2009 ppc11 michaelheitzmann

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Published on March 10, 2014

Author: RockMan8

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Natural fibre composites made solely from the Castor plant for aircraft cabin interior materials Presented by Michael Heitzmann PPC11 6-10 December, Cairns 7.Decemeber 2009 Michael T. Heitzmann, Ching-Tai Ng, Benjamin Lindenberger, Martin Veidt, MengHou, Rowan Paton 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 1

Test title • Test … Level1 – Test Level 2 • Test Level 3 – Test level 4 5 planets needed5to cover resources if all humans would » Test Level use as much as the Americans With the current world wide consumption, 1.4 planets are needed to provide the resources we use and to absorb our waste 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 2 Source: Global footprint network http://www.footprintnetwork.org

Test title • Test … Level1 – Test Level 2 • Test Level 3 – Test level 4 » Test Level 5 More efficient use of resources 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 3

Test title • Test … Level1 – Test Level 2 • Test Level 3 – Test level 4 » Test Level 5 Single plant composite for applications in the transport industry 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 4

Outline • Introduction of the castor plant • Polyamide 11 from the castor oil • Castor plant fibre • Single plant composite • Mechanical properties of the composite • Future research 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 5

Castor Plant (Ricinus Communis L.) • Grows 2-3m per season • • Robust: • • • Very high stalk yield Often cultivated on inferior soil not fit for food crop Only the seeds are used Not competing with crop Castor seeds producing countries ~1.2 million tonnes per year Facts from: Christopher Brickell. The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. London: Dorling Kindersley, Dorling Kindersley, 1996. 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 6

Nylon 11 from Castor Oil • • • 40% reduction of CO2 emission 50% lower global warming potential than epoxy resin Thermoplastic resin material  Recycling • Nylon 11 grade FR-106 meets the Fire, Smoke and Toxicity requirements according FAR 25.853 Source: N. Arkema. PA11 & PA12 Comprehensive Brochure. Arkema Inc. 2004 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 7

Castor fibre - Introduction • First published research of castor fibre as a natural fibre for composites • Bast fibre – Elementary fibres • • – Technical fibre (fibre bundle) • • • • • 3-7mm length 10-35 µm diameter 5-15 elementary fibres 75-200 µm diameter 150-500 mm length 30% < 300mm Fibre production – Cold water retting • 15/12/2009 2 Week Michael Heitzmann 8

Castor fibre - Properties • Low density (1.232 g/ccm) – • ASTM D3800 using the buoyancy method Excellent mechanical properties – Large spread typical for natural fibres 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 9

Castor fibre - Properties Low density (1.232 g/ccm) – Excellent mechanical properties Large spread typical for natural fibres 100 Young's modulus [GPa] 2000 1500 1000 500 40 20 Michael Heitzmann Si sa l Egl as s Ju te Si sa l Egl as s Ju te H em p Fl ax C as to 15/12/2009 60 0 r 0 80 H em p Tensile strength [MPa] 2500 Fl ax – r • ASTM D3800 using the buoyancy method C as to • 10

The Concept Castor Products: NylonCastor Castor The 11 + Plant Fibre = 100% Bio-based Composite single-plantbased composite material 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 11

Castor composite - manufacturing • Compression moulding – – PA 11 Rilsan ES Naturelle (Powder) Two samples: • • Orientated (UD) fibres Random orientated fibres (MD) – Good impregnation – Fibre volume content • • UD ~ 30-35% MD ~ 30% – Density 1.16-1.220 g/ccm – Thermal degradation of the fibre at 230°C 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 12

Castor composite – Mechanical performance • Good mechanical properties – – Significant increase in flexural module Indication of a good interface • No sizing of fibres  Room for improvement 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 13

Castor composite – Mechanical performance • Good mechanical properties Significant increase in flexural module Indication of a good interface – – • No sizing of fibres  Room for improvement • Excellent weight specific properties Flexural load [N] 300 200 100 15/12/2009 T6 F/ PF G 60 13 AL CA F/ PA 11 UD (3 0% ) 0 Michael Heitzmann 14

Future research • Fire, smoke and toxicity • Life cycle cost analysis • Further study of fibres – – – – • Influence of growth condition on fibre quality Influence of moisture content Investigation on different castor species Improved retting and sizing processes Manufacturing process – Sparing impregnation 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 15

Conclusion • New natural fibre for composites • Fibres produced from agricultural wast product • Fibre properties comparable with other natural fibres • Composite with excellent weight specific properties • Indication of good compatibility between PA11 and castor fibre • No sizing of fibre and “rustic” retting process • No long-term study of effects like degeneration 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 16

Acknowledgements • A/Prof. Martin Veidt and Dr. Meng Hou (The University of Queensland) • My colleagues: Ching-Tai Ng and Benjamin Lindenberger • Composite CRC 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 17

Questions? "If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?" -Albert Einstein- 15/12/2009 Michael Heitzmann 18

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