2012 Water & Wastewater Master Plan

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Information about 2012 Water & Wastewater Master Plan

Published on January 4, 2017

Author: CityofKilleen

Source: slideshare.net

1. Water and Wastewater Master Plan Prepared for: City of Killeen Prepared by: FREESE AND NICHOLS, INC. 4055 International Plaza, Suite 200 Fort Worth, Texas 76109 817-735-7300 KIL11275

2.   Water and Wastewater Master Plan Prepared for: City of Killeen Prepared by: FREESE AND NICHOLS, INC. 4055 International Plaza, Suite 200 Fort Worth, Texas 76109 817‐735‐7300 KIL11275

3. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen i TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... ES-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................1-1 1.1 Scope of Work...............................................................................................................................1-1 1.2 List of Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................1-2 2.0 POPULATION........................................................................................................................................2-1 2.1 Service Area...................................................................................................................................2-1 2.2 Historical Population .................................................................................................................2-3 2.3 Projected Population..................................................................................................................2-3 3.0 WATER DEMANDS .............................................................................................................................3-1 3.1 Historical Water Demands.......................................................................................................3-1 3.2 Projected Water Demands .......................................................................................................3-2 4.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING WATER SYSTEM ..............................................................4-1 4.1 Pressure Planes............................................................................................................................4-1 4.2 Water Lines....................................................................................................................................4-4 4.3 Wholesale Water Supply...........................................................................................................4-4 4.4 Pump Stations...............................................................................................................................4-5 4.5 Storage Facilities..........................................................................................................................4-5 5.0 WATER SYSTEM ANALYSES AND HYDRAULIC MODELING ..............................................5-1 5.1 Water Model Development......................................................................................................5-1 5.2 Existing Water System Analysis.............................................................................................5-8 5.3 Future Water System Analysis ............................................................................................ 5-14 6.0 WATER SYSTEM CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS PLAN..............................................................6-1 6.1 Water Projects from 2013 to 2015.......................................................................................6-4 6.2 Water Projects from 2016 to 2018.......................................................................................6-5 6.3 Water Projects from 2019 to 2021.......................................................................................6-6 6.4 Water Projects from 2022 to 2024.......................................................................................6-7 6.5 Water Projects from 2025 to 2027.......................................................................................6-8 6.6 Water Projects from 2028 to 2030.......................................................................................6-9 6.7 Water Projects from 2031 to 2033.................................................................................... 6-10 7.0 WASTEWATER FLOWS ....................................................................................................................7-1 7.1 Historical Wastewater Flows..................................................................................................7-1 7.2 Projected Wastewater Flows ..................................................................................................7-2 8.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING WASTEWATER SYSTEM...............................................8-1 8.1 Major Basins..................................................................................................................................8-1

4. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ii 8.2 Wastewater Lines........................................................................................................................8-1 8.3 Wastewater Treatment Plants................................................................................................8-3 8.4 Lift Stations....................................................................................................................................8-3 9.0 WASTEWATER SYSTEM ANALYSES AND HYDRAULIC MODELING...............................9-1 9.1 Wastewater Hydraulic Model Development.....................................................................9-1 9.2 Existing Wastewater System Analysis.................................................................................9-2 9.3 Future Wastewater System Analysis ...................................................................................9-4 10.0 WASTEWATER SYSTEM CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS PLAN............................................ 10-1 10.1 Wastewater Projects from 2013 to 2015........................................................................ 10-4 10.2 Wastewater Projects from 2016 to 2018........................................................................ 10-5 10.3 Wastewater Projects from 2019 to 2021........................................................................ 10-6 10.4 Wastewater Projects from 2022 to 2024........................................................................ 10-7 10.5 Wastewater Projects from 2025 to 2027........................................................................ 10-9 10.6 Wastewater Projects from 2028 to 2030........................................................................ 10-9 10.7 Wastewater Projects from 2031 to 2033......................................................................10-10 LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1: Historical Population ..........................................................................................................2-3 Table 2-2: Population Projections.......................................................................................................2-4 Table 3-1: Historical Water Usage.......................................................................................................3-2 Table 3-2: 2012 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane..............................................3-4 Table 3-3: 2017 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane..............................................3-4 Table 3-4: 2022 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane..............................................3-4 Table 3-5: 2032 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane..............................................3-5 Table 4-1: Summary of Pumping Facilities......................................................................................4-6 Table 4-2: Existing Ground Storage Tanks.......................................................................................4-7 Table 4-3: Existing Elevated Storage Tanks ....................................................................................4-7 Table 5-1: Initial C-value Assignments..............................................................................................5-1 Table 5-2: Existing System TCEQ Storage Requirements...........................................................5-8 Table 5-3: TCEQ Service Pumping Requirements.........................................................................5-9 Table 5-4: Existing System TCEQ Pumping Requirements........................................................5-9 Table 6-1: Water Projects Unit Costs .................................................................................................6-1 Table 6-2: Water Capital Improvements Plan Summary............................................................6-2 Table 7-1: Historical Wastewater Flows...........................................................................................7-2 Table 7-2: 2012 Wastewater Flows by Basin..................................................................................7-3 Table 7-3: 2017 Wastewater Flows by Basin..................................................................................7-3

5. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen iii Table 7-4: 2022 Wastewater Flows by Basin..................................................................................7-4 Table 7-5: 2032 Wastewater Flows by Basin..................................................................................7-4 Table 8-1: Lift Station Capacity.............................................................................................................8-3 Table 9-1: TCEQ Slope Requirements................................................................................................9-4 Table 10-1: Wastewater Projects Unit Costs ..................................................................................10-1 Table 10-2: Wastewater Capital Improvements Plan Summary.............................................10-2 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1: Service Area............................................................................................................................2-2 Figure 2-2: Service Population by Census Tract..............................................................................2-5 Figure 3-1: Historical and Projected Water Demands...................................................................3-3 Figure 4-1: Existing Water System........................................................................................................4-2 Figure 4-2: Existing System Schematic ...............................................................................................4-3 Figure 4-3: Pipeline Diameter by Length............................................................................................4-4 Figure 4-4: Pipeline Material by Length .............................................................................................4-4 Figure 5-1: Pressure Recording Data for Lower Pressure Plane...............................................5-3 Figure 5-2: Pressure Recording Data for Upper, Middle, and Douglas Mt.............................5-4 Figure 5-3: Pressure Recording Data for Transmission Main to PS #4..................................5-5 Figure 5-4: Pressure Recorder Locations...........................................................................................5-6 Figure 5-5: Existing System Minimum Pressures ........................................................................5-12 Figure 5-6: Existing System Minimum Pressures ........................................................................5-13 Figure 6-1: Water System Capital Improvement Plan...................................................................6-3 Figure 8-1: Pipeline Diameter by Length............................................................................................8-1 Figure 8-2: Pipeline Material by Length .............................................................................................8-1 Figure 8-3: Existing Wastewater System............................................................................................8-2 Figure 9-1: Existing Wastewater System Analysis..........................................................................9-3 Figure 9-2: Proposed Basin Delineation.............................................................................................9-6 Figure 9-3: Sewer System Rehabilitation...........................................................................................9-8 Figure 10-1: Wastewater System Capital Improvement Plan ..............................................10-3 APPENDICES Appendix A – Water Capital Improvement Plan Cost Tables Appendix B – Wastewater Capital Improvement Plan Cost Tables Appendix C – Water Model Calibration Results Appendix D – Modeled Pumping and Tank Levels Appendix E – Modeled Pressure and Fire Flow Maps

6. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.0 INTRODUCTION The City of Killeen is a growing community located in central Texas, within Bell County. The City currently provides water and wastewater service to over 131,000 people. The population within the service area is projected to grow by almost 50,000 people in the next 20 years. Accommodating this growth in an efficient and cost effective manner, while also focusing on the maintenance of existing aging water and wastewater system assets, is the purpose of this 2012 Water and Wastewater Master Plan. This report has been prepared to provide the City of Killeen a planning tool that will serve as a guide for short-term and long-term improvements to the infrastructure within the water and wastewater systems. 2.0 POPULATION Population and projected land use are important elements in the analysis of water distribution and wastewater collection systems. Water demands and wastewater loads are dependent on the residential population and commercial development served by the systems and determine the sizing and location of system infrastructure. A thorough analysis of historical and projected populations provides the basis for future water demands and wastewater loads. Based on our analysis and historical trends, an annual growth rate of 1.3% was used to project the 5- year population. The annual growth rate was increased for the subsequent planning periods assuming growth would increase into the future due to the availability of developable land in the service area and the recovery of the economy. Table ES-1 presents the water and wastewater service population projections for each planning period. Table ES-1: Population Projections Planning Year Population 2012 131,474 2017 139,919 2022 151,330 2032 179,825

7. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-2 3.0 WATER DEMANDS Reviewing historical water demands provides insight into selecting design criteria used to project future water demands. Annual average day demand, maximum day to average day peaking factors, and per- capita consumption were reviewed and provided a basis for determining the design criteria used to project water demands. Figure ES-1 illustrates the historical and projected water demands for the City of Killeen. Maximum day demand data from 2006 to 2010 was not included due to inaccurate water metering. Figure ES-1: Historical and Projected Water Demands 4.0 DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING WATER SYSTEM The City of Killeen’s distribution system consists of 617 miles of water lines. Pipeline diameters range in size from 1-inch to 30-inches. The City acquires water from a wholesale water supplier to provide service to its residents. Currently, the City exclusively purchases treated surface water from Bell County Water Control and Improvement District #1. The surface water is part of the 39,000 acre-feet/year of raw water that Killeen has secured in Lake Belton. The existing maximum daily supply of treated water is 32.0 mgd. The City of Killeen receives the treated water at four delivery points. Five pump stations are utilized to supply water throughout the distribution system. Twelve ground storage tanks and five elevated storage tanks also make up the distribution system facilities. 17.09 18.19 19.67 23.38 28.20 30.01 32.46 38.57 47.94 51.02 55.18 65.57 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 WaterDemand(mgd) Year Average Day Maximum Day Peak Hour ProjectedHistorical

8. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-3 5.0 WATER SYSTEM ANALYSES AND HYDRAULIC MODELING Hydraulic analyses were conducted to identify deficiencies in the City of Killeen’s existing water distribution system and to establish a capital improvements plan to improve the existing system and meet projected water demands through 2032. Various combinations of improvements and system modifications were investigated to determine the most appropriate approach for meeting projected demands. Parameters used in developing the capital improvements plan included increasing system reliability, renewing aging infrastructure, simplifying system operations, meeting required fire flows, and maintaining proper residual pressures. The City of Killeen’s water model was developed using H2OMap Water software by Innovyze and consists of all pipes and facilities in the distribution system. In order to verify that the hydraulic model accurately represented the actual distribution system, a model calibration analysis was performed. The calibration process involved adjusting system operation, C-values, demand allocation, and peaking factors to match a known condition. Calibration is an important component of building and using a hydraulic model. Achieving a good calibration to real-world conditions instills confidence that the model elements are reflective of the actual distribution system infrastructure and operation. The hydraulic model was used to evaluate the existing distribution system to assess current pumping and storage capacity, residual pressures, and fire flow capacity. This analysis is performed to determine if there are any existing system deficiencies and also to provide a baseline for the current level of service. The results of the analysis are summarized below:  The City is currently exceeding all TCEQ requirements for storage and pumping capacity.  A review of existing pressures throughout the system revealed three areas of low pressure due to high ground elevations.  The majority of the water system can provide at least 1,000 gpm, which is a typical residential fire flow demand. Available fire flows below 1,000 gpm are due to small diameter lines in isolated areas. Once the existing system was evaluated, hydraulic analyses were performed on the distribution system under future demand conditions. Water system improvements were developed to accommodate the anticipated residential and non-residential growth over the next 20 years. Challenges facing the water system include providing additional supply and transmission capacity, meeting elevated storage and pumping requirements, providing service to areas of growth south of the existing City limits where little

9. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-4 or no infrastructure currently exists, and maintaining aging infrastructure through asset management. Key observations and recommendations resulting from modeling and evaluation of the distribution system are:  The projected demands exceed the existing treated water rate of 32 mgd in 2022. Therefore, it is recommended that an additional water supply facility be constructed near Highway 195 and Chaparral Road.  Several areas were identified that need additional transmission capacity to convey water throughout the distribution system. Transmission lines are larger diameter pipelines primarily used to transfer water from the source to areas of demand.  Based on the evaluation of existing and future system operations, it is recommended that the City maintain 150 gallons/connection of elevated storage, which is more than the minimum TCEQ requirement.  As new development occurs within Killeen’s water service area, new water lines are needed to extend service to unserved areas. It is recommended that a minimum line size of 12-inches be installed, creating one-mile grids where possible.  Water line break data along with pipe material and diameter were used to identify water lines to be replaced and/or rehabilitated. Replacing or rehabilitating aging water lines can potentially reduce the number of breaks, as well as increase available fire flow and improve water quality in the area. 6.0 WATER SYSTEM CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN Freese and Nichols, Inc. (FNI) developed a capital improvements plan for the City of Killeen to ensure high quality water service that promotes residential and commercial development. The recommended improvements will provide the required capacity and reliability to meet projected water demands through the year 2032. Utilizing the hydraulic model to analyze the water distribution system, improvements were phased into the three year planning period in which they become hydraulically necessary. It is recommended that these projects be constructed generally in the order listed; however, development patterns may make it necessary to construct some projects sooner or later than anticipated. Table ES-2 summarizes the costs of the recommended water system capital improvements plan for the City of Killeen.

10. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-5 Table ES-2: Summary of Water Capital Improvements Plan Phase Cost 2013-2015 $7,711,100 2016-2018 $14,716,810 2019-2021 $7,931,230 2022-2024 $12,069,400 2025-2027 $10,292,920 2028-2030 $10,128,400 2031-2033 $11,268,650 Total $74,118,510 7.0 WASTEWATER FLOWS FNI analyzed monthly flow data provided by the City from January 2005 through February 2012 to determine the historical trends in system-wide average daily flow and per-capita flow. Nearly two years of monthly flow data at each of the two wastewater treatment plants were also provided to determine if the average day per-capita flow was the same for both plants. To project future average wastewater flows, FNI recommends using 125 gpcd for wastewater flow in the North WWTP service area and an average flow rate of 75 gpcd was selected for the basins contributing to the South WWTP as determined through a review of historical data. Future average daily wastewater loads were calculated by applying the selected per-capita loadings to the growth in population for the 2012, 2017, 2022 and 2032 planning periods. To determine the peak wet weather to average day peaking factor FNI utilized the peaking factors developed in the 2010 SSES Basin Prioritization Study for a 4-inch, 5-year, 6-hour design storm. Tables ES-3 provides a summary of the population and wastewater flow by basin for each planning period. Table ES-3: Summary of Wastewater Flow Projections Year Population Average Day Flow (mgd) Peak Wet Weather Flow (mgd) 2012 131,474 13.70 54.78 2017 139,919 14.52 57.65 2022 151,330 15.65 61.32 2032 179,825 18.35 71.04 8.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING WASTEWATER SYSTEM The City of Killeen’s existing wastewater system consists of 535 miles of wastewater collector mains and interceptors. Pipeline diameters range in size from 4-inches to 42-inches. The wastewater system is

11. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-6 served by two wastewater treatment plants that are owned and operated by Bell County Water Control and Improvement District #1. The North WWTP has a total treatment capacity of 21 mgd, while the South WWTP has a treatment capacity of 6 mgd. Lift stations are necessary when wastewater needs to be pumped to a higher elevation where the gravity flow can resume to the outfall of the system. Due to the varying topography citywide, Killeen operates 14 lift stations throughout the service area. The lift stations vary in size from small development addition lift stations near the city limits to the three large lift stations in the center of the City. 9.0 WASTEWATER SYSTEM ANALYSES AND HYDRAULIC MODELING Hydraulic analyses were conducted to identify deficiencies in the City of Killeen’s existing wastewater collection system and to establish a capital improvements plan to improve the existing system and handle projected wastewater flows through 2032. Various combinations of improvements and modifications were investigated to determine the most appropriate approach for conveying projected flows. Parameters used in developing the improvements plan included increasing system reliability, simplifying system operations, handling peak wet weather flows, maintaining proper velocities, and reducing surcharging and sanitary sewer overflows. FNI built a hydraulic model of the City of Killeen’s wastewater system using H2OMap Sewer. FNI compared the average day and peak wet weather flows to the flows that were measured during the 2010 SSES Basin Prioritization Study to verify the model and imitate real world operations. The City also provided permanent flow metering data from March 20, 2012, when 4.3 inches of rain fell across the City. The data was used to compare flows from the model to an existing storm event. The hydraulic model was used to evaluate the existing collection system to assess the ability of the system to adequately convey wastewater without excessively surcharging or overflowing. This analysis was performed to determine if there are any existing system deficiencies and also to provide a baseline for the current level of service. The results of the analysis are summarized below:  Modeling showed no overflows under existing system conditions.  Areas in the northern and western portion of the City in the WWTP, South Nolan Creek, and Long Branch Basins that flow to the North WWTP experience high levels of I/I based on the observed peaking factors from the 2010 SSES Basin Prioritization Study.  The interceptor that flows into Lift Station #1 experiences significant surcharging.

12. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-7  The 21-inch and 12-inch wastewater line that runs parallel to the west of Twin Creek Dr. and the upstream 12-inch portion that is parallel to Westcliff Road experience a significant amount of surcharging under existing peak wet weather flows. The model indicates that the line is exceeding capacity and is nearly overflowing under design storm conditions at the intersection where there are two 12-inch wastewater lines conveying to a single 12-inch line. Once the existing system was evaluated, hydraulic analyses were performed on the collection system under future peak flow conditions. Wastewater system improvements were developed to accommodate the anticipated residential and non-residential growth over the next 20 years. To serve the future growth, the City of Killeen must rehabilitate, replace or upsize existing infrastructure and provide additional service to areas of growth where little or no infrastructure currently exists. Key observations and recommendations resulting from modeling and evaluation of the collection system are:  Ground elevations and recommended improvements to various lift stations and force mains revealed a change in delineation of wastewater basin boundaries.  Evaluating the feasibility of a regional WWTP in the southern portion of the service area may be beneficial in the future depending on how development occurs and the interest of other potential regional partners.  FNI recommends that the City limit and/or reduce the number of lift stations where possible due to the cost of operating and maintaining the facilities. Lift Station #24A can be abandoned in the future after the flow is diverted by gravity to the Trimmier Creek Basin. There are also three recommended projects to divert flow from Lift Stations #20, #23, and #24 from the South Nolan Creek and the Central basins to the Trimmier Creek basin.  Multiple lift stations are needed in the very southern portion of the wastewater service area to pump the flow to the South WWTP. Model results also indicate that there are existing wastewater mains that do not have capacity to convey future wastewater flows without excessive surcharging or overflowing.  Additional SSES work performed by Pipeline Analysis was used to identify manhole and sewer line rehabilitation candidates. Performing a city wide rehabilitation program will reduce the amount of I/I in the system while extending the life of the existing pipes and manholes.

13. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen ES-8 10.0 WASTEWATER SYSTEM CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS PLAN FNI developed a capital improvements plan (CIP) for the City of Killeen to ensure the wastewater collection system will effectively and efficiently continue to convey flow to the wastewater treatment plants. The recommended improvements will provide the required capacity and reliability to meet projected wastewater flows through year 2032. Utilizing the hydraulic model to analyze the wastewater collection system, improvements were phased into the three year planning period in which they become hydraulically necessary. It is recommended that these projects be constructed generally in the order listed; however, development patterns may make it necessary to construct some projects sooner or later than anticipated. Table ES-4 summarizes the costs of the recommended wastewater system capital improvements plan for the City of Killeen. The total water and wastewater costs are presented in Table ES-5. Table ES-4: Summary of Wastewater Capital Improvements Plan Phase Cost 2013-2015 $12,470,240 2016-2018 $9,981,550 2019-2021 $9,295,360 2022-2024 $6,875,650 2025-2027 $8,238,460 2028-2030 $8,889,490 2031-2033 $9,270,390 Total $65,021,140 Table ES-5: Summary of Water and Wastewater Costs Phase Water Cost Wastewater Cost Total 2013-2015 $7,711,100 $12,470,240 $20,181,340 2016-2018 $14,716,810 $9,981,550 $24,698,360 2019-2021 $7,931,230 $9,295,360 $17,226,590 2022-2024 $12,069,400 $6,875,650 $18,945,050 2025-2027 $10,292,920 $8,238,460 $18,531,380 2028-2030 $10,128,400 $8,889,490 $19,017,890 2031-2033 $11,268,650 $9,270,390 $20,539,040 Total $74,118,510 $65,021,140 $139,139,650

14. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 1-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The City of Killeen is a growing community located in central Texas, within Bell County. The City currently provides water and wastewater service to over 131,000 people. The population within the service area is projected to grow by almost 50,000 people in the next 20 years. Accommodating this growth in an efficient and cost effective manner, while also focusing on the maintenance of existing water and wastewater system assets, is the purpose of this 2012 Water and Wastewater Master Plan. This report has been prepared to provide the City of Killeen a planning tool that will serve as a guide for short-term and long-term improvements to the infrastructure within the water and wastewater systems. 1.1 SCOPE OF WORK Freese and Nichols, Inc. (FNI) was retained in 2011 by the City of Killeen to prepare a Water and Wastewater Master Plan. The goals of the Water and Wastewater Master Plan were to evaluate the integrity of the existing water and wastewater systems and to recommend a phased CIP through the year 2032. The recommended improvements will serve as a basis for the design, construction, and financing of facilities required to meet Killeen’s water and wastewater capacity and system renewal needs. The major elements of the scope of this project included:  Water and Wastewater Model Development and Calibration  Population Projections  Water Demand and Wastewater Flow Projections  Water and Wastewater Hydraulic Analyses  Water and Wastewater System Capital Improvements Plan  Water and Wastewater System Master Plan Report

15. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 1-2 1.2 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviation Actual AD Average Day Demand CCN Certificate of Convenience and Necessity CIP Capital Improvement Program EPS Extended Period Simulation EST Elevated Storage Tank ETJ Extraterritorial Jurisdiction FNI Freese and Nichols, Inc. GIS Geographic Information System gpcd Gallons per Capita per Day gpd Gallons per Day HGL Hydraulic Grade Line I/I Infiltration and Inflow lf Linear Feet LS Lift Station MD Maximum Day Demand MG Million Gallons mgd Million Gallons per Day PH Peak Hour Demand PRV Pressure Reducing Valve PS Pump Station psi Pounds per Square Inch SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SSES Sanitary Sewer Evaluation Survey SSO Sanitary Sewer Overflow SSOI Sanitary Sewer Overflow Initiative TCEQ Texas Commission on Environmental Quality WL Water Line WTP Water Treatment Plant WWTP Wastewater Treatment Plant

16. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 2-1 2.0 POPULATION Population and projected land use are important elements in the analysis of water distribution and wastewater collection systems. Water demands and wastewater loads are dependent on the residential population and commercial development served by the systems and determine the sizing and location of system infrastructure. A thorough analysis of historical and projected populations provides the basis for future water demands and wastewater loads. 2.1 SERVICE AREA The existing water and wastewater service area consists of the current city limits. The future service area for the Water and Wastewater System Master Plan includes the existing city limits and a portion of the extra-territorial jurisdiction (ETJ) that extends south of the city limits to the Lampasas River. Figure 2-1 shows the service area evaluated as part of Killeen’s Water and Wastewater Master Plan. For this study, the future service area for Killeen includes service to new and existing customers within the current city limits over the next 10 years and service in the ETJ beyond the 10-year planning period.

17. FORTHOODST US 190 HWY TRIMMIERRD WSYOUNGDR RANCIER AVE CHAPARRAL RD STAN SCHLUETER LP STAGECOACH RD 38TH ST CENTRAL TEXAS EXPY LAKE RD WESTCLIFF RD 2NDST 10THST GRAYST ONIONRD VETERANS MEMORIAL BLVD ZEPHYR RD SHAWNDR OLDFM440FM REESE CREEK RD FAWN DR 60THST ROBINETT RD CLEAR CREEK RD MESADR WATERCREST RD CHANTZDR JASPER DR JANISDR ELMS RD ILLINOIS AVE ROSEWOOD D R GUS DR TEAL DR CUNNINGHAM RD EASTTRIMMIERRD E AVE TERRACE DR JIM AVE COLLEGEST RUIZDR ASPEN DR G AVE WINDFIELD DR FLORENCERD TW IN CREEK D R ESTELLEAVE WATER ST ATKINSON DR STONETREE DR LEVYLN ROYREYNOLDSDR M A RY J ANE DR EXCEL DR YATESRD JOHN RD LOVE RD DUNCAN AVE IDA DR GILMERST STALLION DR NEWT DR ME A D O WDR HALLMARK AVE CORA AVE SILTSTONE LP REIN DR CODYPOERD PLATINUMDR BERMUDADR WEST LN LOW ES BLVD 18THST EDGEFIELD ST LITTLE NOLAN RD LEO LN 16THST ALVINDR CLAIRIDGE AVE TAFT ST NINA DR ROY J SMITH DR JAMES LP POLK ST ANDOVERDR FIELDCREST DR VEGA LN VAHRENKAMP DR LAVA LN I AVE ROOTAVE VIOLA DR M ARTIN LUTH ER KING JR BLVD LIBRADR SHERMANDR GOWENDR R A M P SHIMLADR LEADER DR WHITE AVE FOSTERLN BUNDRANTDR HERNDONDR JASMINELN SULFUR SPRIN G DR ROSEAVEWATEROAK DR WILLOWSPRINGSRD LAURA DR HILLST ANNA LEE DR WALESD R BUNNYTRL DIANA DR DICKENSDR TOWER HILL LN LAGOTRL G REENL EE DR CREEKSIDE DR DEERWOODTRL HITCHROCKDR DUNN AVE GREENGATE DR MALLARD LN GOLDEN GATE DR TURKEYTROTRD S CHWALD RD SCHORN D R 46THST 6TH ST OAK HILL DR 58THST RIOBLVD JOHN HELEN DR MONEYPIT RD LOOP R D AUBURN DR WEISS DR WHEELER AVE BOYDAVE CURTIS DR G ROVE DR LLOYD DR VARDEMAN A VE CINCH DR FLAT SLATE DR SCHOTTISCHE LN LIBERTYST BRISTOL DR LORENA DR CHRISTIEDR TH UNDER CREEK DR BACON RANCH RD NATURAL LN 42NDST KELLEY LN HIDDENHILLDR OAKALLARD BRANCHDR GLOVERDR RAINLILY ST PARK RD CROCKETTDR PRIVATE PRIVATE WESTRIMDR SWANN ER LP BRIDLEDR BILLS RD BACHELORBUTTONBLVD DAN DR LOHSE RD SALT FORK DR BLAKE ST LLEWELLYN DR SERPENTINE DR ERIC DR LARK SPURDR ALA N CIR WOOD AVE PRIVATE DR LUXOR DR TIFFANY CIR SILVERHILLDR PRATHERDR 22NDST BIRMIN G HAM CIR SANTE FE DR LANCE LOOP SUNNY LN OAK VALLEYDR POWDER RIVER DR RILEY DR LIO NS G ATELN CHESTNUTDR BOWFIELDDR SIS SO M RD QUARRYDR OSTERDR CA RMEN ST 54TH ST FEATHERLINERD SPARROWRD ZINC DR FM 3481 RD TYRELDR TUMBLEWEEDDR 8THST ADEELDR BRYCE AVE TIM BERLINEDR TOLEDODR BOSWELL DR BENDING TRL PLAINS DR ALI DR ALAMOCITOS CREEK DR ALEXANDERST BARBED WIRE DR DRIFTWOOD DR PECOSDR SAVAGEDR LEWIS ST LOYAL LN GALLOP DR KILPATRIC K DR LYDIA DR LYRADR GOODHUEDR MANDALAY DR CLOUD LN FLANIGANDR RIMES RANCH DR CROSS DR LEE DR HAZEL DR MAEDELL DR MATTIE DR PARKST WILLOWSWAY JENNIFER DR GAUTIERAVE SHEILA DR PONDVIEW DR CHIPS DR DEXTERDR LEROYCIR TUMUT LN DAYTONDR ELMS RD RAMP CENTRAL TEXAS EXPY RAMP US 190 HWY PARKRD 8THST ROY REY N OLDSDR RAMP FORTHOODST CUNNIN GHAM RD Ushy 190 Sthy195 I35 Farm To Market Road 2484 TrimmerRd E Rancier Ave SWSYoungDr SFortHoodSt HillRd Battalion Ave IndianTrl E Elms Rd Clear Creek Rd E Stagecoach Rd W es tcliff R d Farm To Market Road 439 E Stan Schlueter Lp W Veterans Memorial Blvd HoodRd E Farm To Market Road 2410 W Stan Schlueter Lp N 38thSt Zephyr Rd Tank Destroyer Blvd Central Dr S AnnBlvd NRoyReynoldsDr FarmToMarketRoad440 StonetreeDr NWSYoungDr E Veterans Memorial Blvd NolaRuthBlvd Mountain Lion Rd MartinLutherKingBlvd LevyCrossingRd 60thSt NFortHoodSt N C entral Texas Expy Terminal Ave Sthy 138 Farm To M ark etRoad 440 Sthy195 Sthy195 ClearCreekRd W Veterans Memorial Blvd Sthy195 Ushy 190 Tank Destroyer Blvd FIGURE 2-1 CITY OF KILLEEN FUTURE SERVICE AREA Created by Freese and Nichols, Inc. Job No.: KIL11275 Location: H:W_WW_PLANNINGDELIVERABLES11-Final_W_WW_Report(Figure-2-1)-Service_area.mxd Updated: October 16, 2012 0 4,000 8,000 SCALE IN FEET I LEGEND Future Service Area Road Lake Stream Parcel City Limits Fort Hood ETJ

18. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 2-3 2.2 HISTORICAL POPULATION The City of Killeen Planning and Development Services Department provided yearly population data from 2000 through 2011. The data indicated an increasing growth rate with an average annual growth of 3.68% over the last 11 years. Table 2-1 presents the historical populations for the City of Killeen. The 2010 population listed in Table 2-1 is the official population posted by the U.S Census Bureau. The significant increase in population from 2009 to 2010 is likely due to underestimating the City population in the years between the 2000 Census and the 2010 Census. No adjustments were made to past data when the 2010 Census population was released. Table 2-1: Historical Population Year Population Growth Rate 2000* 86,911 - 2001 89,858 3.39% 2002 93,587 4.15% 2003 100,911 7.83% 2004 102,461 1.54% 2005 104,032 1.53% 2006 105,604 1.51% 2007 112,434 6.47% 2008 116,934 4.00% 2009 119,510 2.20% 2010* 127,921 7.04% 2011 128,967 0.82% Average 3.68% *Official Census population 2.3 PROJECTED POPULATION Population projections are an important component of the water and wastewater master planning process. The magnitude and distribution of the growth in population will dictate where future water and wastewater infrastructure is required. It is important to note that projecting future population is challenging, especially for relatively small geographic areas such as individual cities because it can be difficult to predict how fast or slow development will occur when there are a variety of circumstances that can impact it.

19. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 2-4 The Planning and Development Service Department provided an estimated 2012 population. Future population projections for each planning year were developed based on the population forecasts in the City’s 2010 Comprehensive Plan, input from City staff on proposed developments, and FNI’s analysis. The 2010 Comprehensive Plan lists annual growth rates ranging from 1.26% to 2.06% through 2040. Based on our analysis and historical trends, an annual growth rate of 1.3% was used to project the 5- year population. The annual growth rate was increased for the subsequent planning periods assuming growth would increase into the future due to the availability of developable land in the service area and recovery of the economy. Table 2-2 presents the projected water and wastewater service population for each planning period. In the City’s Comprehensive Plan, it was stressed that cities should think in terms of a range of potential growth rather than absolute numbers given the uncertainty of any small-area forecast that extends beyond a few years; however, for master planning purposes, specific years are assigned to planning periods so that improvements can be identified and phased by years. Therefore, although the population projections were developed for specific years (2017, 2022, and 2032), the associated water demands and wastewater flows should serve as triggers for improvements rather than being solely based on the years identified in the phasing plan. Table 2-2: Population Projections Year Population Average Annual Growth Rate 2012 131,474 - 2017 139,919 1.3% 2022 151,330 1.6% 2032 179,825 1.9% The total population for each planning year was distributed throughout the City using census tracts. The tracts in the southern portion of the service area were rather large, so those were divided into smaller planning areas to better distribute the population and represent growth trends. Figure 2-2 shows the projected water and wastewater service population by census tract. Population was distributed based on known future developments and the amount of developable land within each census tract.

20. 233-5 0 0 0 3800 233-3 0 0 0 1500 225.02 9942 11500 13500 17500 233-4 0 0 0 300 233-2 0 0 0 500 231.05 8805 10000 11250 16000 0 0 200 700 223 4258 5505 7200 9080 230 7028 7500 8500 9500 231.06 9716 9716 10000 12000 233-1 2000 3100 3700 6200 222 3258 3800 3900 5315 224.02 4602 4802 5000 8200 231.08 13856 14000 14500 14500 220 1300 1400 1550 1800 224.04 7400 7500 7650 7650 231.07 7105 7200 7500 7500 224.01 5567 5900 6500 6500 229 3672 3700 3800 3800 221.03 5518 5600 5600 5600 224.05 1850 2300 3500 4200 225.01 3423 3550 3550 3550 224.03 4513 4600 4600 4600 231.04 3235 3235 3325 3325 226 4292 4400 4600 4600 231.03 4467 4467 4500 4500 221.01 4256 4550 5060 5060 235 2155 2155 2155 2155 221.05 2317 2500 2650 2650 221.04 4399 4399 4500 4700 228.01 2540 2540 2540 2540 FORTHOODST US 190 HWY TRIMMIERRD WSYOUNGDR RANCIER AVE CHAPARRAL RD STAN SCHLUETER LP STAGECOACH RD ELMS RD 38TH ST CENTRAL TEXAS EXPY LAKE RD WESTCLIFF RD 2NDST 10THST GRAYST ONIONRD VETERANS MEMORIAL BLVD ZEPHYR RD SHAWNDR OLDFM440FM REESE CREEK RD FAWN DR 60THST CLEAR CREEK RD MESADR WATERCREST RD CHANTZDR JASPER DR JANISDR ILLINOIS AVE ROSEWO OD DR GUS DR TEALDR CUNNINGHAM RD EASTTRIMMIERRD E AVE TERRACE DR JIM AVE RUIZDR G AVE WINDFIELDDR FLORENCERD TW IN CREEK DR ESTELLEAVE WA T E R ST B AVE ATKINSON DR STONETREE DR LEVYLN CONDER S T ROYREYNOLDSDR M ARY J ANE DR EXCEL DR YATESRD JOHN RD LOVE RD DUNCAN AVE IDA DR GILMERST GRANEX DR STALLION DR NEWT DR HALLMARK AVE CORA AVE SILTSTONE LP REINDR P LATINUMDR BERMUDADR WEST LN POAGE AVE LOWES BLVD GOODEDR FARHILLS DR 18THST EDGEFIELD ST LITTLE NOLAN RD CITRINEDR LEO LN ROBINETTRD ALVINDR CLAIRIDGE AVE TALLWOODDR TAFT ST C AVE NINA DR ROY J SMITH DR JAMES LP POLKST ANDOVERDR FIELDCREST DR VEGA LN VAHRENKAMP DR LAVA LN I AVE HOOTENST VIOLA DR MARTIN LU TH E R KING JR BLVD LIBRADR SHERMANDR GOWENDR R A M P SHIMLADR ATLAS AVE WESTWOOD DR FOSTERLN HERNDONDR JASMINELN SULFUR SPRIN G DR GEMINI LN WATEROAKD R WILLOW SPRINGSRD LAUR A DR ANNA LEE DR VALLEY RD PINEDR WALESDR BUNNYTRL DIANA DR TOWER HILL LN G REENLEE D R HITCHROCKDR GREENGATE DR GOLDEN GATE DR TURKEYTROTRD SCHWALD RD SCHORN D R 46THST BURK D R 6TH ST OAK HILL DR BECKERDR ESTES DR RIOBLVD JOHN HELEN DR HANK DR MONEYPITRDLOOP RD AUBURN DR WEISS DR BOWLESDR LEGACY LN CACTUS DR ACORNCREEK TRL D O FFY DR GROVE DR 28THST FEATHERLINERD VARDEMAN A VE CINCH DR MOSAIC TRL BELLAIRE DR SCHOTTISCHE LN BRISTOL DR CHRISTIEDR THUNDER CREEK DR BACON RANCH RD NATURAL LN 42NDST KELLEYLN OAKALLARD BRANCHDR WAGONWHEELDR HEMLOCK DR OLDFLORENCERD RAINLILY ST AGATE DR MIKULEC DR CROCKETTDR PRIVATE PRIVATE WESTRIMDR SWANN ER LP BRIDLEDR BILLS RD BRIDGEWOODDR SANDSTONE DR BACHELORBUTTONBLVD DAN DR CEDARHILLDR SALT FORK DR BLAK E ST LLEWELLYN DR TURNER AVE SERPENTINE DR ERIC DR A LAN CIR PRIVATE DR LUXOR DR TIFFANY CIR SILVERHILLDR PENNINGTONAVE GOLDEN DR SH ADY DR TATONKA DR SANTE FE DR LANCE LOO P SUNNY LN OAK VALLEYDR POWDER RIVER DR ALMA DR COY D R CHESTNUTDR BOWFIELDDR OMAR DR DRACO DR 40THST JOSEPHDR LAK ECREST DR FAIRVIEW DR CEDAR RIDGE CIR SPARROWRD ALLEGANYDR DOGWOODBLVD ZINC DR FM 3481 RD SEARCYDR TYRELDR MORNING GLEN LN TUMBLEWEEDDR GAIL ST 8THST PLAZA DR LAURENLEADR SOUTHERNBELLEDR ADEELDR BRYCE AVE COMMERCE DR CARINADR MULFORDST ALI DR LOISLN LAURENMACKENZIEDR LITTLE AVE LARRYLN BLA Y NEYDR PERSIMM ON DR SYLVIADR LONE LY OAK LN ALEXANDERST BARBED WIRE DR G ARY LP LEWIS ST IVORYLN PEBBLE DR GALLO P DR KILPATRICK DR MAXDALERD GOODHUEDR VAILDR MANDALAY DR CLOUD LN FLANIGANDR RIMES RANCH DR CROSS DR HEREFORDLN HUNTERSRIDGETRL UNIONGROVEPARK RD DONNE AVE MENARDDR PERSEUS DR WILLOWSWAY ED G EW O O D D R JENNIFER DR SHEILA DR TUDORDR REPUBLIC OF TEXAS DR CHIPS DR AMBROSE DR DAYTONDR HACKBERRY DR CHET EDWARDS LP CLOUDST FOLLYDR BELL TOWER RD ASA DR KUM-OK LN RIVERSIDEDR KYARADR RAMP OLD F M 440 FM RAMP US 190 HWY BACON RANCH RD ELMS RD ROY REYNO L DSDR RAMP FORT HOOD ST RAMP Ushy 190 Sthy195 TrimmerRd E Rancier Ave SWSYoungDr Farm ToMarketRoad2484 SFortHoodSt Battalion Ave Indian Trl E Elms Rd Clear Creek Rd E Stagecoach Rd Westcliff Rd E Stan Schlueter Lp W Veterans Memorial Blvd HoodRd N38thSt Zephyr Rd Tank Destroyer Blvd Central Dr E Farm To Market Road 2410 Lake Rd S AnnBlvd NRoyReynoldsDr Farm To Market Road 439 Stonetree D r CunninghamRd NWSYoungDr E Veterans Memorial Blvd NolaRuthBlvd Mountain Lion Rd N10thSt W Jasper Dr NFortHoodSt Farm To M arketRoad 440 N C entral Texas Expy W Farm To Market Road 2410 Terminal Ave ClearCreekRd W Veterans Memorial Blvd Sthy195 Sthy195 Ushy 190 Tank Destroyer Blvd FIGURE 2-2 CITY OF KILLEEN SERVICE POPULATION BY CENSUS TRACT Created by Freese and Nichols, Inc. Job No.: KIL11275 Location: H:W_WW_PLANNINGDELIVERABLESH:W_WW_PLANNINGDELIVERABLES11-Final_W_WW_Report(Figure-2-2)-Population_Census_Tract.mxd Updated: October 16, 2012 0 3,200 6,400 SCALE IN FEET I LEGEND Census Tract Lake Stream Road Parcel City Limits ETJ 2012 Population = 131,474 2017 Population = 139,919 2022 Population = 151,330 2032 Population = 179,825

21. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 3-1 3.0 WATER DEMANDS A water utility must be able to supply water at rates that fluctuate over time. Yearly, monthly, daily, and hourly variations in water use occur, with higher use during dry years and in hot months. Also, water use typically follows a diurnal pattern, being low at night and peaking in the early morning and late afternoon. Flow rates most important to the hydraulic design and operation of a water treatment plant and distribution system are average day (AD), maximum day (MD), and peak hour (PH) demands. Average day use is the total annual water use divided by the number of days in the year. The average day demand rate is used as a basis for estimating maximum day and peak hour demands. Maximum day demand is the maximum quantity of water used on any one day of the year. Water supply facilities are typically designed based on the maximum day demand. Peak hour use is the peak rate at which water is required during any one hour of the year. Since minimum distribution pressures are usually experienced during peak hour, the sizes and locations of distribution facilities are generally determined based on this condition. 3.1 HISTORICAL WATER DEMANDS Reviewing historical water demands provides insight into selecting design criteria used to project future water demands. Historical monthly water usage records were analyzed from 2000 through 2011. The City provided recent water usage data consisting of monthly production and maximum day consumption. Historical annual average day demand, maximum day to average day peaking factors, and per-capita consumption are summarized in Table 3-1. The historical water usage shows that the City of Killeen has a relatively low average per-capita consumption and maximum day demand peaking factor compared to other cities in the area. This is likely due to lower irrigation demands caused by a higher percentage of multi-family homes and lower percentage of homes with automatic sprinkler systems.

22. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 3-2 Table 3-1: Historical Water Usage Year Population Average Day Demand (mgd) Average Per- capita (gpcd) Maximum Day Demand (mgd) MD:AD Peaking Factor 2000 86,911 10.56 122 18.26 1.73 2001 89,858 11.41 127 18.80 1.65 2002 93,587 12.09 129 19.84 1.64 2003 100,911 12.28 122 21.12 1.72 2004 102,461 10.86 106 16.75 1.54 2005 104,032 12.10 116 21.17 1.75 2006 105,604 13.06 124 - - 2007 112,434 11.96 106 - - 2008 116,934 15.02 128 - - 2009 119,510 14.13 118 - - 2010 127,921 13.87 108 23.17 1.67 2011 128,967 16.19 126 24.97 1.54 Average 119 1.67 Note: Maximum Day Demand data was not available from 2006 through 2009 due to meter accuracy. Water Demand data from 2000 through 2004 was acquired from the 2007 Water and Wastewater Master Plan. 3.2 PROJECTED WATER DEMANDS Water demands were projected for 2012, 2017, 2022, and 2032 conditions. The evaluation of historical data provided a basis for determining the design criteria used to project water demands. Average day per capita water usage ranged from 106 gpcd to 129 gpcd, with an average of 119 gpcd over the last 11 years. Based on the review of this data and the need to plan for low rainfall (dry) years with minimal water restrictions, FNI recommends using an average day demand of 130 gpcd. In selecting a peaking factor to project maximum day demands, FNI reviewed historical peaking factors and the years in which those peaking factors occurred, as just using the highest values for per-capitas and peaking factors may not be representative. Historical water usage data indicated the maximum day to average day peaking factor ranged from 1.54 to 1.75 over the last 11 years; however, data prior to 2010 may be inaccurate due to water meter accuracy issues. In 2010, the City installed new meters at the pump stations, so water is being measured more accurately. The peaking factors for the last two years ranged from 1.54 to 1.67; therefore, a peaking factor of 1.65 was selected for future year demands given the data from the past two years. Hourly SCADA data was reviewed to determine a peak hour to maximum day peaking factor. The maximum hourly peaking factors were generally between 1.5 and 1.8, so a peak

23. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 3-3 hour to maximum day peaking factor of 1.7 was selected to project future peak hour demands. Figure 3-1 illustrates the historical and projected water demands for the City of Killeen. Figure 3-1: Historical and Projected Water Demands The populations by census tract, shown on Figure 2-2, were overlaid with pressure plane boundaries and used to distribute water demands by pressure plane throughout the City. The projected population and water demands are summarized by pressure plane for each planning period in Tables 3-2 through 3-5. It should be noted that the existing Douglas Mountain Pressure Plane will be incorporated into the Upper Pressure Plane with the construction of a new water transmission line and the decommissioning of the Douglas Mountain Ground Storage Tanks (Project 2W). 17.09 18.19 19.67 23.38 28.20 30.01 32.46 38.57 47.94 51.02 55.18 65.57 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 WaterDemand(mgd) Year Average Day Maximum Day Peak Hour ProjectedHistorical

24. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 3-4 Table 3-2: 2012 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane Pressure Plane Population Average Per-capita (gpcd) Average Day Demand (mgd) MD:AD Peaking Factor Maximum Day Demand (mgd) PH:MD Peaking Factor Peak Hour Demand (mgd) Lower 67,162 130 8.73 1.65 14.41 1.7 24.49 Middle 5,584 130 0.73 1.65 1.20 1.7 2.04 Upper 48,668 130 6.33 1.65 10.44 1.7 17.75 Douglas Mt* 4,023 130 0.52 1.65 0.86 1.7 1.47 Airport 6,037 130 0.78 1.65 1.29 1.7 2.20 2012 Total 131,474 17.09 28.20 47.95 *Project 2W will result in the Douglas Mountain Pressure Plane being incorporated into the Upper Pressure Plane before 2017. Table 3-3: 2017 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane Pressure Plane Population Average Per-capita (gpcd) Average Day Demand (mgd) MD:AD Peaking Factor Maximum Day Demand (mgd) PH:MD Peaking Factor Peak Hour Demand (mgd) Lower 72,463 130 9.42 1.65 15.54 1.7 26.42 Middle 5,736 130 0.75 1.65 1.23 1.7 2.09 Upper 54,508 130 7.09 1.65 11.69 1.7 19.88 Airport 7,212 130 0.94 1.65 1.55 1.7 2.63 2017 Total 139,919 130 18.20 1.65 30.01 1.7 51.02 Table 3-4: 2022 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane Pressure Plane Population Average Per-capita (gpcd) Average Day Demand (mgd) MD:AD Peaking Factor Maximum Day Demand (mgd) PH:MD Peaking Factor Peak Hour Demand (mgd) Lower 78,612 130 10.22 1.65 16.86 1.7 28.67 Middle 5,907 130 0.77 1.65 1.27 1.7 2.15 Upper 59,057 130 7.68 1.65 12.67 1.7 21.54 Airport 7,754 130 1.01 1.65 1.66 1.7 2.83 2022 Total 151,330 130 19.68 1.65 32.46 1.7 55.19

25. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 3-5 Table 3-5: 2032 Water Demand Projections by Pressure Plane Pressure Plane Population Average Per-capita (gpcd) Average Day Demand (mgd) MD:AD Peaking Factor Maximum Day Demand (mgd) PH:MD Peaking Factor Peak Hour Demand (mgd) Lower 93,867 130 12.20 1.65 20.13 1.7 34.23 Middle 6,040 130 0.79 1.65 1.30 1.7 2.20 Upper 69,749 130 9.07 1.65 14.96 1.7 25.43 Airport 10,169 130 1.32 1.65 2.18 1.7 3.71 2032 Total 179,825 130 23.38 1.65 38.57 1.7 65.57

26. Water and Wastewater Master Plan City of Killeen 4-1 4.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXISTING WATER SYSTEM The City of Killeen’s water distribution system consists of a network of water lines, four water supply delivery points with associated ground storage tanks and pump stations, two booster pump stations, five elevated storage tanks, four ground storage tanks acting as elevated storage, and one pressure reducing valve. Figure 4-1 shows the existing water distribution system for the City of Killeen. 4.1 PRESSURE PLANES The distribution system is separated into five pressure planes: Lower, Middle, Upper, Douglas Mountain and Airport. The Lower Pressure Plane consists of the northern and eastern portions of the City and is the largest pressure plane, accounting for approximately 51% of the City’s total water usage. Ground elevations generally range from 715 feet to 910 feet. The Lower Pressure Plane operates at a static hydraulic gradient of 1,000 feet. The Middle Pressure Plane is a relatively small area between the Upper and Lower Pressure Planes that is supplied by a pressure reducing valve from the Upper Pressure Plane. Ground elevations range from 845 feet to 920 feet and are slightly too high to be served from the Lower and slightly too low to be served from the Upper. The Upper Pressure Plane is the City’s second largest plane and generally consists of the western portion of the City. Ground elevations range from 860 feet to 1,025 feet. The Upper Pressure Plane is operated at a static hydraulic gradient of 1,125 feet. The Douglas Mountain Pressure Plane is an area in the southern portion of the City that was previously served by West Bell County Water Supply Corporation. Killeen incorporated the existing facilities in the area into the distribution system and currently supplies water to the area through the Upper Pressure Plane. The overflow elevation of the Douglas Mountain tanks is 1,099 feet. The Airport Pressure Plane includes the area in the southwestern portion of the City with higher ground elevations ranging from 950 feet to 1,035 feet. A static hydraulic gradient of 1,164.5 feet is established by one elevated storage tank. A schematic profile of the existing water distribution system showing elevations and connectivity is presented on Figure 4-2.

27. UT UTUT UTUT UT UTUTUT UTUT UTUT [Ú [Ú [Ú [Ú [Ú [Ú (# UT (# UT (# UT (# UT (# UT 1.0 MG Airport Elevated Storage Tank Overflow Elev.: 1,164 ft (2) 1.5 MG McMillan Ground Storage Tanks Overflow Elev.: 1,125 ft Airport Pump Station (2) 1,050 GPM Pumps Pump Station # 4 (4) 2,550 GPM Pumps 1.5 MG Ground Storage Tank Pump Station # 2 (3) 1,200 GPM Pumps 2.0 MG Ground Storage Tank Pump Station # 6 (3) 3,500 GPM Pumps BCWCID # 1 (3) 5.0 MG Ground Storage Tanks 0.25 MG Park Street Elevated Storage Tank Overflow Elev.: 1,000 ft 1.5 MG Bundrant Elevated Storage Tank Overflow Elev.: 1,000 ft Pump Station # 5 (3) 2,100 GPM Pumps 2.5 MG Ground Storage Tank Pump Station # 3 (4) 2,450 GPM Pumps (2) 5.0 MG Ground Storage Tanks 1.0 MG Rodeo Elevated Storage Tank Overflow Elev.: 1,000 ft 2.5 MG Southeast Elevated Storage Tank Overflow Elev.: 1,000 ft 0.63 MG Douglas Mountain 0.22 MG Douglas Mountain Ground Storage Tanks Overflow Elev.: 1,099 ft 16" 20" 12" 24" 30" 18" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 20" 12" 20" 24" 20" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 30" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 20" 12" 20" 12" 24" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 20" 20" 24" 12" 12" 12" 20" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 24" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 16" 18" 12" 12" 12" 30" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 20" 20" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 24" 12" 20" 16" 12" 24" 20" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 16" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 20" 20" 16" 12" 16" 12" 24" 16" 30" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 20" 12" 16" 12" 12" 20" 12" 20" 12" 12" 12" 16" 20" 16" 12" 16" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 24" 16" 20" 16" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 20" 12" 24" 12" 12" 16" 24" 12" 20" 12" 12" 20" 16" 12" 16" 12" 20" 20" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 20" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 20" 30" 12" 12" 16" 20" 12" 16" 12" 16" 20" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 20" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 24" 12" 20" 16" 12" 12" 12" 16" 16" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 30" 12" 20" 16" 16" 12" 24" 16" 12" 16" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 16" 12" 20" 12" 16" 12" 20" 20" 12" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 24" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 20" 20" 16" 12" 12" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 24" 12" 12" 16" 12" 16" 16" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 12" 16" 20" 12" 12" 12" 20" 12" 12" 20" 12" 12" 12" 16" 12" 16" 20" 6" 2" 8" 1" 4" 3" 10" 16" Unknown 8" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 10" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 1" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 1" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 1" 8" 8" 8" 1" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 4" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 3" 8" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 1" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 2" 6" 8" 8" 6" 1" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 2" 8" 6" 4" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 2" 6" 8" 2" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 2" 8" 1" 6" 6" 8" 8" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 1" 6" 6" 6" 6" 2" 1" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 1" 6" 6" 4" 2" 8" 2" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8" 6" 6" 4" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 1" 6" 8" 6" 6" 3" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 1" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8" 6" 2" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 2" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 3" 6" 8" 6" 6" 2" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 2" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8"8" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 3" 6" 6" 8" 2" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 1" 8" 8" 4" 8" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 8" 6" 2" 3" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 8" 3" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 2" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 3" 2" 6" 1" 6" 1" 6" 8" 8" 8" 1" 8" 6" 1" 8" 8" 6" 1" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 6" 1" 6" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 6" 6" 6" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 8" 6" 1" 8" 8" 6" 8" 6" 2&

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