20140318 cisec-critical-hmi

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Information about 20140318 cisec-critical-hmi
Technology

Published on March 19, 2014

Author: cisec

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Interactive systems are nowadays an important part of most command and control systems. Research efforts in the field of Human-Computer Interaction has mainly been focused on the design of innovative and creative interfaces and interaction techniques. These interfaces aim at supporting operators engaged in very diverse tasks involving data of growing complexity. When such interactive systems are deployed in critical contexts, usability and user experience become much less important than reliability and fault-tolerance. The talk will present state of knowledge in the area of notations, methods and tools for engineering interactive critical systems. This body of knowledge is located at the intersection of software engineering, dependable computing and Human-Computer Interaction and provides means for the design, development, verification, validation and evaluation of interactive critical systems. The emphasis will be on benefits of and needs for systematic and integrated approaches in order to design, develop and evaluate the entire interactive system (including its interfaces and interaction techniques, the operational procedures and the training program of operators).
Concrete application of both problems and solutions will be given drawing examples from aeronautics (Air Traffic Control and Interactive
Cockpits) and space (ground segments) domains.

Interaction Homme-Machine et Ingénierie des Systèmes Interactifs Critiques Philippe Palanque Interactive Critical Systems research group http://www.irit.fr/ICS/palanque - palanque@irit.fr March 18th, 2014

Interaction Homme-Machine et Ingénierie des Systèmes Interactifs Critiques Philippe Palanque Interactive Critical Systems research group http://www.irit.fr/ICS/palanque - palanque@irit.fr March 18th, 2014

• Air Trafic Management (enroute ATC workstations) 1995-2001& 2010-2014 HALA! Network of excellence & SPAD (System Performance under Automation Degradation)  Dynamic instantiation of widgets, Post WIMP interfaces  Time constraint about 3mn (speed vector)  Automation and Automation Degradation • Drones (UAVs) 2001-2003  Management of fleet of aircrafts  Authority sharing  Cooperation and collaboration problems • Military aviation 2003-2006  Multimodal systems for military cockpits (evolutions of RAFALE fighter)  Specification of multimodal fusion engines, “real time” (20 ms) • Space domain : R&T IMAGES (2004-2006) R&T TORTUGA (2008-2011) R&T ALDABRA (2011-2012) R&T MARACCAS (2012-2014)  Multimodal interfaces for ground segments  Specification of satellite ground segments with multimodal interfaces  Target application: AGENDA & spacecraft collision avoidance system • Civil aviation 2004-2006 & 2009-2016 (Airbus – dependable interactive cockpits)  Interactive Cockpits (ARINC 661 standards)  Specification of all the embedded elements (widgets, UA, UI server)  Specification of system architectures for dependable interactive systems (fault tolerance)  Touch interaction in cockpit 3 Past-Current Research Projects

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) • ACM ▫ ACM SIGCHI main SIG (36) at ACM (4600 members) ▫ ~20% of downloads ACM DL ($510k return to SIGCHI) ▫ Main conference CHI (in 2013 = 3442 participants) • IFIP ▫ IFIP TC 13 on HCI ▫ Main conference INTERACT (2011=500 participants) • Main research interests/contributions ▫ Exploration of the jungle of possibilities ▫ Focus on Usability and User Experience 4

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) • ACM ▫ ACM SIGCHI main SIG (36) at ACM (4600 members) ▫ ~20% of downloads ACM DL ($510k return to SIGCHI) ▫ Main conference CHI (in 2013 = 3442 participants) • IFIP ▫ IFIP TC 13 on HCI ▫ Main conference INTERACT (2011=500 participants) • Main research interests/contributions ▫ Exploration of the jungle of possibilities ▫ Focus on Usability and User Experience 5

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) • ACM ▫ ACM SIGCHI main SIG (36) at ACM (4600 members) ▫ ~20% of downloads ACM DL ($510k return to SIGCHI) ▫ Main conference CHI (in 2013 = 3442 participants) • IFIP ▫ IFIP TC 13 on HCI ▫ Main conference INTERACT (2011=500 participants) • Main research interests/contributions ▫ Exploration of the jungle of possibilities ▫ Focus on Usability and User Experience 6

• Human Computer Interaction : Usability of computing systems (effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction – ISO 92 41- part 11) Basic principle: user centered design Process: iterative design/development • Initial approach in computer science: We design/develop the system and THEN usability is evaluated • HCI domain contribution: We design/develop the system and FOR usability 7 A bit of history: What is HCI?

8 Beaudouin-Lafon, M. 2004. Designing interaction, not interfaces. In Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual interfaces (Gallipoli, Italy, May 25 - 28, 2004). AVI '04. ACM, New York, NY, 15-22.

iPhone iPAD

• In one sentence: Designing Interactive Systems neither Interaction, nor Interfaces • Principle: Usability is NOT more important than Reliability, Dependability, Security, Resilience, Safety, User eXperience, others Privacy, Trust, Accessibility, … • Proposal: Design methods, processes and tool to design/develop interactive systems FOR these properties 10 Beaudouin-Lafon, M. 2004. Designing interaction, not interfaces. In Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual interfaces (Gallipoli, Italy, May 25 - 28, 2004). AVI '04. ACM, New York, NY, 15-22.

They are not Orthogonal !? • Usable & reliable then safer? ▫ Planes ▫ Command and control systems • Usable & reliable then less safe!! ▫ The less usable the more safe ▫ The less reliable the more safe • Safer for some less for others • Less Reliability less User eXperience • More Secure and more Reliable then less Usable • More Privacy then less Security • More Security less reliability (cockpits & satellites) There is a need for a holistic view on these properties and not for a reductionist one (even though this supports progress) 11

12 Do We Need New Integrated Processes? Usability/User eXperience engineer Software engineer Reliability engineer Safety engineer …

13

Current Situation • Low hanging fruits already been collected • Foundations identified many years ago ▫ Annett & Duncan HTA in 1967 ▫ Petri nets C.A. Petri in 1962 • Refinement and deeper understanding over the years • Need for long term detailed smaller refinements • Need for support to the design, development of safe, usable and dependable interactive systems

• Introduction (HCI in Critical Contexts) • Introduction to the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits • Dealing with automation • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 15

Aircraft Systems Display System DataCrew members System Monitor systems Input manage ment Display system was not interactive No USER INPUT related to display system INPUT and OUTPUT are independent (Segregation, (Separation and Isolation) and Diversity) The Past: Input vs Output Command systems Command + data

Control and Display System (CDS) Events Set ParametersCrew members Actions Monitor system System User Applications for Aircraft Systems UA With ARINC 661 the command and display system is interactive Execution of system depend strongly on user activity (and expect user input) What about usability? ARINC 661: Input and Output Intertwined 17

DU: Display Unit KCCU: Keyboard and Cursor Control Unit CDS : Control and Display System Standard ARINC 661 Specification A380 Cockpit

19 Current State of ARINC 661 • AEEC PP661 adopted October 2001/published April 2002 ▫ Met Airbus critical need requirement (161 pages) • Supplement 1 (Dec 10, 2002, 141 pages) ▫ Vertical map display capability ▫ Eight new widgets added ▫ Airbus A380 CDS versus needs for future CDSs ▫ ARINC 661-1 published June 26, 2003 • Supplement 2 (292 pages) ▫ Draft 1 published 1st September 2004 ▫ Changes to ARINC 661 necessary for the Airbus A380 (NextFocusedWidget) and Boeing 787 cockpit display system development ▫ Seven new widgets (57 widgets in total) ▫ Addition of state diagrams for interactive objects (p196) • Supplement 3 draft 1 released May 21st 2007 (356 pages) ▫ Eight new widgets • Supplement 4 released May 10th 2010 (466 pages) ▫ Three new widgets

ARINC 661 Principles • Client-server • Very similar to previous old work in HCI ▫ IBM Common User Access 1989 standard for UI, OSF/MOTIF, … ▫ X Window DisplayUnit -Screen- Window (managed by the CDS) Layer (owned by one User Application) Widget Format Application 1 Application 3 Application 2 Application 1 Widget Layer 20

• Introduction (HCI in Critical Contexts) • Introduction to the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models ▫ System models ▫ Task models ▫ Integrated models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits • Dealing with automation • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 21

• “Formal” description techniques for the specification, design and construction of interactive systems ▫ Support better dependability of the system ▫ Support better usability of the system  Can provide contextual help  Can support the production of training material ▫ Support diversity (compatibility of various models) ▫ Can take into account evolvability ▫ Can support safety by e.g. providing tools to prevent incident and accident from re-occurring 22 Our Research Proposal

23 Overview of Interactive Cooperative Objects: a formal description technique • Set of cooperating classes • For each class ▫ Behavior (Petri nets) ▫ Services (availability) ▫ State (distribution and value of tokens) ▫ Presentation  Activation (how users' actions on the input devices trigger systems methods)  Rendering (how state changes are presented to the users • Extensions ▫ Asynchronous multicast communication mechanism ▫ Quantitative temporal information (temporal window) reuse of previous work in Petri nets theory

This is not the first work in that field Dragicevic & Fekete . ICMI 04

This is not the first work in that field David Carr et al. CHI 94

Goal of ICOs and PetShop • The user interface requires the same dependability as the rest of the software • Completeness (model the entire UI) ▫ the complex parts must be dealt with too ▫ the more complex the UI the more likely the notation is to be not able to deal with it • Concurrency, “infinite” number of states, temporal aspects, objects and behavior integrated, … • Verification, validation, certification, … of the interactive software • Bridge the edition-execution gap (Navarre D. et al. A Model-Based Tool for Interactive Prototyping of Highly Interactive Applications. 12th IEEE, International Workshop on Rapid System Prototyping ; Monterey (USA), IEEE, 2001.) 26 26

27 A Small Example – Double click dud u DC Idle Down One_Click Two_Down t C

28 Multimodal Interaction & ATM Unexpected Double Clicking

29 A Small Example du / StartTimerd u DC Idle Down One_Click Two_Down t C t C Adding Time

30 A Small Example Taking Movements into account + Threashold m D u E m C,B du / StartTimer m C,M d, target=this u DC Idle m B Down One_Click Moving Two_Down t C t C

31 A Small Example Taking Movements into account + Threashold m D u E m C,B du / StartTimer m C,M d, target=this u DC Idle m B Down One_Click Moving Two_Down t C t C Einstein: "Things should be as simple as possible but not more simple"

32 Multimodal Interaction & ATM

33 Multimodal Interaction & ATM

34 A Small Example m D m C,B Idle Down One_Click Moving Two_Down u E m B t C du / StartTimerd, target=this t C m C,M u DC CDC CC Comb_Click Comb_Double_Click Multimodal Part Monomodal Part Multimodality

Interaction Technique 35

Who said it is not readable? 36

Who said it is not readable? 37

Who said it is not readable? m 38

39 An example: the MPIA application

Weather Radar

The issues

The user interfaces (output)

43 MPIA Application • Available in several cockpits ▫ Switch between modes ▫ The tilt angle: a numeric edit box permits to select its value into range [-15°; 15°] ▫ Modifications are forbidden when in AUTO tilt selection mode • Simple behavior but realistic • Tasks are simple enough too • Used in our group for dependability and scalability studies of interactive applications

44 Behavioral description of the application: system model

45 PetShop and the system model

Modelling the Entire Interactive System • User Application • Widgets • User inteface server ▫ Objects, widgets ▫ Applications ▫ Input and output devices

47 Formal Description of a "simple" widget: ARINC 661 PushButton p.98-101 • Informal presentation • Formal Description of the PushButton ▫ Services and Events ▫ Behaviour ▫ Activation and Rendering functions • Thales CDS Look & Feel (21 other ones modelled)

48 PushButton : The Behavior

Modelling the Entire Interactive System • User Application • Widgets • User inteface server ▫ Objects, widgets ▫ Applications ▫ Input and output devices • Towards zero-default interactive systems

50 Dealing with Look&Feel changes

51

More about ICOs • Navarre et al. ICOs: a Model-Based User Interface Description Technique dedicated to Interactive Systems Addressing Usability, Reliability and Scalability. ToCHI, ACM SIGCHI, Vol. 16 N. 4, p. 1-56, 2009 • Bastide, Sy & Palanque. A formal notation and tool for the engineering of CORBA systems. Concurrency: practice and experience (Wiley) Special issue "Selected papers from ECOOP'99" Vol. 12, n° 14, pp. 1379-1403, 2000 • Bastide, et al. Formal specification of CORBA services: experience and lessons learned. ACM Conference OOPSLA'2000, Minnesota USA. ACM Press; 2000.p105-117. • Bastide & Palanque Modelling a groupware editing tool with cooperative objects "Advance in Petri nets on Object Orientation", 2001, G. Agha & F. De Cindio (Eds.), Springer Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science n° 2001 • Bastide, Palanque A Petri Net Based Environment for the Design of Event-Driven Interfaces. 16th International Conference on Application and theory of Petri Nets (ATPN'95) Torino, Italy, 20-22 June 1995, LNCS. 52

There is a need for adequate tools 53

• Introduction (ICS group and HCI in Critical Contexts) • Introduction to the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models ▫ System models ▫ Task models ▫ Integrated models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits • Dealing with automation • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 54

Problem ter and last (real last now) • Engineering Interactive Systems ▫ Processes, methods, techniques and tools for the design, construction and validation of interactive systems ▫ Design  prototyping ▫ Construction  programming ▫ Properties  usability • Usability ▫ Efficiency ▫ Satisfaction ▫ Effectiveness • User eXperience ▫ Fun ▫ Pleasurable ▫ Desirable ▫ Stimulating 55 task/artefact vicious cycle Caroll/Rosson 1991 Interactive System model Users’ Tasks and Goals model

56

57

58

59 Goals of HAMSTERS • Remain similar to the main task modeling tools ▫ Factorization of operators ▫ Handle low-level tasks (related to interaction techniques) • Extends expressive power of existing tools ▫ Handle object information (preconditions, processing, …) ECCE 2013 ▫ Support refinement INTERACT 2011 • Make it possible to ▫ Connect to a system model (TAMODIA 2007/AMBOSS ▫ Co-execution of models EICS 2010 ▫ Support performance evaluation (EICS 2009) ▫ Formally check the compatibility of tasks and system models (EHCI 1995, IwC 1997) ▫ Support training (EICS 2011)

Task models: HAMSTER(S) - Decomposition of a user’s goal - Hierarchical - Temporally ordered

61 Simulation with HAMSTERS

There is a need for adequate tools 62

• Introduction (HCI in Critical Contexts) • Introduction to the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models ▫ System models ▫ Task models ▫ Integrated models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits • Dealing with automation • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 63

• Strong integration (co-execution of models) • One single platform (PetShop with HAMSTERS inside) • Two modes ▫ Task driven (performing a task makes the system evolve) ▫ System driven (acting on the system changes the current task in the task model) 64 Integration Principles

65

66 Objectives of the work • Increase reliability ▫ Complete and unambiguous description of the entire interactive system (cockpit) ▫ Including interaction (eventually multimodal) ▫ Support context-tolerance (interruptions, failures, errors, …) • Reduction of costs ▫ Faster iterations to support task/artefact virtuous circle ▫ Support for testing (software and usability) • Improved operations ▫ Faster and safer interactions in the cockpit ▫ Faster recovery from system failure (MTTR)

67 Conclusions on the example • 4 views of the same real world ▫ System (including interaction and interface) ▫ Tasks (of each operator and of the cooperating operators) ▫ Training and User Manual (e.g. Elect. Flight Bag) • Support for task-based construction and testing • Not presented ▫ Construction of training program, assessment of trainee and online contextual help (EICS 2011) ▫ Dealing with errors and failures (human and systems) ▫ Dealing with “user over the loop” issues (automation) ▫ Configurations switching following failures

Integration within ADDIE 68

There is a need for adequate tools 69

• Introduction (ICS group and HCI in Critical Contexts) • Introduction to the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits ▫ Zero default ▫ N-version programming ▫ Self-checking widgets ▫ Impact of hardware/software architecture on usability • Dealing with automation • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 70

• “The dependability of a system is the ability to avoid service failures that are more frequent and more severe than is acceptable” Avizienis A., Laprie J-C., Randell B., Landwehr C: Basic Concepts and Taxonomy of Dependable and Secure Computing. IEEE (2004) • Failure Condition Severity DO 178B and Probability Objectives Dependability Failure Condition Severity Probability Objective Probability descriptive Catastrophic <10-9 Extremely Improbable Hazardous <10-7 (very) Improbable Major <10-5 Improbable Minor <10-3 Reasonably probable Redundancy is required to provide design protection from catastrophic failure conditions (ARP 4761) safety civil airborne systems 71

• Software side of it ▫ If the systems exhibit zero default then the interactive cockpit is dependable ▫ Formal description techniques (complete and unambiguous specification) ▫ No gap between code and implementation ▫ Models can be used to support exhaustive testing • Hardware side of it ▫ Hardware failures still possible (KCCU is a single point of failure) ▫ Network failure/bugs • Environment side of it ▫ Bit flips (altitude), memory errors, memory leaking (flight time 18 hours) … • Human side of it ▫ ~80% of accidents are attributed to human error ▫ Increase dependability level should not have a negative impact on usability of interactive system ▫ New mechanisms and methods to make cockpits dependable without increasing task difficulty for crew Several Views on the Problem 72

• Introduction (HCI in Critical Contexts) • Examples from the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits ▫ Zero default ▫ N-version programming ▫ Self-checking widgets ▫ Impact of hardware/software architecture on usability • Similarities with other domains (Space, ATM & Entertainment) • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk

First Architecture: User input of non critical data 74

Other Architecture: User input of critical data - Pilot as Monitor 75

Third Architecture: User input of critical data - Pilot as Monitor 76

Usability Assessment (envisioned efficiency) 77 Architectures for user input Total number of tasks Number of input – output devices to use Number of informati on and its use Number of user and interactive tasks Computed tasks difficulty Non-critical - Figure 5 (Figure 6)- 13 1 Input + 1 Output (used 7 times) 2 (used 8 times) 10 (3 cognitive, 2 perceptive, 1 motor, 1 interactive, 3 abstract) (8)+(3+2+1+1+(3*3)) 24 Critical System monitored - Figure 7 (Figure 13) - 15 + problem management 1 Input + 1 Output (used 7 times) 2 (used 8 times) 10 (3 cognitive, 2 perceptive, 1 motor, 1 interactive, 3 abstract) + problem management (8)+(3+2+1+1+(3*3)) 24 + problem management Critical Pilot monitored - Figure 8 (Figure 14) - 27 + problem management 1 Input + 2 Output (used 19 times) 3 (used 12 times) 21 (5 cognitive, 5 perceptive, 1 motor, 1 interactive, 9 abstract) + problem management (12)+(5+5+1+1+(3*9)) 51 + problem management Critical Fail safe - Figure 10 (Figure 15) – 25 + problem management 2 Input + 2 Output (used 14 times) 3 (used 12 times) 19 (5 cognitive, 5 perceptive, 1 motor, 1 interactive, 6 abstract) + problem management (12)+(5+5+1+1+(3*6)) 42 + problem management

Summary : without system error 78

• Introduction (HCI in Critical Contexts) • Introduction to the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits • Dealing with automation • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 79

Iterative design process ICO – PetShop Formal System modelling Preliminary System Model HAMSTERS Formal Task modelling Preliminary Task Model Correspondence between System & Task models co-execution Analysis Check Objectivies Towards User Testing OKProposal for mending the System Model Not OK ith Iteration Ith Iteration 80

Iterative Process Including Automation 81

WXR Task model 82

WXR System model 83

Task model: second iteration 84

System model: second iteration 85

Analyzing Gains and Losses • More detailed case study of satellite ground segment (PICARD satellite) • More complex tasks migrations based on information • Assessment of tasks complexity using scenarios • Assessment of the current task-system design with respect to Sheridan/Parasuraman levels (task-based and scenario-based) 86

Benefits of the approach • Very detailed description of function migration ▫ At the user levels ▫ At the system level • Simulation ▫ Of the various designs ▫ Connected to the models • Support for performance evaluation ▫ On the tasks ▫ On the systems ▫ On the couple tasks/systems • Decision support tools for identifying candidates for migration • Integration of formal notations 87

Towards an Integrated Process (1/2) Legend Needs and requirements analysis Interactive critical system deployment Phase of the process covered by our contribution Phase of the process not covered by our contribution Phase of the process partly covered by our contribution Minimal flow Training program development I II III IV Needs and requirements Proposal for redefining or mending requirements Proposal for redefining or mending requirements Proposal for redefining or mending models and/ or prototype Proposal for redefining or mending models and/or prototype Interactive Critical System Design Interactive Critical System: very high-fidelity prototype and specification (task and system models) Interactive Critical System and associated training program Proposal for modifying the training programOptional flow

Towards an Integrated Process (2/2)

• Introduction (HCI in Critical Contexts) • Examples from the Interactive Cockpits domain • A Research Contribution based on Models • Dependability for Interactive Systems/Cockpits • Similarities with other domains (Space, ATM & Entertainment) • Conclusions and perspectives Outline of the talk 90

• Dependability and usability are intrinsically related, but often studied independently in the literature • Increase dependability level can have a huge (possibly negative) impact on usability of interactive system • Necessity to design new mechanisms or methods which can make critical interactive system reliable assessing ▫ Impact on usability ▫ Impact on training ▫ Impact on performance ▫ Potential for automation (impact of degradation) HCI In Critical Contexts 91

Combining Design and Engineering of Interactive Systems 92 0 100% of time spent on design vs engineering Dependability Safety Market Push (Pilots, Airlines, …) Regulation Push –ARINC 661, 653 DO178B Innovation UX Operation performance Usability

Thoughts for the future • Construction ▫ Adequate tools ▫ Adequate machines ▫ Adequate factories • Product characteristics ▫ Properties / qualities ▫ Handling and managing conflicts rationally • Understanding and handling the borders ▫ Formal and informal ▫ Critical / public ▫ Work environment / entertainment-social 93

Thank you very much … for the invitation for your attention

Acknowledgements The work presented is partly funded by: ResIST EU Network of Excellence on Resilience for IST CNES R&T projects TORTUGA & ALDABRA Airbus contract UPS/ CNRS/AIRBUS PBO D08028747-Thèse 788/2008 EUROCONTROL HALA! (Higher Automation Level in Aviation research network) Thanks to my colleagues: Yannick Deleris (Airbus), Jean- Charles Fabre (LAAS) and David Navarre, Célia Martinie and Eric Barboni (ICS-IRIT)

HAMSTERS v2 Available for download • Feedback greatly appreciated • Tech support for 3 years (min) • Requests for extensions will be all processed • Collaborative aspects under way • Will be open source when scientifically stable (already built with Maven) 96 http://www.irit.fr/recherches/ICS/softwares/hamsters/ Google Hamsters + ICS IRIT

HAMSTERS v2 Available for download • Feedback greatly appreciated • Tech support for 3 years (min) • Requests for extensions will be all processed • Collaborative aspects under way • Will be open source when scientifically stable (already built with Maven) 97 http://www.irit.fr/recherches/ICS/softwares/hamsters/ Google Hamsters + ICS IRIT

Why Another Tool for Task Modelling • HAMSTERS deals with user goals • HAMSTERS is more accurate • It is stronger than CTTE • It deals with small case studies (lab) • It deals with real case studies (companies) • It requires very little training • It will support collaboration • It is connected to other tools • It has been designed by d’Artagnan relatives

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