2014 Neonatal care/Newborn puppies

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Information about 2014 Neonatal care/Newborn puppies
Education

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: EmmanuelFontaine2

Source: slideshare.net

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Slides of our talk on canine neonatology

Neonatal mortality in canines: Tips to fight a real threat Emmanuel FONTAINE DVM, MSc, PhD, Dipl ECAR Royal Canin Canada

A day with our TSV: an usual situation “They’re not doing well… I think?”

Question: What’s a healthy puppy?  Active/breathing normally/warm  No congenital defects Suckling/gaining weight

The « fadding puppy syndrom »??? Let’s focus on what you guys can do to optimize neonates’ survival

Our goals today I. What to do even before parturition II.Know the 3-H syndrome III.Prevent infectious diseases’ related risks

The problem with parturition Prolonged expulsion time  Oxygen deprivation METABOLIC ACIDOSIS Clinical signs on puppies: - Weakness… - Pale mucosas… - Struggling to breath…

The problem with parturition % neonatal mortality 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Eutocia Dystocia C-section

Question on parturition: When is it « normal »? When is it not? When? Beginning of labour Time to expel one pup already engaged Delay between two puppies OK Not OK < 24 h after drop of T > 48 h after drop and no labour 20 to 30 min > 1 hour 20 to 30 min 1 to 2 hours at the end of parturition Improductive efforts Total duration 2 hours > 2 to 4 hours at the end of parturition 30 to 60 minutes 4 to 8 Heures (until 24h for big litters or primiparous bitches).

What you guys need to know: … and when you should start to worry  ANTICIPATE !!!

Recent advances in neonatology Prevention of dystocia Breed

Recent advances in neonatology Prevention of dystocia Maternal weight

It is important to controle the body condition during the gestation

Recent advances in neonatology Prevention of dystocia Age at 1st breeding

Recent advances in neonatology Prevention of dystocia Litter size

Recent advances in neonatology Prevention of dystocia Schedule a C-section 50 C-sections, 15 different breeds 229 puppies… 0% neonatal mortality after surgery Levy et al, 2007

Canine Neonatal mortality Management of parturition Monitoring of parturition?

Recent advances in neonatology After parturition… Neonatal resuscitation • Open the amnios in the 30’’-1min after birth • Aspirate/free airways (secretions, meconium)/ use of a suction S Buff © S Buff ©

Recent advances in neonatology After parturition… • Massage the thorax of the animal

??? “Shaken puppy syndrom”

And when the puppies are there… Focus on the 3-H Hypothermia Hypoglycemia DeHydration

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Unable to regulate its internal temperature First week of life: 35-36°C Hypothermia Less active < 34°C No more digestion… < 32°C Loss of suckling reflex… © Internet

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates 1st © UMES - Brau

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates 2nd

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Few glucose reserves Predisposed to hypoglycaemia Few reserves Liver/Pancreas not functional yet Regulation  FEEDING © Internet

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Predisposed to dehydratation “We are animated water” > 82% water AND - Skin barrier not completely effective yet… - Immature kidneys…

Ensure proper hydration of the puppies © UMES - Casseleux

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates “A healthy puppy gains weight on a daily basis” Weigh EVERYDAY during the first 2 weeks of life Weight loss is usually the 1st clinical sign when something goes wrong If stagnation or decrease: - Try to Bottle/tube feeding - If no improvement vet consultation

Why using dedicated milk replacers?

Why using dedicated milk replacers? About the use of milk replacers… CP CN CT (Case et al, 2011) (Adkins et al, 2001) (Jacobsen et el, 2004) Energy (kcal ME/L) 690 1400-1800 850-1600 PT (%) 4.6 6.9 8.7 Fat (%) 4.5 11.4 12.7 Lactose (%) 4.6 4.1 4.2 Different profiles requiring different nutritional solutions…

A day with our TSV: an usual situation Infectious diseases: something we often suspect

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Immunity through colostrum consumption Immature immune system Colostrum 1st milk secretion Enriched in specific antibodies… Secreted approx. ??? © Internet Absorbed approx. ???

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Chastant et al, 2012 Intestinal barrier mainly permeable during the first 12h after birth Sharp decrease as early as after 4h…

Canine Neonatal mortality Non infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Practical consequences © UMES - Malandain Be sure neonates suckle colostrum: - If not, turn to “alternatives”: - commercial substitutes? - frozen colostrum - foster mother Ensure optinal hygiene in the nursery - Cleaning/Disinfecting - Optimal design © UMES - Casseleux

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia What is it??? Bacterial overgrowth Where do they come from??? Immune system overload Death…

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Two origins The mother The environment

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Two origins Tartar !!! Milk !!! The mother

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Environmental contamination Licking the surfaces Umbilical cord +++++ The environment

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Septicemia Environmental contamination Umbilical cord infection Ocular infection Skin infection First requirement: good hygiene of the neonates environment!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates What you can do to help.. Care of the umbilical cord Belly of the puppy Umbilical cord = blood vessels = communicate with the abdominal cavity!!! 2/ 3/1/ Suture clean Cut it with it Disinfect its far from below the scissors the belly! terminal end with an suture! antiseptic solution!!!

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates Specific agents Many are described!!! Virus Bacteria Parasites Herpesvirus CHV1 Brucella Neospora Minute Virus CPV1 Leptospira Toxoplasma Distemper Coxiella … … …

Canine Neonatal mortality Infectious causes of mortality in canine neonates

Conclusion: How to give canine neonates the best chances? BE PREPARED!!!

Thank you for your attention!!! Questions? Feel free to ask: emmanuel.fontaine@royalcanin.com www.linkedin.com/in/emmanuelfontaine twitter.com/DrEFontaine www.facebook.com/emmanuel.fontaine.758

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