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Travel-Nature

Published on March 27, 2008

Author: Eagle

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  一、高考阅读能力测试的主要要求<demands> 二、阅读理解常见题型及解题方法 1、直接信息题(细节题) 2、主旨归纳题 3、推理判断题 4、猜测词义题 三、快速阅读的步骤与要求 高考阅读能力测试的主要要求:  高考阅读能力测试的主要要求 1、掌握所读材料的主旨大意,以及用以说明主旨和大意的细节和事实。< the main idea and details> 2、既理解字面具体意思<concrete meaning>,也理解深层抽象含义<abstract concept>,包括作者的态度、意图等。<attitude, purpose> 3、既理解某句、某段的意思,也理解全篇逻辑关系<logical connection >,并据此进行推理和判断<conclusion and judgement>。 4、既能根据材料所提供的信息去理解,也能结合中学生应有的常识去理解。 阅读理解常见题型及解题方法:  阅读理解常见题型及解题方法 一、直接信息题(细节题) 直接信息题多从文章的某个具体事实或细节出发来设计题目。其题目设计的方式一般有: 1、以who, what, when, where 等疑问词开头提问短文的具体内容。 2、以true or false 形式,让考生判断文章某一事实或细节。 3、 句意转换理解。 4、就文中具体内容进行简单计算,排序,识图等。 。 Slide4:  这类题目的信息一般在文章中可以直接找到,大家只要抓准文中与题目有关的信息词、句、稍加分析,便可得出正确答案。 原文:When he got to his uncle’s watch factory, Jack got off his bike and hid himself and the bike behind the big tree near the factory. 如: Where did Jack hide himself and his bike ? 选择正确答案::  选择正确答案: 1. The teacher told his students to do the second and the third exercises, but they should leave the first exercise out. How many exercises should the students do ? A. One. B. Two. C. Three. D. Zero. 2. Jean and Mary asked Della to go out for a walk, but she didn’t want to. Who probably did not go out ? A. Jean. B. Mary. C. Della. D. Jean and Mary. 细节题训练 B C Slide6:  3. The answers to the questions which were in part 3 of the English test that we had were rather difficult for most of us. How many parts does the English test have? A. Only three. B. At least three. C. Obviously more than three. D. Only four. B Slide7:  间接事实题   解此类题需要结合上下文提供的语境和信息进行简单的概括和判断。 Invited by Mr. Ye Huixian, host of the well received TV programme “Stars Tonight”,Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991,appeared as the guest hostess on the Shanghai TV screen last Sunday.  Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old, Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years. However,it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage, dancing, singing, making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.   “It’s really a hard job for me. I won’t enter for such competition any more. Anyhow, I am quite lucky. I am also glad to have had more chance to work for the social welfare since I won the title. This time, in Shanghai, I'd love to make a deep impression on my TV audience, " said Luo Lin with a sweet smile. Q: Which of the following is NOT true?   A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai.   B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents.   C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991.   D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia. 二、主旨归纳题<gist >:  二、主旨归纳题<gist > 主旨大意题型主要测试读者对短文的全面理解和概括能力。提问的内容可能是全文的大意,也可能是某段的段落大意。针对主旨问题有时不易直接在文中找到答案。 为了要准确而又迅速地找到短文的中心句(表达中心思想的主题句), 我们首先要明确作者的写作意图和文章的结构。 Slide9:  1、表达中心思想的主题句出现在篇首。 2、表达中心思想的主题句出现在篇末。 3、含有中心思想的主题句出现在文章中间。 4、文章中没有哪一句明确表达主旨大意时, 主旨大意已隐含在全文中。凡遇到这种情况时,要求读者自己根据提出的问题,在仔细阅读,全面理解的基础上,结合上下文仔细琢磨推敲和概括,找出与试题有关的信息,作出正确判断。 针对短文中心思想或主旨大意提问的方式主要有以下几种: 1.The best title for this article is ___. 2. The passage is about ______ 3. The main idea (topic, subject) of the passage is about ______ . 4. The passage is chiefly concerned with__ 5. which of the following best sum up the passage ?:  针对短文中心思想或主旨大意提问的方式主要有以下几种: 1.The best title for this article is ___. 2. The passage is about ______ 3. The main idea (topic, subject) of the passage is about ______ . 4. The passage is chiefly concerned with__ 5. which of the following best sum up the passage ? 三、推理判断题:  三、推理判断题 推理判断题着重考查学生的逻辑思维能力,即要求学生根据文章的逻辑关系进行推理判断。此类题目难度大,设计面广,如人物的性格、心理、故事的结局、寓意、文章的出处、体裁,作者的倾向、态度等。其题目设计的方式一般有: Slide12:  1. We can infer(推断)from the passage that ______ . 2. The story suggests(暗示)that _______ . 3. We can conclude(得出结论)from the passage that _______ . 4. Which of the following might happen later ? 5. The passage is probably taken from a ________ . Slide13:  做这类题目时,大家必须透过文章的字面意思,领悟隐含在字里行间的内涵、哲理,体会作者的言外之意、弦外之音。在进行推理判断时还应注意: 1、抓住文中的关键词句等展开逻辑推理,所选答案必须能从文中找到依据,合乎情理,切忌脱离原文,只凭自已的主观臆断、想象。 2、可以结合常识判断,但决不能以自已的常识代替逻辑推理 Miss Jackson who teaches at the Setllement House isn’t rich, but she knows things. She understands people . Her eyes look straight into yours when she talks with you. Everybody else here looks away<斜视> because they’re ashamed of their lives. I’d like to see the children be like Miss Jackson when they grow up. The writer suggests that her family________. A.is rich B.is unhappy C. are satisfied with their life D.long for a change in their life :  Miss Jackson who teaches at the Setllement House isn’t rich, but she knows things. She understands people . Her eyes look straight into yours when she talks with you. Everybody else here looks away<斜视> because they’re ashamed of their lives. I’d like to see the children be like Miss Jackson when they grow up. The writer suggests that her family________. A.is rich B.is unhappy C. are satisfied with their life D.long for a change in their life D Slide15:  Example 2 Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK,they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes. Mr. Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them,it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr. Neff knows almost everything. He doesn’t ask questions;he answers questions. He never says,“I don’t know.” Q: Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude to Mr. Neff? A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand. B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful. C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff. D. He does not like Mr. Neff. 解析:从作者的语气中我们可以体会他的态度,特别是Even if he does miss them,it is always the fault of the buses or the airplanes. 误了车或飞机本该是人的失误怎能归咎于车或飞机呢?明显是讥讽,也是暗示他对Mr. Neff的讨厌之情。答案为D。 四、猜测词义题:  四、猜测词义题 ㈠ 根据上下文的说明。 1、He was one of 80 middle school students from China attending a month-long “Youth Summit” . The summit was to mark the 25th anniversary(周年) of President Nixon’s journey to China, which was the turning point in China-U. S. relation. The Youth Summit was aimed at increasing understanding and friendship between young students of the two countries through visits and discussions. The words “Youth Summit” refer to ______. A. visit to the Nixon Library B. the Chinese students visit to the U. S. C. a meeting discussing relations between China and the U. S. D. activities to strengthen the tie between the Chinese and American students. :  The words “Youth Summit” refer to ______. A. visit to the Nixon Library B. the Chinese students visit to the U. S. C. a meeting discussing relations between China and the U. S. D. activities to strengthen the tie between the Chinese and American students. c 快速阅读的步骤:  快速阅读的步骤 第一步:迅速阅读问题。注意每一问题的主语,疑问词及重要的谓语,还需要特别注意问句中出现的下列单词:not, unless, without, on the other hand, except, rather than, although, as well, always, never, all 等等。 第二步:以最快的速度读完全文。不要担心有些地方不能完全理解。 第三步:再次快速阅读。通过这一步,已知道一些重点词、事实或有关材料在文中的位置,文章中的特殊信息,如时间、地点、人名、数字等,可以边阅读、边用笔划下来。同时,把较容易的问题确定下来。:  第三步:再次快速阅读。通过这一步,已知道一些重点词、事实或有关材料在文中的位置,文章中的特殊信息,如时间、地点、人名、数字等,可以边阅读、边用笔划下来。同时,把较容易的问题确定下来。 Slide20:  第四步:收尾、核查。如果经过前三步还有问题,就尽可能在所给的选择项中,排除一些明显不可能的选项,猜估答案,以提高得分率,切忌空选。 快速阅读的要求:  快速阅读的要求 高三学生每分钟应达到50----60个词。 扩大视幅。 阅读技能及策略:  阅读技能及策略 阅读过程可分三步。第一步应着重培养以下几种技能与策略: 猜测词义:辨认要点和重要信息、话语中的标记词(however, also, therefore 等)、指代词(this, those, that, it 等); 浏览(skimming):以迅速了解读物要旨,了解作者意图或文章的组织结构,这是一种有选择性的、有针对性的阅读技巧; 审读 (scanning):以快速找出具体信息,如人名、数字等等,准确找出或归纳出句中的主旨大意: 推理 (inferring):依据特定的语篇语境,在理解的基础上,经过逻辑推断,分析体会作者的思想,总结归纳作者的意图,了解文章的内涵和“弦外之音”; 预测(predicting):根据前文出现的信息对可能后继的信息作出预测或根据文章开头提出初步设想,猜测故事的内容和可能会发生的情节。 :  推理 (inferring):依据特定的语篇语境,在理解的基础上,经过逻辑推断,分析体会作者的思想,总结归纳作者的意图,了解文章的内涵和“弦外之音”; 预测(predicting):根据前文出现的信息对可能后继的信息作出预测或根据文章开头提出初步设想,猜测故事的内容和可能会发生的情节。 Slide24:  第二步:运用先前获取的知识和经验进行推理,验证开头的假设是否正确。 第三步:在深入理解的过程中,不断修正自已的假设。 培养良好的阅读心理素质:  培养良好的阅读心理素质 1、充满信心,心情平和,积极主动地与作者沟通,创造性地去理解文章内容。 2、不要紧张,排除任何思想和心理负担。 3、思想高度集中,尽量保持阅读的速度和理解的准确性,充分运用自已现有的英语水平和相关的知识,发挥主观能动性。 培养良好的阅读习惯:  培养良好的阅读习惯 1、按意群阅读,扩大视幅。例如: When the Judge had finished/ what he was saying/ Mrs Young opened her handbag she was carrying/ and took out the sewing. Without saying a word/ she chose a needle with a very small eye/ and threaded it at her first try. 2、少用或不用词典。 了解英语语言国家的文化背景知识 Slide27:  2、A man named Walter Scott had the first “diner” in 1872. It wasn’t really a diner. It was only a food cart. 根据文中说明,“diner” 不是小餐馆,而是流动小餐车。 ㈡、根据文中的解释:  ㈡、根据文中的解释 在or, that is, such as, that is to say, in another word, in other words 这些词或词组后面的部分往往用来解释前面某一个难以理解的词、词组或句子,括号、破折号在句中常引出注释性词语,通过这些解释和注释,我们可以推断出词的含义。例如: Slide29:  There are two types of fat, external fat (fat under skin) and internal fat (fat inside the body wall) . Before long, many diners stayed open around the clock. In other words, people were able to eat in a diner at any time. ㈢、根据上下文提供的情景。 有时候语境中既没有明确的定义,又没有明确的解释,而是作者制造一种情景,暗示某词所指的性能和特征。比较下面两个句子: 1、In spite of the fact the fishermen were wearing sou’westers, the storm was so heavy that they were wet through. 2. An east or north-east wind brings cold dry weather to England, but a sou’wester usually bring rain. :  ㈢、根据上下文提供的情景。 有时候语境中既没有明确的定义,又没有明确的解释,而是作者制造一种情景,暗示某词所指的性能和特征。比较下面两个句子: 1、In spite of the fact the fishermen were wearing sou’westers, the storm was so heavy that they were wet through. 2. An east or north-east wind brings cold dry weather to England, but a sou’wester usually bring rain. Slide31:  ㈣、根据定语从句提供的信息。 例:The water which enters rivers is called “run off” . ㈤、根据文中的列举。:  ㈤、根据文中的列举。 在词组such as, for example, for instance 等之后举例说明前面原先不太理解的名词或作进一步说明。例如: Today, many people eat in fast food restaurants such as Mc Donald’s and Burger King. Slide33:  ㈥、运用同义词关系。 例如:1.The game Americans call soccer is known around the world as football. 2. The house stood at the end of a quiet neat street. The little dwelling, however, looked neglected and cheerless. ㈦、运用反义关系。 例如: Most women in Ghana-----the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old-----work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. :  ㈦、运用反义关系。 例如: Most women in Ghana-----the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old-----work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. Slide35:  ㈧、根据词法中的转化、派生、合成等来猜测词义。 e.g.1. Women have equal say in everything. 2. The colours of England in the spring are unforgettable. 3. The disobediented students were forced to leave school. 4. Both the developed and the underdeveloped should try their best to popularize education. 长句和难句的理解:  长句和难句的理解 1. Air travel is such an everyday experience these days that we are not surprised (when we read about a politician having talks with the Japanese Prime Minister one day, attending a conference in Australia the following morning and having to be off at midday to sign a trade agreement in Bangkok.) (51词) Slide37:  2. It is the ability to do the job that matters not where you come from or what you are. →It is not where you come from or what you are but the ability to do the job that matters.或 It is not where you come from that matters but it is the ability to do the job that matters. 如何提高英语快速阅读能力:  如何提高英语快速阅读能力 背诵、默写已学过的词汇和短语,背诵经典文章,培养语感。 大量阅读,逐步加快阅读速度 研究阅读技巧。 第四步:带着未解决的问题重新阅读。:  第四步:带着未解决的问题重新阅读。 阅读时,脑子务必记住这些问题。对于由中心展开的细节,尤其是不能立即看出来的深层信息,一定要仔细阅读。为了不影响阅读速度,不能回读,不得用手指着文字读,不能中途产生畏难情绪,要坚持读完全文。 做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点:  做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点 一、一般以先易后难为原则。在初选答案时有可能遇到难以断定的选择项,这时要大胆地跳过,继续往下读,不要影响阅读的正常节奏与情绪。随着下文的展开和文章的深入,有可能就会找到解决问题的办法。 做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点:  做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点 二、阅读题的选择一定要尊重原文,将答案带入到原文中去比较,并根据上下文、原作者的观点而定,要符合原文的文化背景与习题,注意比较人文差异,切忌主观臆断或凭经验答题。 做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点:  做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点 三、答题时一定要看完四个选项,千万不可以认为某个答案正确就仓促做出决定,不看其它选项。 做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点:  做快速阅读理题时要注意以下几点 四、如果四个选项都没有太大的把握,或在某两个或三个选项间犹豫不决时,最好把题目再读一遍,把握题目要求回答的角度,应避免由于对题目本身理解有误而造成的误选。 Slide44:  五、注意通篇各个考查点的内在联系,如果在观点、方式、态度等方面存在不一致或有自相矛盾的选择时,就要重新检查。 六、如果已经分析得出了较为满意的选择,就不要轻易修改答案。有时反反复复、犹豫不决,反而会将已答对的题目改错。有时自认为阅读会绕好几个弯,比较“刁钻”,是个“陷阱”,反而会把简单问题复杂化。

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