Published on September 27, 2018
1. © 2012 Rey Ty 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 1 Nature, Religion, & Society Dr. Rey Ty 郑文华博士
2. © 2012 Rey Ty Ground RulesNo Superstar No Ping Pong, No Popcorn • Everyone will have a chance to speak up during our Discussion
3. © 2012 Rey Ty Review of Your Prior Knowledge • Share key points from your readings • Your critique
4. In a Nutshell What is Religion? One Sentence 1.Hinnels , ed. (2005). Routledge Companion. 2.Omer et al. eds., (2015). Oxford Handbook. 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 4
5. © 2012 Rey Ty In a Nutshell What is Theology?? One Sentence 1.Cohn- Sherbok, ed. (2001). Interfaith Theology.9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 5
6. In a Nutshell Rey Ty’s Paper #1 1.Rey Ty. (2016). Nature & Society: Crisis of Climate Change & Eco-Justice in Our Common Home -Audience: CCA, FABC, Orthodox meeting in Indonesia (2016) 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 6
7. © 2012 Rey Ty In a Nutshell Rey Ty’s Paper #1 1.Rey Ty. (2016). Nature & Society: Crisis of Climate Change & Eco- Justice in Our Common Home -Audience: CCA, FABC, Orthodox meeting in Indonesia (2016)9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 7
8. © 2012 Rey Ty In a Nutshell Hmmm……. Say what? •Your critique of Rey’s paper? 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 8
9. In a Nutshell #Rey Ty’s Paper #22 2. Rey Ty. (2016). International Political Economy: Neoliberalism vs. Eco-Justice— From Corporate Globalization to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. -Audience: Asian organic farmers 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 9
10. © 2012 Rey Ty In a Nutshell #Rey Ty’s Paper #22 2. Rey Ty. (2016). International Political Economy: Neoliberalism vs. Eco- Justice—From Corporate Globalization to Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. -Audience: Asian organic farmers (December 2016) 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 10
11. © 2012 Rey Ty In a Nutshell Hmmm……. Say what? •Your critique of Rey’s paper? 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 11
12. In a Nutshell Religion & Violence One Sentence 1. Summary 2. Critique 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 12
13. © 2012 Rey Ty In a Nutshell Religion & Peace Values Summary Critique One Sentence 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 13
14. © 2012 Rey Ty NoteDifferent Audiences Different Approaches • This is an academic prequel to my two papers for non-academic audiences • Audience Now: You!
15. © 2012 Rey Ty Problem •Crisis
16. © 2012 Rey Ty Problem • “There are very dangerous developments in the international arena… Two are particularly urgent…” (Chomsky, 2012, p. 37).
17. © 2012 Rey Ty Problem • “One has been hanging around since 1945… That’s the threat of nuclear war and nuclear weapons” (Chomsky, 2012, pp. 37-38).
18. © 2013 Rey Ty Problem • “The other, of course, is environmental catastrophe” (Chomsky, 2012, p. 38).
19. © 2012 Rey Ty Question What’s the Big Deal? Viewed from Different Disciplines • In what ways are the relationships among nature, society, and religion complex? 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 19
20. © 2013 Rey Ty Objective Viewed from Different Disciplines • Examine the complex interrelationship among religion, nature, & society to discover multiple perspectives
21. Thesis 3 Religion 2 Society 1 Nature 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 21 Power Relations!
22. © 2012 Rey Ty CautionDanger •Over- generalization
23. © 2012 Rey Ty Limitations • Each one is biased one way or the other • My, our, & your backgrounds, identities, & positionalities
24. © 2012 Rey Ty Methods •Qualitative integrative literature review
25. © 2012 Rey Ty MethodsAnalysis 1. What is analysis? 2. Why do we have to analyze?
26. © 2012 Rey Ty Methods 1. Analysis 2. Critique 3. Synthesis
27. © 2012 Rey Ty MethodsAnalysis •Break down concepts to their component parts
28. © 2013 Rey Ty MethodsSynthesis New Knowledge 1. Research agenda? 2. Taxonomy? 3. Alternative models? 4. Metatheory 5. Not policy; not action
29. © 2012 Rey Ty Definition of Terms What is Nature? What is the Environment?
30. Concepts Distinctions 1. Nature 2. Environment 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 30
31. Concept •Nature 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 31
32. Concept •Culture 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 32
33. © 2012 Rey Ty Definition of Terms Eco-Centric Anthropocentric
34. SocietyCaring •Nature 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 34
35. Concept •Environment 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 35
36. Religion 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 36 •What is Religion?
37. © 2013 Rey Ty Outline Perspectives Etymology History Anthropology Philosophy Axiology Hermeneutics TheologyPsychology Sociology Politics
38. © 2012 Rey Ty Human Beings Necessity, Oppressive Consciousness & Structure Economy Freedom, Liberating Consciousness & Agency Society Nature 1 2 3 Centrifugal Forces Centripetal Forces © 2010 Rey Ty Theory of Change Contradictions & Dialectical Historical Development in Time & Space
39. © 2012 Rey Ty Human Beings Contradictions & Dialectical Historical Development in Time & Space Necessity, Oppressive Consciousness & Structure Economy Freedom, Liberating Consciousness & Agency Society Nature 1 2 3 Centrifugal Forces Centripetal Forces © 2010 Rey Ty Theory of Change
40. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionEtymology Dictionary c. 1200, "state of life bound by monastic vows," also "conduct indicating a belief in a divine power," from Anglo-French religiun (11c.), Old French religion "piety, devotion; religious community," and directly from Latin religionem (nominative religio) "respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods; conscientiousness, sense of right, moral obligation; fear of the gods; divine service, religious observance; a religion, a faith, a mode of worship, cult; sanctity, holiness," in Late Latin "monastic life" (5c.). 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 40
41. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionEtymology Dictionary According to Cicero derived from relegere "go through again" (in reading or in thought), from re- "again" (see re-) + legere "read" (see lecture (n.)). However, popular etymology among the later ancients (Servius, Lactantius, Augustine) and the interpretation of many modern writers connects it with religare "to bind fast" (see rely), via notion of "place an obligation on," or "bond between humans and gods." In that case, the re- would be intensive. Another possible origin is religiens "careful," opposite of negligens. In English, meaning "particular system of faith" is recorded from c. 1300; sense of "recognition of and allegiance in manner of life (perceived as justly due) to a higher, unseen power or powers" is from 1530s. 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 41
42. © 2012 Rey Ty Religion 1.System of beliefs 2.Faith in supernatural deities 3.Scriptures 4.Rituals 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 42
43. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionPsychology • Freud, Psychology of Religion & Future of an Illusion: • belief in an illusion we want very much to believe is true 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 43
44. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionAnthropology • Edward Burnett Tylor, Primitive Culture: • belief in the supernatural to explain the world 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 44
45. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionAnthropology Clifford Geertz • (1) a system of symbols • (2) which acts to establish powerful, pervasive and long-lasting moods and motivations in men • (3) by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and • (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that • (5) the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 45
46. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionAnthropology Religion • Clifford Geertz, Thick Description: •interpretive 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 46
47. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionRev. John Butt Founder, Institute of Religion, Culture and Peace, Payap University 1. Beliefs about divinity; Faith 2. Journeying together 3. Actions: ritual practices 4. “God is a human invention” 5. Ultimate Transcendent Truth & Reality (UTTR) 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 47
48. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionRev. John Butt Founder, Institute of Religion, Culture and Peace, Payap University 1.Then: religion in places of worship 2.Now: in shopping malls or Amazon online 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 48
49. © 2012 Rey Ty ReligionSociology Weber Durkheim Marx 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 49
50. © 2012 Rey Ty ConceptMarx Sociology “Man makes religion, religion does not make man… Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.” 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 50
51. © 2012 Rey Ty German Philosophy on Alienation Marx 1. Hegel: “alienation” (Phenomenology of Spirit, 1807) 2. Feuerbach (Essence of Christianity, 1841) applied alienation to Christianity 3. Marx applied alienation to philosophy & political economy
52. © 2012 Rey Ty Marx (1818-1883) 1. Economic suffering prevents people from achieving real happiness & comfort on Earth 2. Religion provides solace but also false hope, promising true happiness in the afterlife 3. Religion distorts this reality & encourages hard work, people to accept their lot & endure suffering
53. © 2013 Rey Ty Sociology Weber (1864-1920) Catholics Protestants Serve God Frugal Wealthy Grandeur Ostentatious Poor Spirit of Capitalism
54. © 2013 Rey Ty Sociology Weber (1864-1920) Contrasts Spirit of Capitalism •Roman Catholics vs. Protestants
55. © 2012 Rey Ty SociologyWeber • interaction between religion and society • Prosperity Gospel 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 55
56. © 2012 Rey Ty SociologyÉmile Durkheim Social function of religion: social cohesion9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 56
57. © 2012 Rey Ty Axiology Ethics 1. Normative Ethics a) Consequentialism: morality of an action depends on the outcome of the action b) Deontology: actions per se are either right or wrong c) Virtue Ethics: inherent character of an individual 2. Descriptive Ethics 3. Applied Ethics
58. Theology 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 58 •What is theology?
59. Theology 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 59 •What are different ways of doing theology?
60. Religion 1. Literalists 2. Metaphorists
61. Theological Foundations Genesis 1) Imago Dei 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 61
62. Theological Foundations Genesis 2) Integrity of Creation 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 62
63. Theological Foundations Genesis 3) Dominion vs. Stewardship vs. Eco-Centrism 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 63
64. Theological Foundations United Methodist Church 2009 cited in Kris & Laccetti 2016 4) “God’s creation is in crisis. We, the Bishops of The United Methodist Church, cannot remain silent while God’s people and God’s planet suffer).” 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 64
65. Theological Foundations Laudato Si, Para. 25 Pope Francis 5) Climate change “is a global problem with grave implications: environmental, social, economic, political and for the distribution of goods... Its worst impact will probably be felt by developing countries in coming decades.” 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 65
66. © 2012 Rey Ty HermeneuticsHistorical & Social Analysis Religion 1.Textual, “Fundamental” 2. Contextual Theology, Hermeneutics9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 66
67. © 2012 Rey Ty HermeneuticsReligion Static Permanent Dynamic Changing 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 67
68. © 2012 Rey Ty ConceptContextual Theology? Religion 1. Apply the Scriptures to interpret the present? 2. Transform the world & build community based on life & teachings in Scriptures? 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 68
69. © 2012 Rey Ty TheologyPolitical Science Interpretations •In what ways can religion be interpreted ideologically or politically?9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 69
70. © 2012 Rey Ty TheologyInterpretations 1. Reactionary 2. Conservative 3. Liberal 4. Radical 5. etc.9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 70
71. © 2012 Rey Ty A. Comte Historical Evolution Sociology
72. Religion SciencePhilosophy 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 72 Freire Judaism, Christianity, Bible, Qur’an… Theology: Augustine, Aquinas Confucius, Lao Zi, Mo Zi, Plato, Aristotle Phenomenology, Existentialism, Post- modernism, Post- structuralism Marx, Engels, Lenin, Mao, Sokal Bacon, Scientific Method; Einstein; Hawking Buddha
73. © 2012 Rey Ty Different Ways to Explain Phenomena Magic Religion Discourses Science Witchcraft Anthro & Sociology
74. © 2012 Rey Ty How Do You Explain Things? 1. Witchcraft: You are sick because someone put a bad spell on you. 2. Magic: I can make you feel good by chanting good mantras for your well- being. 1. Religion: God chooses to make you happy or suffer. 3. Discourse: I narrate, therefore I am. 4. Science: Duh! It’s chemistry, physics or biology!
75. © 2012 Rey Ty HermeneuticsInterpretations Views Liberation Theology Social Gospel Prosperity 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 75
76. © 2012 Rey Ty Islam 1. What is the Environment? 2. The Islamic View of the Environment. 3. The Importance of Cleanliness. 4. The Cleanliness of the Social Environment 5. The Preservation of Trees, Woodland, and Green Areas 5.1. Trees in the Qur’an 5.2. Trees and Woodlands in Hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH) 6. The Protection of Animals 6.1. Animals in the Qur’an 6.2. Animals in Hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH). 7. Some Examples From Islamic History 8. Not Wasting the Earth’s Resources http://www.islamawareness.net/Nature/environment_ap proach.html http://www.ecomena.org/islam-environment/
77. © 2012 Rey Ty Islam https://image.slidesharecdn.com/orientalreligiousperspectivesonecologyandtheenviro
78. © 2012 Rey Ty Islam ps://image.slidesharecdn.com/islamandtheenvironment- https://www.slideshare.net/muqithali/islam-and-the-
79. © 2012 Rey Ty Islam • 10 Green hadiths, Ecological Advice From Prophet Muhammad http://islam.ru/en/content/story/10-green-ahadith- ecological-advice-prophet-muhammad
80. © 2012 Rey Ty Buddhism •Do no harm to sentient beings
81. © 2012 Rey Ty Jainism •Protect all life forms
82. Hermeneutics •Literalists: Dominion 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 82
83. © 2012 Rey Ty Food for Thought •What’s your favorite Thai food?
84. © 2012 Rey Ty Food for Thought •What’s your favorite non-Thai food?
85. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Genesis 1:26-28 New International Version (NIV) • 26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals,[a] and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
86. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Genesis 1:26-28 King James Version (KJV) • 26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
87. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Genesis 1:26-28 New International Version (NIV) • 27 So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.
88. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Genesis 1:26-28 King James Version (KJV) • 28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
89. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Genesis 1:26-28 New International Version (NIV) • 28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”
90. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Leviticus 3:17 New International Version (NIV) • “‘This is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live: You must not eat any fat or any blood.’”
91. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Deuteronomy 14:8 New International Version (NIV) • The pig is also unclean; although it has a divided hoof, it does not chew the cud. You are not to eat their meat or touch their carcasses.
92. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Leviticus 11 New International Version (NIV) • 11 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 2 “Say to the Israelites: ‘Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat: 3 You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud. • 4 “‘There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you. 5 The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 6 The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 7 And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. 8 You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.
93. © 2012 Rey Ty Hermeneutics 1.Dominion: Anthropo- Centrism 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 93
94. Hermeneutics 1. From Dominion 2. To Stewardship 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 94
95. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Acts 15:20 New International Version (NIV) • “…abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood.”
96. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Acts 15:29 New International Version (NIV) • You are to abstain from food sacrificed to idols, from blood, from the meat of strangled animals and from sexual immorality. You will do well to avoid these things. Farewell.
97. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Hebrews 13:8-9 New International Version (NIV) 8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever. 9 Do not be carried away by all kinds of strange teachings. It is good for our hearts to be strengthened by grace, not by eating ceremonial foods, which is of no benefit to those who do so.
98. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage Acts 10:9-16 New International Version (NIV) • 9 About noon the following day as they were on their journey and approaching the city, Peter went up on the roof to pray. 10 He became hungry and wanted something to eat, and while the meal was being prepared, he fell into a trance. 11 He saw heaven opened and something like a large sheet being let down to earth by its four corners. 12 It contained all kinds of four-footed animals, as well as reptiles and birds. 13 Then a voice told him, “Get up, Peter. Kill and eat.” 14 “Surely not, Lord!” Peter replied. “I have never eaten anything impure or unclean.” 15 The voice spoke to him a second time, “Do not call anything impure that God has made clean.” 16 This happened three times, and immediately the sheet was taken back to heaven.
99. © 2012 Rey Ty Biblical Passage 1 Timothy 4 New International Version (NIV) 4 The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons. 2 Such teachings come through hypocritical liars, whose consciences have been seared as with a hot iron. 3 They forbid people to marry and order them to abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and who know the truth. 4 For everything God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving, 5 because it is consecrated by the word of God and prayer.
100. © 2012 Rey Ty Hermeneutics1. From Dominion 2. To Stewardship 3.To Eco- or Bio- Centrism9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 100
101. Nature, Culture, or Environment?
102. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyLeviticus 19:33-34 Caring & Sharing • New International Version • 33 “‘When a foreigner resides among you in your land, do not mistreat them. 34 The foreigner residing among you must be treated as your native-born. Love them as yourself, for you were foreigners in Egypt. I am the Lord your God.” 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 102
103. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyLeviticus 19:9-10 Caring & Sharing • New International Version • 9 “‘When you reap the harvest of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest. 10 Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen. Leave them for the poor and the foreigner. I am the Lord your God.” 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 103
104. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyDeuteronomy 10:18-19 Caring & Sharing • New International Version • 9 “‘God Loves the Foreigner Residing Among You • He defends the cause of the fatherless and the widow, and loves the foreigner residing among you, giving them food and clothing. And you are to love those who are foreigners, for you yourselves were foreigners in Egypt.”9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 104
105. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyExodus 23:9 Caring & Sharing • New International Version • 9 “Do Not Oppress a Foreigner • Do not oppress a foreigner; you yourselves know how it feels to be foreigners, because you were foreigners in Egypt.” 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 105
106. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyJesus Caring & Sharing •Feed the people •Fish & Bread 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 106
107. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyMatthew 25:35-36 Caring & Sharing • 35 For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, 36 I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me.’9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 107
108. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyIslam Caring & Sharing 1.Shahadah Faith Declaration 2.Salat Prayer 3.Zakat Alms 4.Sawn Fast 5.Hajj Pilgrimage9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 108
109. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietyBuddhism Caring •Meditation (& Service) 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 109
110. © 2012 Rey Ty SocietySikhism Caring •Meditation & Service 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 110
111. HermeneuticsReinterpretations Changing Contexts Pre- 1980 1980s 2010s 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 111 2. Stewardship 1. Dominion 3. Ecocentrism
112. © 2012 Rey Ty Metatheory as Synthesis Revolutionary Left Left Left of Center Center Right Extreme Right Prosperity Gospel Social Gospel Liberation Theology Revolutionary Clergy Enforce going back to the old ways Dominion Stewardship Eco- or Bio- centrism; social ecology; Eco- Justice Red Roots, Green Shoots; Radical Ecology Personal salvation Self; meditation; Inner peace No pork, etc.; Punish transgressors Literalists; Textual; static rules Other-Centered: Changing Historical, Social, & Contextual: Caring and sharing: People & nature first Self-Centered: Self & personal salvation first Marx & Engels Weber Hermeneutics History, Power, Perspectives, Ethics, Feminism, LGBTQI…
113. © 2012 Rey Ty Thank You! 9/27/2018 Dr. Rey Ty 113
114. © 2012 Rey Ty
115. Fair Use• In good faith, this work contains fair use of copyrighted and non-copyrighted images from the public domain & the web for non-commercial & nonprofit educational purposes. • This work is distributed free of charge. • The author has neither monetized this work nor sought any profit from its distribution. • Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976: Allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. • This work contains original work of commentary and critical analysis. • Quotations are attributed to the original authors and sources. 9/27/2018 115Rey Ty
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