccinations on time. 3) What is a pandemic?a) When more than one village has the same disease.b) When the disease spreads from one country to the other.c) When Malaria kills more than 2 children every minute. 12

QUIZ3) What is used to make Penicillin?a) Bacteriab) Virusc) Fungus4) Which is the most dangerous microbe to humans?a) Bacteriab) Virusc) Fungus 13

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