Published on February 20, 2014
IoT. Internet of the things. The era of Small Size slides and 4M microscopes Prof.Dr.O.Ferrer-Roca. XVIII WINTER COURSE 2010. Tfe. Canary Islands.Spain
IoT. Internet of the Things Identifying, scheduling, controlling & evaluating devices through Internet. COW Computer on wheels Global infrastructure to link physical & virtual objects, exploiting data capture and massive communications. Object-ID Ideal for Sensors & Telemedicine applications connected to PoCs (points of care, points of contact) since their connectivity is based on federated services & independent applications.
IoT in medical devices. Brings full autonomy in : data capture, event transfer, network connectivity & interoperability. EC proposed on VI-2009 14 lines to foster in the EU «Internet of the things». The essential one is Standardization & Security. The EC stressed the priority in private data protection with technologies such as inteligent straps or sticks (RFID) and give their recomendations ( IP/09/740,IP/09/571)
http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/rfid/index_en.htm IoT in medical devices The EC is waching the IPs addresses not to run out . IPv6 is essential
IEEE-1073-x IoT in medical devices. IEEE-11073.3.2 MIB or Medical Information Bus PoC –PnP standard Auto-Tracking http://www.ieee-isto.org/index.html Nivel Integración AVERPI 1.Audio 2.Video 3.Equipment 4.Room environment 5.PACS 6.Information Systems
http://catai.net/blog//2009/09/patoinformatica-osna-one-step-nucleic-acid-amplification/ IoT in medical devices. Automatic processing Automatic sectioning Automatic fixing Automatic staining
IoT. Internet of the Things OUTSOURCING pHealth
Health Care Quality Health 2.0 Web 2.0 Health 3.0 Web 3.0 HCQ HCQ CLOUD Health 4.0 Web 4.0 Social, Semantic, Service Web ISO 13485 ISO27k Seguridad
The situation SSVS & 4M SSVS technique the slide is digitized at low microscopic power (4x). Digitization with a high resolution camera at the super-optical resolution Stored in JPEG2000 format maintaining diagnostic quality of original slides. The resulting digital image is 100 times smaller than VS, easy to transmit and store . In SSVS the zoom-in and the zoom-out is handled by software. To focus low power images is also solved with the ZF-Zoom Focus (©-Ferrer-Roca) technique. Due to chip miniaturization microscopes can be built on hald-held devices. This is the case of the 4M or Multi-Modal Miniature Microscopes of less than two centimeters of diameter using CMOS chips but the forthcoming mobile phones provide cameras up to 12 megapixels capable to be used as dermatoscopes or 4M. http://project.vodafone-us.com/winners-2009-cellscope.html
Material & Methods Images coming from an average quality Olympus BH-2 microscope were captured with a high resolution CCD camera. It was an AVT-Oscar F-810C fireware IEEE1394 camera, with a CCD 2/3” Sony sensor of 8 Megapixels-Mpx (3288x2470) producing images of 3272x2469, 12 bits/pixel. The monochip was a colour mosaic (R-G x G-B) with 2x2 pixel sensitivity. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) was 36,19dB. Noise floor of CCD cameras of 12 bits dynamic range is 2.4x10 -4 ; SNR= - 10 log10 Fnoise= 36,19dB.
PARAMETERS-I Projection magnification onChip (PMoC) Each field of view (FOV) was taken through a SPlan 4x objective (Obj), 0.13 NA (Numeric Aperture), using a relay tube lens NFK 2.5x LD of 125 on the MTV-3 tube with a 0.3x lens that produce a total projection magnification onChip - PMoC of 3x ( 4*2.5*0.3). Exact magnification was checked with a calibration slide of 1 mm in 10μm marks from Graticules LTD, England. Each region of interest (ROI) was scanned with a 0.46 NA SPlan 20x objective at a PMoC of 15x (20*2.5*0.3). FOV = 3x PMoC ROI = 15x
PARAMETERS-II Overall Magnification (OM) lenses (Obj *Oc) and the distance (D) over which the image is projected. Digital images The Digital resolution (DR) effective pixel size (Epx) of the sensor divided by the total projection magnification onChip. Epx μm / PMoC. =sampling density. Visual magnification (VM) through a 10x wide field ocular (Oc) in a standardized projection of 250 mm minimum distance for 20/20 eyes, considering the ¼ mm eye resolution. FOV scan objective = 40x , ROIs objective= 200x. Total Screen magnification (SM). Relationship between the size of Screen pixel and the CCD pixel= Spx/CCDpx 1:1 zoom = (264μm/2.7μm = 97.77), near 100x. The digital zoom-in and zoom-out magnification factors depend of the JPEG2000 tile format. Useful magnification (UM) ranged from 500*NA up to 1000*NA.
RESULTS-1 OBJ. PMoC 3x OR μm 2.12 ST μm/px 1 RGB-demosaic μm/px 3 RAW μm/px 1 RAW-demosaic μm/px 2 4x 20x 15x 0.55 1/4 1/2 1/5 1/3 40x* 30x 0.29 1/8 1/4 1/10 1/5 60x* 45x 0.29 1/8 1/5 1/15 1/9 100x* 75x 0.20 1 /12 1/10 1/30 1/15 DIGITAL RESOLUTION. Compared original demosaicing RGB 8:1 images, with black and white original RAW images and demosaicing 4:1color displayed RAW images. PMoC= Projection Magnification on the Chip. OR= Microscopic Optical resolution. ST= Sampling density according to Shannon theory. *60x and 100x are not tested in the paper. 40x is tested but not used in the SSVS.
RESULTS-2 Obj(NA) VM Low UM 500xNA High UM 1000xNA 4 x(0.13). 40x 65x 130x 20x(0.46). 200x 250x 40x(0.95)* 400x 60x(0.95)* 100x(1.4)* CCD PMoC Zoom-out (fingerprint) 1:1 Zoomin 3x 9x 294x 587x 460x 15x 46x 1467x 2933x 475x 950x 30x 92x 2933x 5800x 600x 475x 950x 45x nt nt nt 1000x 700x 1400x 75x nt nt nt Analog Visual & Useful magnification (in grey) versus digital onChip & onScreen magnification (in white) RAW demosaicing images. VM=Visual magnification; UM= Useful magnification range. (*)40x included for comparison purposes not used in SSVS. (nt)= not tested.
RESULTS-3 Non linear ACE or adaptive contrast enhancement curve. Acting as an inverse normalized optical modulation transfer function (MTF, see http://www.microscopyu.com/articles/optics/mtfintro.html ) correcting optical coherence factor (OCF) or relationship between NA of detector (CCD) and the objective γ= NAccd/NAobj.
RESULTS-3 Figure 1. C. FOV onScreen Zoomin SM 640x. System: OR=2.12 μm and DR=3 μm /px (one third of the Shannon theory). D. ROI onScreen . Zoom-in SM 3200x showing a tridimensional papillary structure. System: OR= 0.55μm OR and DR= 1 μm /2px (half of the Shannon theory). Figure 2. ROI onScreen SSVSRAW images. System: OR=0.55μm and DR=1 μm /3px (near to Shannon sampling theory). The rule on the top right is 10 μm. A- ROI onScreen . Zoom-in of the cytology of figure 1. SM 2933x. On the left corner SM 8799x showing the pixelated nuclear details of the empty magnification. B. ROI onScreen . Zoom-in of the surgical specimen of figure 2. SM 2933x. C- SSVS-FOV-RGB. SM 640x A-SSVS-ROI-RAW. SM:2933x D- SSVS-ROI-RGB. SM 3200x B- SSVS-ROI-RAW.SM:2933x
CONCLUSIONS 1. Projection magnification onChip (PMoC) is essential to evaluate the system sampling capabilities, the so-called DR o digital resolution that influenced visibility and digital image quality with or without computer assisted techniques. 2. Differences OnScreen of RAW /RGB images were related to higher DR and the contrast enhancement & light gathering provided by superresolution algorithm on the RAW images. 3. That SSVS are ideal for hand-held microscopes, 4M or even mobile phones with ad-on capture systems
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